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This paper aims at exerting the valence theory to determine the Chinese bivalent verbs and relevant sentence structures.probing into some disputable questions.the two-part allegorical sayings containing ‘Chi(吃)’based on the theory of valency, and the features of sentence pattern of the bivalent verb ‘Chi’. firstly, theoretically collated the definition, structure, formation basis, and contexts. Secondly, comprehensively analyzed the theory of valence; thirdly, analyzed the sentence pattern of bivalentverb ‘Chi(吃)’in two-part allegorical sayings in details; fourthly, generalized the features of sentence pattern of bivalent verb ‘Chi(吃)’. Finally firstly, theoretically collated the definition, structure, formation basis, and contexts. Secondly, comprehensively analyzed the theory of valence; thirdly, analyzed the sentence pattern of bivalentverb ‘Chi(吃)’in two-part allegorical sayings in details; fourthly, generalized the features of sentence pattern of bivalent verb ‘Chi(吃)’. The conclusion was that the most obvious difference between the bivalent verb ‘Chi’in two-part allegorical sayings and outside of two-part allegorical sayings was whether there would be noun composition at the position of objects. The bivalent verb ‘Chi’in two-part allegorical saying mostly contains objects. So, the sentence pattern without objects or object fronting is not appropriate in two-part allegorical saying. This has close ties with the generation of two-part allegorical sayings. This paper did the sentence analysis on bivalent verb ‘Chi’in two-part allegorical sayings which settled the basis for the comprehensive research on the bivalent verb in two-part allegorical sayings, and provides the theoretical assistance to the research on teaching of Chinese as a foreign language.
This paper presents a statistical analysis on the position-specific distributions of amino acid residues in transmembrane proteins. A hidden Markov model segments membrane proteins to produce segmented regions of homogeneous statistical property from variable-length amino acids sequences. These segmented residues are analyzed by using chi-square statistic and relative-entropy in order to find position-specific amino acids. This analysis showed that isoleucine and valine concentrated on the center of membrane-spanning regions, tryptophan, tyrosine and positive residues were found frequently near both ends of membrane.
Hwang, Chi-Young,Kim, Gi Heon,Yang, Jong-Heon,Hwang, Chi-Sun,Cho, Seong M.,Lee, Won-Jae,Pi, Jae-Eun,Choi, Ji Hun,Choi, Kyunghee,Kim, Hee-Ok,Lee, Seung-Yeol,Kim, Yong-Hae The Royal Society of Chemistry 2018 Nanoscale Vol.10 No.47
<P>Correction for ‘Rewritable full-color computer-generated holograms based on color-selective diffractive optical components including phase-change materials’ by Chi-Young Hwang <I>et al.</I>, <I>Nanoscale</I>, 2018, DOI: 10.1039/c8nr04471f.</P>
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the funds and executional organizations of the castle-reconstructions promoted by the Regent Daewon-gun(大院君) from 1866 to 1873. Furthermore this paper aims to examine the renewed structural systems of the castles at the time. Since Byeongin-yangyo(丙寅洋擾), the French Invasion in 1866, Daewon-gun gave orders to repair and to consolidate the castles, especially focused on the costal zones of Chulla-do(全羅道) and Gyeongsang-do(慶尙道), for defending against the invasions by Western and Japanese troops. The royal secret commissioners dispatched to each province evaluated the results of the castle-reconstructions. The funds were prepared by the donation of the officials, inhabitants and Buddhist monks in each province. The special technical experts worked in the fields of the reconstruction or newly constructions of ong-seong(甕城), chi-seong(雉城) and po-roo(砲樓). The systems of the castles were reformed on the base of the application of gunners and the theories of Minbo-ron(民堡論).
Minimum support and confidence have been used as criteria for generating association rules in all association rule mining algorithms. These criteria have their natural appeals, such as simplicity; few researchers have suspected the quality of generated rules. In this paper, we examine the rules from a more rigorous point of view by conducting statistical tests. Specifically, we use contingency tables and chi-square test to analyze the data. Experimental results show that one third of the association rules derived based on the support and confidence criteria are not significant, that is, the antecedent and consequent of the rules are not correlated. It indicates that minimum support and minimum confidence do not provide adequate discovery of meaningful associations. The chi-square test can be considered as an enhancement or an alternative solution.
Purpose: We investigated the extended use of Prostate Health Index (PHI) and percentage of [-2]pro-prostate-specific antigen (%p2PSA) in Chinese men with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) 10–20 ng/mL and normal digital rectal examination (DRE). Materials and Methods: All consecutive Chinese men with PSA 10–20 ng/mL and normal DRE who agreed for transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided 10-core prostate biopsy were recruited. Blood samples were taken immediately before TRUS-guided prostate biopsy. The performances of total PSA (tPSA), %free-to-total PSA (%fPSA), %p2PSA, and PHI were compared using logistic regression, receiver operating characteristic, and decision curve analyses (DCA). Results: From 2008 to 2015, 312 consecutive Chinese men were included. Among them, 53 out of 312 (17.0%) men were diagnosed to have prostate cancer on biopsy. The proportions of men with positive biopsies were 6.7% in PHI<35, 22.8% in PHI 35–55, and 54.5% in PHI>55 (chi-square test, p<0.001). The area under curves (AUC) of the base model including age, tPSA and status of initial/repeated biopsy was 0.64. Adding %p2PSA and PHI to the base model improved the AUC to 0.79 (p<0.001) and 0.78 (p<0.001), respectively, and provided net clinical benefit in DCA. The positive biopsy rates of Gleason 7 or above prostate cancers were 2.2% for PHI<35, 7.9% for PHI 35–55, and 36.4% for PHI>55 (chi-square test, p<0.001). By utilizing the PHI cutoff of 35 to men with PSA 10–20 ng/mL and normal DRE, 57.1% (178 of 312) biopsies could be avoided. Conclusions: Both PHI and %p2PSA performed well in predicting prostate cancer and high grade prostate cancer. The use of PHI and %p2PSA should be extended to Chinese men with PSA 10–20 ng/mL and normal DRE.
중국의 춘추전국 시대는 정국이 혼란하고, 제후들이 패권을 다투고, 왕조가 무너지는 시기에 다양한 학문이 일어난 백가쟁명 시대이다. 이 시기에 철학계의 발전은 활발하고 학술성과도 매우 눈부셨다. 이에 맞춰 철학계의 주된 관심은 대부분이 하늘에 대한 인식과 천인관계 그리고 인성 등의 문제에 대해 초점을 두었다. 공자가 개창자인 유가사상은 춘추전국 시대에 주요 학파 중 하나이다. 유가는 인간을 근본으로 삼고 윤리를 중요시 하고 도덕을 강조하는 학술사상으로서 한국, 일본, 베트남, 싱가포르 등 여러 나라에 많은 영향을 끼쳤으며, 이른바 유가문화 생활권을 형성하게 되었다. 유가의 사상이념은 후대에도 많은 영향을 주었다. 근본에 주력하고 덕성을 숭상하는 입신처세의 이념과 ‘유교무류’(有敎無類: 가르침이 있을진댄 부류를 나누어서는 안된다),‘인재시교’(因材施敎: 자질에 따라 가르침을 달리 베푼다)의 교육원칙, 그리고 ‘존왕천패’(尊王賤覇: 왕도정치를 존중하고 패도정치를 천하게 여긴다)의 정치사상은 큰 영향을 끼쳤다. 그렇지만 유가사상에 있어서 그 현대적 의의가 가장 큰 것은 바로 ‘천지만물지모’(天地萬物之母: 천지는 만물의 부모이다)라고 하는 천인관계론(天人關係論)과 낙천안명(樂天安命: 천명에 따라 분수에 맞게 산다)의 인생관이다. 유가철학에 있어서 낙천안명의 인생관은 천인관계의 인식론적 기초 위에 구성되었다. Confucian thought is a lot of influence on future generations. In addition to teaching human character accomplishments method, and many educational principles, and political Ideas. The particularly worthy of our attention, is guiding mankind to construct “optimistic attitude” to life. Roughly, Confucian recognized “heaven” is “the mother of all things” but also “given all natural instincts” and determine the fate of mankind .At the same time, it is also root causes of the Confucian Thought. On the basis cognitive of “Heaven and human relations”, Confucian to construct “Optimistic attitude” philosophy of life. First, Confucian teach peoples to understand that “the fate” is determined by “heaven”. Then, all the people should follow Justice and truth to do their own thing real well. Finally, everyone should hold a good mood to face all results. This is the most wonderful life wisdom.
Suzhou Tanci, Kun Opera, and Suzhou Gardens are the top three cultural wonders of Suzhou city. With distinctive cultural character, Suzhou Tanci serves as a cultural symbol of South China. The cultural character of Tanci combines several factors as its cultural gene, audience’s class, stage features, functions, as well as aesthetic taste. The Wu culture and modern civic spirits could not only be Tanci’s cultural nature but also its inheritance. Tanci has the urban-citizens for its major audience as it has been their way of entertainment. Focus on reasoning and rethinking of a story, show and tell are the basic expression of Tanci, both show and tell hold the audience for attractive stories and psychological descriptions to characters. Interactions between the teller and the audience are their basic tie, as Tanci provides the audience aesthetic pleasures. Aesthetical recognition and education, both are driven form the aesthetic process, could also be Tanci’s natural benefits. Tanci’s taste has characteristics that could be widely appreciated by middle and lower social class, being both popular and elegant should be its secret of long time existence.
In the nineteenth century, any ideology introduced from the West to mainland China was always characterized by the Chineseness, including nationalism. Before and after the revolution to overthrow the Qing dynasty, due to various situation changes, Dr. Sun Yat-sen had different interpretations of the content of his minzuzhuyi(nationalism). The Chinese tradition and openness of interpretation of Dr. Sun’s national thought, therefore, would make conflictions with western nationalism, and brought competitions between the Cross-Strait to be the only successor of Dr. Sun’s thought. This article will explore the developments and challenges of Dr. Sun’s nationalism, and how to race for dominating the interpretations of his thought between Taiwan and the mainland China.