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By the insurrection of Chin-ju is meant the peasant revolt that broke out in the Chin-ju(晋州) area of Kyong-sang Province an February 18, 1862 (the thirteenth year in the reign of King Cheol-jong 哲宗, the year of Im-sul 壬戌). This incident, outwardly, may look similar to those other popular uprisings that had taken place occasionally at various localities throughout the first half of the 19th century, but was, inwardly, quite different from them all. By the time of this Chin-ju insurrection things had changed: a revolt could no longer be local but nation-wide, and the situations far more serious and urgent. When the latter half of the 19th century began, agrarian communities of Korea were in chaotic confusion and, as the state treasury kept dwindling, the rural economy was faced with an imminent bankruptcy. Regardless of these critical circumstances, however, the officials in the Chinㆍju area, including Paek Nak-sin(白樂莘), Commandant of South Kyong-sang Province, kept themselvese busy merely filling their private pockets by means of relentless exploitation of the rural populations. They even attempted forcefully to call in at once all the loans of crops, totaling no less than over 52,000 seog(石), under the names of Tong-hwan (統還) and Togyeol (都結), which loans having been no other than an accretion of continued exploitations of the people by successive officials. This attempt at forceful collection touched off an explosion of popular resentment. Yu Gye-chun (柳繼春), the leader of this uprising, sprang up on this occassion to give vent to the furies of the people. He had been a luckless vagrant, but he succeeded in stirring up a revolt of tens of thousands of people, by means of drawing up fool-proof plans before-hand in consultation with a handful of sympathizers. On the second day of their uprising the agrarian insurgents attained their end at one leap, having the tonghwan and Togyeol both abolished. But not entirely satisfied at this success, they now moved by force of circumstances once they had started fights, giving vent to their long-suppressed resentment against those officials, yang-ban (the nobility), and the rich by way murder, incendiarism, and pillage. This insurrection lasted for six days, and during this period four officials were killed and scores were injured. In a total of 23 myeon (rural townships), 126 houses were either burned or damaged and 118 families were looted of money, crops, or other forms of property, these property losses amounting to nearly a hundred thousand yang silver in terms of money. This insurrection came to cease as the insurgents disbanded of themselves on the 23rd of the month. But the royal court in Seoul hurriedly despatched an ‘an-haek-sa’(按覈使-troubleshooter) and replaced the provincial magistrate with another in order to restore order in the area. The an-haek-sa and new magistrate from Seoul tried to remove or correct a variety of social evils, in compliance with the instructions from the central government, but they at the same time arrested and punished the trespassers. Of the insurgents, ten were executed (heads cut off and exposed to the public), 19 banished, 42 clubbed, and 15 others put to other sorts of punishment, while of the officilals eight were banished, five clubbed, four removed from office and five put to other sorts of punishment. After March of the same year popular revolts broke out all over the country, the number of vicitimized areas totaling no less than 34. Thus, the insurrection of Chin-ju has a particular significance in that it served as the motive power behind the popular revolt of the year of Im-sul a gigantic popular movement of historical import.
No one can discuss what a novel is without discussing the element of a "story". The story is essentially a fiction which is both fictitious and unrealistic. It is the theory of modern novels hat the fiction should be so constructed as to reveal causal relations because it is not a mere story but an Invented one. What is most important in so constructing is that actions of characters and advances in plot should be combined according to inevitability. Though the fiction is not a story of reality, it should be so real as to be very probable in reality so that it can move readers. When we analyze Hyon Chin-gon's main works (A Fortunate Day, Fire, A Poor Wife, A Liquor Offering Society, we see that they lack reality so much and that the central characters of the works are all fools so stereotyped as to be associated with the English "Characteries" in the seventeenth century. Hyon chin-gon is frequently said to be a representative realistic writer, but I cannot but raise an objection to it. If realism values positive objectivity in a scientific manner for the perfect revival of reality, it should be able to give a reasonable account of characters, actions, and so on, depending on reality. So I feel a new the limit to the period of the 1920's .... the infant period of Korean modern literature.
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This case study aimed to explore proficient EFL readers' perceptions and experiences about reading tasks and how those perceptions and experiences influence their reading processing behaviors, and to examine how the cultural background of a text affects their reading strategies and comprehension Three college students who were non-English majors participated in this study Three data sources were employed questionnaires, interviews, and think-alouds The results showed that (1) the participants emphasized comprehension as the goal of reading and considered themselves good EFL readers, (2) their reading purposes were closely associated with personal pursuits, (3) they preferred to read materials that deal with areas of interest but did not try to take a risk in terms of level of difficulty and/or length, (4) they implemented a multistrategic approach to reading in that the majority of their strategy use was in conjunction with their concern about meaning construction, (5) they were able to develop useful understandings of unknown vocabulary, and (6) their clear awareness of the cultural background presupposed in the text helped them invoke prior knowledge and reduce unknown vocabulary hindrances which contributed to comprehension Pedagogical implications for EFL reading instruction are provided
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Tien-Wei highway garden is the biggest cultivated land area for flowers (30.27%, in 2007) in Taiwan, which provided both public goods and positive externalities, such as the amenity value of the landscape, biological diversity, cultural heritage, rural lifestyle and economic activity contributing social welfares to rural economy. The amenity of flower industry attracts many tourists and generates recreational benefits, which cannot be assessed by market price directly. This research adopts the nonmarket goods valuation method, travel cost method (TCM), to measure the benefits from tourists’ demand function. In addition, the environmental quality will influence the tourist’s decision to choose the recreation site, which is also an important determinant of demand function and will be introduced into demand model. The empirical results of this research demonstrate that the average consumer surplus (CS) for demand model containing quality variables is NT$7,770. The average consumer surplus without containing quality variables in the demand model is NT$7,741, and the average benefits of environmental quality for tourist is NT29.
This paper, coauthored by Chin-Se Chung, as well as other 5 faculty members at Hong-Ik University Department of Law (Jea-Hwang Jeong, Suk-Ho Bang, Tae-Hoon Ha, Seong-Deog Yi and Bong-Chul Choi), deals with liability issuses surrounding constitutional law, administrative law, civil law (contracts, torts), commercial law, criminal law, international law and philosophy & law. Professor of Law Jea-Hwang Jeong makes a comparative analysis of privacy protection and disclosure of information legal issues, appeared at current Korean law and draft of law in case of the latter one. He suggestes some desirable ways of legislation through revision process and operation of legal rules at his paper. Professor of Law Suk-Ho Bang makes a brief survey of civil liability issues arising out of contracts and torts in English and American law, first. He tries to show that many Parts of arguments in such legal world are attributed to Statute of Frauds tradition, unique to such legal world. New developments in the area of torts, including computer malpractice and computer virus, are shown and analysed in terms of application possibility under our current law. But, as even the Anglo-American courts are found very reluctant to accept those arguments as new grounds for torts liability, it seems more plausible and practicable to refer to contractual approach, basically, rather than to torts approach even under English American law. Professor of Law Chin-Se Chung suggests in his paper on EFT that the allocation of liability under EFT be made under the new and most relevant principle, working for useful transmission way of fund, not solely under traditional legal principles. If such new principle works with high return of risk to users, it makes imminent problems against the goats of consumer protection, and eventually will be hardly refered to. Conversely, if it requires too much sacrifice from the side of banks, then the convenience in such system will not be utilized. So, it may be natural that EFT be discarded even without proper functioning under market system. In conclusion, Professor Chung points out that, only when banks fond that the economy out of cost-saving at tasks outweighs the risk undertaken by the banks, the banks will operate the system. But, if this system makes more return of benefits to the banks with the burden of users, it is against the idea of equity. Consequently, the banks should bear the aggeviated risks in return for the cost saved under this system Professor of Law Tae-Hoon Ha focuses his research paper on criminal liability under EFT. He draws his conclusion out of current criminal statutes that illegal fund transfer under automatic teller machines, cash cards and information system can not be penalized due to lack of proper statutory provision. So, the criminal provision on computer crime, newly made on December of 1995, can be positively appreciated. But, he anticipates that the question whether such new provision will be successful in regulating all illegal activites at fund transfor system without any operation defects in criminal code, or will cause new problem in interpretation of criminal code remains unsolved. Professor of Law Seong-Deog Yi examines the international legal issues which may be given rise to by direct satellite broadcasting. In his paper, the issue of national jurisdiction in relation to direct satellite broadcasting is firstly dealt with. Secondly, the possible ways in which direct satellite broadcasting is regulated by international law are examined with special emphasis of two different approaches, that is, freedom of information approach and state sovereignty approach. In this context, many international conventions concerning direct satellite broadcasting in Particular, and international regulatory regime of outer space in general are broadly reviewed. Thirdly, the types of activities which may be a violation of international legal regime of direct satellite broadcasting are suggested and the possible lethal remedies for these violations are proposed with the traditional international state responsibility law in mind. Professor of Law Bong-Chul Choi explores the relations of computerized society to its laws throughout his paper as a kind of conclusion of this whole paper. Computerized society is one that the technical, scientific, informational knowledge prevails. With correspondence to the structural change in knowledge, the law of such a society has suffered transformation, and the knowledge and techniques distributing and computing legal responsibility has also changed. However, he does not insist that the diffusion of technical knowledge is the sole factor of the transformation of legal responsibility. It is only one of the various factors. Moreover, he does not deny the continuation between the classical techniques distributing legal responsibility and the contemporary ones. In this era, the law realizes fairness and community values at the expense of singularities. In addition, he proposes that legal scholars take the diagnosis of law from the perspective of the technology/knowledge shifts seriously.
Postoperative infection following orthognatic surgery is rare. When postoperative infections occur, the initial treatment consists of incision and drainage of the affected area, culturing to identify bacterial stains and verify antibiotic sensitivity, and the institution of the appropriate antibiotic regimen. Some plates and screws may eventually require removal, the initial therapy should be attempted to retain the plates and screws until adequete healing has taken place. In orthoganthic surgery, intra-operative complications as a lesion of inferior alveolar nerve, fracture of osteomised segments, incomplete sectioning, malposittion of segments, haemirrhage may occur. The surgeon should be familiar with possible complications to be caused and how to manage them. Prevention of postoperative infection following the orthognathic surgery consists of minimal periosteal reflection, aseptic management of operation field, proper surgical technique, rigid fixation, prophylactic antibiotics.
최근 몇 년 회귀 주류와의 융합 교육 정책 하에 대만의 특수 교육 학교는 예전과 다른 큰 변화에 직면해 있다. 완전 융합 이념의 실시 또 심신장애학생을 주류교육으로 회귀해야 한다는 것을 제창함으로, 특수교육학교는 인원이 감소하게 됐다. 특수교육 학교는 신입생 모집이 부족한 상황에서 학교 교사들의 관점이 교장의 지도에 대해 보는 관점이 어떻게 다른가? 그에 대한 요구도 다른가? 본 연구는 두 인자 변의 수 분석이 대만 지능 장애와 감각 장애 종류의 특수 교육 학교 교장전형 리더십에 대한 연구이다. 실험 대상자는 8개 지능 장애종류 특수교육 학교와 5개 감각 장애종류 특수 교육 학교의 259명의 교사이고 그들이 특수교육학교 교장 리더에 대한 건의를 제출했다. In recent years, the domestic special education schools have faced with huge changes under the mainstream and inclusive education policies for the implementation of the full-inclusive and the mainstream education for the students with impairment. That causes the special education schools to reduce classes. Under this situation, what are the teachers?fdifferent views about the principal? What are their needs? The study was undertaken through two-way ANOVA to explore principals?ftransformational leadership between the schools for the mentally retarded and for the sensory impaired. 259 teachers were selected from 8 schools for the mentally retarded and 5 sensory impairment special education schools. Based upon the findings, the implications for practice were proposed.
점봉산의 식물상을 밝히고 이 지역의 자연자원보전에 필요한 기초자료를 얻기 위하여 1997년 4월부터 7월까지 5회 조사하여 얻은 결과는 다음과 같다. 1) 점봉산에 분포하는 식물은 총 92과 282속 541종이며 이중에서 2종의 목본 식물은 식재된 것이었다. 2) 점봉산에서 가장 식물이 풍부하게 분포하는 곳은 진동계곡 지역이었다. 3) 점봉산에 분포하는 우리나라 특산식물은 총 35종이었다. 4) 점봉산에서 확인된 환경부 지정 특정야생색물은 총 47종이었다. This study was carried out to investigate the flora of Mt. Jum-bong. Field survey was carried out five times from April 1997 to June 1997. This study is the first series of our whole research project to investigate the flora of Mt. Jum-bong, and we are intend to report detailed flora of Mt. Jum-dong in next year finally. The results obtained from this study are as follows : 1) Total vascular plants were 92 families, 282 genera and 541 species. 2) Chin-dong valley area showed the most abundant flora in Mt. Jum-dong. 3) The endemic plants to Korea in Mt. Jum-bong were 35 species. 4) The rare and endangered plants registered to the Ministry of Environment in Korean government were 47 species.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the interrelationship of the soft and hard tissue changes after both maxillary and mandibular anterior segmental surgery in bimaxillary protrusion patients, 11 patients had received both maxillary and mandibular anterior segmental surgery and were investigated radiologically with lateral cephalogram. The results were as follows : 1. The correlation of maxillary hard and soft tissue horizontal changes were relative high. : Coefficient between UIE and Stms was 0.89 (p<0.001). 2. The correlation of mandibular hard and soft tissue horizontal changes were very high, especially at the chin. : Coefficients were over 0.90 (p<0.001) 3. All points were moved superiorly except SLS, LS, Stms. 4. Upper and lower lip convexity to the E-Line were decreased (p<0.001) and postsurgical facial profiles were changed very esthetically.
Eight lignans (1-8) and two macrolides (9-10) were isolated from the CHCl3-soluble fraction of Houttuynia cordata Thumb (Saururaceae). Structures of isolates were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods. Fatty acid-derived macrolides (9-10) have rarely been reported from nature. All the isolates were tested for their inhibitory activities against NO production in RAW 264.7 cells stimulated by LPS. It was found that compounds 3 and 9 remarkably down-regulated LPS-induced NO production with IC50 values, 5.4 and 40.3 μM, respectively, without cytotoxicity.