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Chu Ki-Cheol (1897-1944) is a pronoun for Korean martyrs. His faith has made a profound impact upon Korean churches and he is frequently cited as an exemplary figure of faith. Usually his faith is called as Ilsagago faith. Ilsagago or “a firm resolution to death” expresses his faithful dedication to Christian faith. It is a kind of faith absolutely depending upon God only. In this article I would like to investigate his Ilsagago faith from the theocentrism viewpoint of Asian Center for Theological Studies and Mission. His Ilsagago faith has been fully shown in his whole life.He was born in Changwon county, South Kyoungsang Province, South Korea. After his graduation from Ungcheon Middle School, he was admitted to Osan High School, North Pyoung Province. Yi Sung-hun, the founder of Osan High School, and elder Cho Mansik, the principal of the institute, had a significant influence on Chu Ki-Cheol's deep love for his country. After graduating from Osan High School, he was accepted into Youhui College, majoring commerce. Ophthalmic ailment that he had been suffered from his childhood, however, prevented him continuing his study and made him return home. God led him through an entirely different path. While there, Chu Ki-Cheol attended a revival rally led by Kim Ik-tu and deeply felt that God was calling him to ministry. He entered and graduated from Pyongyang Theological Seminary in 1925. After ordained as a pastor, he served at Choryang Church, Pusan, Munchang Church, Masan, and Sanjonghyon Church, Pyongyang, where he emphasized ilsagago faith. The origin of his Ilsagago faith can be found in his childhood Sunday school training, his education at Osan High School and Yi Giseon and Kim Ik-tu's influence. However, most influential was the Presbyterian confessions of faith, i.e. the Twelve Confession of Faith of the Korean Presbyterian Church. While he was in Pyongyang Theological Seminary, he was strictly trained as a Presbyterian pastor with reformed faith. Chu Ki-Cheol's Iilsagago faith and his strong commitmentrejecting Shinto worship burst into flames at the revival rally for Pyongyang Theological Seminary students in 1935, He preached them to be ready to die to follow Jesus, to be ready to die to lead others, and to be ready to die to witness the truth of the resurrection. The climax of his Ilsagago faith was expressed in his strong objection to the Shinto worship and his martyrdom. He objected Shinto worship, saying it was a violation of the first commandment and a sin against the holy name of the Lord, an act of betrayal against our Lord God. His sermon titled as ‘My Five Prayer' clearly show what the Ilsagago faith is. Theocentrism is a God centered faith that can be expressed as Coram Deo (before God) and Soli Deo Gloria (Glory to God Only). Chu Ki-Cheol's Ilsagago faith was a theocentric faith, based on the word of God. The Presbyterian creed, the first and second commandments, and his pure faith toward God are the essence of his Ilsagago faith. Chu Ki-Chul was indeed an oriental Polycarp, who absolutely trusted in God with martyrdom spirit.
老子가 말하는 天人合一은 儒家와 다른 차원으로서 자연의 법칙과 조화를 이룬, 인간과 자연이 合一된 경지를 말한다. 이와 같은 경지에 도달하면 백성을 다스림에 있어서도 자연스럽고 조화로운 정치를 해야 한다는 것이다. 莊子는 天人合一을 이룬 聖人이 살았던 至德의 세상에서는 만물이 모두 평등했으나 각자의 욕망에 따라 살게 되면서 사회가 혼란해졌으므로 임금이 無爲의 정치를 할 때 백성들의 본성이 되살아난다고 보았다. 道敎 內丹家의 天人合一은 내단 수련의 단계에서 煉神還虛에 해당한다고 볼 수 있는데, 어린아이와 같은 모습으로 돌아가는 ‘逆煉返本'을 그리고 있다. 그러나 개인적 修養에 치우친 나머지 사회 구제에 대한 관심을 소홀히 하였다. 그리고 全秉薰의 天人合一 思想은 ?精神哲學通編?의 1卷 精神哲學에 속하는 「天符經 註解」와 「精神運用哲理」에 주로 나타나 있다. 특히 「天符經註解」에서는 ?天符經? 81字 중에서 ‘五七一妙衍 萬往萬來 用變不動本 本心本太陽昻明 人中天地一一終'에 해당하는 부분에 대한 주해를 하면서, 「精神運用哲理」에서는 內丹 修練의 과정 중에서 ‘煉神還虛ㆍ合天成眞'의 경지에 대한 설명을 하면서 天人合一과 兼聖을 말하고 있다. 여기서 그는 陽神ㆍ出胎하여 太虛와 하나가 되고, 神氣가 天地를 가득 채워 하늘과 더불어 長久한 세월을 보낼 수 있는 煉神還虛ㆍ合天成眞의 경지를 天人合一로 보았다. 그러나 그는 還虛라고 하여 모든 세속을 초탈하는 것이 아니라 사사로움을 떠나 더 큰 公德을 이루어야 한다고 보고, 合天이라 하여 세상을 떠나 하늘과 합하는 것이 아니라 하늘의 뜻을 세상에 실천해야 한다고 보아, 진정한 天人合一은 兼聖을 통해 이루어진다고 보았다. The theory of Heaven-Man Unity said by Lao-tzu is different from that of Confucianist and suggests the stage in which nature and human beings are united. According to the theory, When a man attains this stage, he/she should govern his/her people naturally and harmoniously with surroundings. Chuang-tzu thought that all things under the sun are equal in the world of knowledge and virtue, where sages who attain the stage of Heaven-Man Unity live. According to Chuang-tzu, however, the world becomes confused as people live just to satisfy his desires and in this circumstances, the original nature of people could be revived only when a king leaves the world as it is. When Nae-Dan-Ga of taoism says the stage of Heaven-Man Unity, this stage corresponds with Yeon-Sin-Hwan-Heo(煉神還虛), a stage in Nae-Dan trainings, and describes Yeok-Yeon-Ban-Bon(逆煉返本) which means a man's returning to a child. But taoism mainly focuses on self-improvement and pays little attention to social relief. Jeon Byung-Hoon's theory of Heaven-Man Unity is mainly described in the 「Cheon-Bu-Kyeong Ju-Hae」 and the 「Jeong-Sin Woon-yong Cheol-ri」 which are written about Jeong-Sin philosophy and parts of the first volume of the ?Jeong-Sin Cheol-Hak Tong-pyun?. In 「Cheon-Bu-Kyeong Ju-Hae」, his ideas are especially described in 'O-Chil-Il-Myo-Yeon(五七一妙衍) Man-Wang-Man-Rae(萬往萬來) Yong-Byun-Bu-Dong-Bon(用變不動本) Bon-Sim-Bon-Tae-Yang-Ang-Myung(本心本太陽昻明) In-Joong-Chung-Ji-Il-Il-Jong(人中天地一一終)' that are parts of 81 letters in ?Cheon-Bu-Kyeong?. In 「Jeong-Sin Woon-yong Cheol-ri」, his thoughts are described in the explanation about the stage of 'Yeon-Sin-Hwan -Heo(煉神還虛)ㆍHap-Cheon-Seong-Jin(合天成眞)' which are parts of Nae-Dan's training. Jeon Byung-Hoon considers the stage of 'Yeon-Sin-Hwan-HeoㆍHap-Cheon-Seong-Jin' as Heaven-Man Unity. In the stage, Human beings attain the level of 'Yang-Sin(陽神)ㆍChul-Tae(出胎)' and are united with Tae-Heo(太虛). As a result, Sin-Gi(神氣) fills in the heaven and the earth and human beings can live long period of time with the heaven. But he adds the word, Hwan-Heo(還虛), and this reavires that human beings should accumulate publics can ous deeds and ht rise above the ways of the world. Also he says 'Hap-Cheon(合天)' and this reavires that human beings should not keep aloof from the world to be united with heaven, but should practice the will of heaven to the world. Through these thoughts, he argues that true stage of Haeven-Man Unity could be attained through 'Gyum-Sung(兼聖)'
In this study, we report that the development of a multiplex PCR method using species-specific primers for the simultaneous detection of Poaceae family members, including adlay, barley, maize, rice and wheat, based on the sequence polymorphism of the DNA-directed RNA polymerase beta'' chain (rpoC2) genes Species-specific primers were constructed with common forward primer and each reverse primers which have differences on the basis of sequences. Each primer pairs could amplify PCR products of 443 bp for rice, 346 bp for barley, 278 bp for adlay, 221 bp for wheat and 96 for maize, respectively, from the five chloroplast DNAs. The series of template DNA concentrations were identified by the sensitivity of multiplex PCR. The band of products were clearly amplified from the DNA concentration range of 0.01 to 10 ng/μL. In addition, the species-specific primers were examined for the detection of seven commercial flour mixed products. The combination of the sensitivity of a multiplex PCR with the specificity of the primers for the detection of species would allow to be applied in analyses of processed foods.
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The genetic diversity was evaluated using RAPD and ISSR among natural populations and Korean wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum). Understanding the genetic diversity of putative parental and wild stocks would be useful in wheat breeding programs. Ninety three populations were evaluated with fifty RAPD and three ISSR primers. A total of 185 RAPD and ISSR polymorphism were produced. These markers were considered to estimate the genetic distance among accessions. The genetic similarity ranged from 0.41 to 0.86. The dendrogram were constructed by using the UPGMA clustering algorithm based on genetic similarity. The genetic diversity within and among accession was assessed through Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for statistics analysis. In cluster analysis, four groups were clustered and 17 accessions were not clustered. The PCA was corresponded well to the result. This study provides basic information about the genetic relationships for breeding purposes.