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      • KCI등재

        18세기 초 조선연행사(朝鮮燕行使)의 진상의(陳尙義) 해적집단 관련 정보 수집활동

        정신남 ( Ding Chen-nan ) 연세대학교 국학연구원 2017 동방학지 Vol.178 No.-

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        陳尙義 해적집단은 “四口通商의 시대”가 시작된 이래 廣東에서 출발하여 중국 동부 연해 전체에 걸쳐 활동했으며, 특히 조선과 가까운 遼東과 山東연해에서 활동한 해적들이었다. 조선에서는 이 해적집단의 존재를 파악하기 전부터 이미 중국 동부 연해에 나타나는 해적에 대해 상당한 관심을 가지고 관련 정보를 모으고 있었다. 따라서 연행사의 정보수집 활동을 통해서 陳尙義 해적집단을 알게 된 것은 결코 우연이 아니었다. 그 이후로도 이 해적집단에 대해서 지속적인 관심을 가졌으며, 그들이 재차 소요를 일으켰다는 정보도 입수하였다. 조선연행사는 陳尙義 해적집단 관련 정보 수집활동에서 주로 현지인 탐문을 진행하거나 청조의 공문서를 구입하거나 필사하는 등 방법을 활용하였다. 그리하여 조선 측 사료, 특히 연행록에는 陳尙義 해적집단과 관련된 기사가 다수실리게 되었다. 조선연행사에 의해 수집된 題本, 塘報와 같은 일부 청조 공문서는 그 眞僞를 더 검토해야 하지만 현재 중국에도 남아 있지 않는 희귀한 자료로서 그 나름의 가치를 지니고 있다. 조선연행사들의 관련 정보 수집활동 사례를 분석하는 것은 중국에서 발생한 특정 사건에 대한 조선사절단의 정보수집활동의 전모를 밝힐 수 있을 뿐만 아니라, 조선 측 사료에 실린 중국 기록의 가치를 역시 잘 보여줄 수 있다고 본다. Chen-Shangyi (陳尙義) pirates group rose from Guangdong Province in 168 4,the times of Four Port Trade System, and then expanded to the whole eastern coast with frequent activities covering Liaodong and Shandong, near Korea. The Joseon government had already got substantial information on pirates` rampancy on Chinese eastern coast before overhearing Chen-Shangyi pirates group through Joseon Emissaries` information collection. After that the government kept an eye on this pirate group and got the news of their rebellion again. Joseon Emissaries` obtained the information of Chen-Shangyi pirates group` activities mainly by inquiring local people as well as buying and copying Qing`s official documents, hence Korean historical documents, especially the Records of Trips to Beijing (燕行錄) include a lot of information on Chen-Shangyi pirates group. Although it is still need to recheck the facticity of Qing`s official documents such as Ti-Ben (題本) and Tang-Bao (塘報), these precious Korean documents that no longer exist in China have unique value. Through analyzing Joseon Emissaries` intelligence gathering of Chen-Shangyi pirates group, one can get a full view of Joseon Emissaries` process of intelligence gathering on China, and realize the value of the records relating to China in Korean historical documents.

      • KCI등재

        Hou Ju 後具 or Ben Ju 本具?: A Reinterpretation of Zhu Xi’s Proposition “Xin Ju Zhong Li” 心具衆理

        ( Chen Shuangzhu ) 성균관대학교 유교문화연구소 2019 儒敎文化硏究(中文版) Vol.0 No.31

        “心具衆理”是朱子處理“心與理”關係的重要命題之一, 朱子在《四書章句集注》中提出該命題,此後又在《文集》、《語類》中有許多相關的詮釋, 直至朱子去世前的晩年還對此命題有諸多論述。對此命題, 學術界已有一定的注意, 但因衆學者對朱子學的理解和關注的重點各有不同, 以至最終詮釋的結果有所分岐, 大致以牟宗三的“後外具說”、唐君毅的“能具內說”、錢穆的“後內具說”以及陳來的“本內具說”爲代表。從基本立場來看, 牟、錢都是“後具”, 與唐、陳的“本具”形成鮮明立場;幷且牟之“外具”與唐的“具內”、陳的“內具”也形成明顯差異。本文通過對朱子相關文本的梳理, 發現“心具衆理”本身蘊含了兩個向度的涵義, 一是心未發而爲中時, 理本內具於心的狀態, 此是“結構義”;二是心爲知覺全體時, 能將理具于內而居主宰地位, 此是“功能義”, 幷且在朱子處, 結構義優先於功能義。但無論從哪一種向度上言說, “心具衆理”這一命題都是限於存有層面言說, 幷未走向工夫層面。 “Xin ju zhong li” 心具衆理 is one of the important propositions of Zhu Xi 朱熹 to investigate the relations between mind (xin 心) and principle (li 理). Zhu Xi first proposed this term in the Sishu zhangju jizhu 四書章句集注, and later further elaborated it in the Wenji 文集 and the Yulei 語類, and even till the later years before his death. As it has had much attention from the academia, because of scholars’different understandings and focuses on studying Zhu Xi’s thinking, the results of the final interpretations became divergent. There were Mou Zongsan’s 牟宗三 “hou wai ju shuo” 後外具說 which means principle is embraced by mind through practices, Tang Junyi’s 唐君毅 “neng ju nei shuo” 能具內說 means the mind originally has the ability to embrace principle. Qian Mu’s 錢穆 “hou ju shuo” 後具說 means principle embraced by mind as oneness through acquired practices. Chen Lai’s 陳來 “ben nei ju shuo” 本內具說 means principle is innately and originally embraced by mind. Basically, Mou and Qian both suggest “hou ju” while Tang and Chen took a stand on “ben ju” 本具. Also, Mou’s “wai ju” 外具 shows significant contrast against Tang’s “ju nei” 具內 and Chen’s “nei ju” 內具. It can be found that the meaning of “xin ju zhong li” contains two dimensions by researching through a combination of Zhu Xi’s related texts. First is called “jie guo yi” 結構義 meaning when mind is in the undisturbed status, principle is innate together with mind as one,. Second is called “gong neng yi” 功能義 meaning when mind is the entity with complete consciousness, it has the ability to become dominant and embrace the principle into itself as one. In Zhu Xi’s works, the “jie gou yi” takes precedence over the “gong neng yi.” However, no matter from which direction it is examined, Zhu Xi’s proposition of “xin ju zhong li” is confined to the ontological level rather than the practical level. [Article in Chinese]

      • KCI등재

        Effect of local wall thinning on ratcheting behavior of pressurized 90° elbow pipe under reversed bending using finite element analysis

        Xiaohui Chen,Xu Chen 국제구조공학회 2016 Steel and Composite Structures, An International J Vol.20 No.4

        Ratcheting deformation of pressurized Z2CND18.12N stainless steel 90° elbow pipe with local wall thinning subjected to constant internal pressure and reversed bending was studied using finite element analysis. Chen-Jiao-Kim (CJK) kinematic hardening model, which was used to simulate ratcheting behavior of pressurized 90° elbow pipe with local wall thinning at extrados, flanks and intrados, was implemented into finite element software ANSYS. The local wall thinning was located at extrados, flanks and intrados of 90° elbow pipe, whose geometry was rectangular cross-section. The effect of depth, axial length and circumferential angle of local wall thinning at extrados, flanks and intrados on the ratcheting behaviors of 90° elbow pipe were studied in this paper. Threedimensional elastic-plastic analysis with Chen-Jiao-Kim (CJK) kinematic hardening model was carried out to evaluate structural ratcheting behaviors. The results indicated that ratcheting strain was generated mainly along the hoop direction, while axial ratcheting strain was relatively small.

      • KCI등재

        Managerial Mechanism Design Theory:The Concept and Framework with Applications in Emergency Management

        An Chen,Yannan Wu,Ning Chen 위기관리 이론과 실천 2012 Journal of Safety and Crisis Management Vol.2 No.2

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        Mechanism design theory (MDT) which gained Nobel Prize in 2007 provides a formal way to mechanism design in Economics. It not only emphasizes on the phenomenon of modern economics, also gives an idea on the engineering side of economic theory, in particular, the implications for economic policy making. Despite the success of MDT in economics, it is difficultly migrated to management field. In managerial practices, especially emergent situation, people cannot make free choice and voluntary exchange due to the fact that some policies are sing-directed or half-compulsory. While the managerial mechanism is actively investigated for specific usages, a less studied issue is to study the unified framework of managerial mechanism which is of major importance to managers. This paper aims to provide a unified framework of managerial mechanism with an attempt to provide some insights into the fundamental of managerial mechanism design. Firstly, we discuss the difference between economical and managerial mechanism design from the perspectives of background, basic hypothesis, and weak obligation characteristic. Afterwards, we propose a unified framework of managerial mechanism design theory, composed of an order seven-tuple and some fundamental design modes. Lastly, we give a case study to show the applicability of the proposed mechanism design theory in emergency management.

      • KCI등재

        The Study of International Cooperation on Emergencies

        An Chen,Jing Rui Chen,Fei Chi 위기관리 이론과 실천 2017 Journal of Safety and Crisis Management Vol.7 No.1

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        International cooperation on emergencies is significant to the response of these emergencies. Firstly, the connotation and characteristics of international cooperation on emergencies were analyzed. Secondly, the typical types of emergencies in need of international cooperation, the types of countries involved in international cooperation and the typical types of international cooperation modes on emergencies were analyzed in order to explain the mechanism of international cooperation. Finally, some strategies of international cooperation on emergencies were proposed. The result shows that, in order to have a better international cooperation, international cooperation modes on emergencies should be determined according to the types of emergencies, the situations of countries and organizations involved in it.

      • KCI등재

        Behavior and Mechanism of Void Welding Under Thermal Mechanical Coupling

        Fei Chen,Xitao Wang,Huiqin Chen,Shue Dang 대한금속·재료학회 2022 METALS AND MATERIALS International Vol.28 No.7

        Shrinkage cavity, microporosity, blowhole and the likes are the typical void defects in ingot. Only through reasonable hightemperature deformation and heat preservation process can the void defects be closed and welded to ensure the high qualityof forgings. However, there are few researches on the welding behavior of voids, and the understanding of the void weldingmechanism is still insufficient. In order to further study the welding behavior of void and explore the welding mechanism,the welding process of void and microstructure evolution around void under thermal mechanical coupling were studied byphysical simulation. The results show that heating temperature, holding time, plastic deformation play an important role invoid welding. The void welding degree increases with the increase of heating temperature, holding time and plastic deformation. Besides, there are three main welding mechanisms for void defects, including the volume of microvoids decreasesdue to vacancy diffusion, the void welding mechanism caused by the austenite-ferrite transformation at lower temperaturesand the void welding mechanism caused by recrystallization and grain growth of austenite grains at higher temperatures.

      • KCI등재

        Dislocation Density-Based Constitutive Model and Processing Map for T2 Copper During Isothermal and Time-Variant Deformation

        Gang Chen,Yu Jin,Jing Wang,Cheng Zhang,Qiang Chen,Hongming Zhang,Xingjian Zhao,Zhiyong Li,Changhai Xie,Zhiming Du 대한금속·재료학회 2022 METALS AND MATERIALS International Vol.28 No.9

        Isothermal compression tests were carried out to study the hot deformation behavior of T2 copper under various conditions. The deformation parameters, such as temperature and strain rate, have strong influence on flow stress and microstructureevolution of the alloy. A unified dislocation density-based model considering dynamic recovery and recrystallization wasestablished. And material parameters of the developed model were optimized by genetic algorithm. Comparisons betweenthe experimental and model data demonstrates that the developed model can precisely describe the flow behavior at quitewide range of deformation conditions. Meanwhile, the designed iterative procedure allows the model to be applied in timevariantdeformation conditions. Processing map and microstructure examination were constructed to optimize the processingwindow of the studied alloy. According to the processing maps, flow instability mainly appeared at low temperatures of500–650 °C and strain rates higher than 0.1 s−1. The optimum deformation parameters of T2 copper was concluded as thetemperature range of 700–800 °C and the strain rate of 0.1–1 s−1.

      • KCI등재

        Uniqueness of meromorphic solutions of a certain type of difference equations

        Jun-Fan Chen,Shu-Qing Lin 대한수학회 2022 대한수학회보 Vol.59 No.4

        In this paper, we study the uniqueness of two finite order transcendental meromorphic solutions $f(z)$ and $g(z)$ of the following complex difference equation $$A_{1}(z)f(z+1)+A_{0}(z)f(z)=F(z)e^{\alpha(z)}$$ when they share 0, $\infty$ CM, where $A_{1}(z),$ $A_{0}(z),$ $F(z)$ are non-zero polynomials, $\alpha(z)$ is a polynomial. Our result generalizes and complements some known results given recently by Cui and Chen, Li and Chen. Examples for the precision of our result are also supplied.

      • Evaluation of Performance Capability for Emergency Management in 31 Provinces of China in 2014-2015

        An Chen,Chao Fan 위기관리 이론과 실천 2016 위기관리 이론과 실천 학술대회 Vol.2016 No.08

        Performance capability of emergency management refers to the actual performance of the emergency management of an organization, individual or region. The improvement of the government's emergency management capacity is of great significance to the effective response of a country or local emergency. Performance capability evaluation of emergency management for an organization, individual or region can reflect their capability of emergency management, so as to help them make a more clear and comprehensive judgment to the ability of emergency response, enhance the ability of emergency response, promote China’s emergency response capability and reduce the loss of life and property caused by emergency. The report of Evaluation of performance capability for emergency management in 31 provinces of China in 2014-2015 is jointly issued by Public Management Professional Committee in Society of Management Science of China, Ouhua’ antai Risk and Crisis Emergency Research Institute, Emergency Management Institute of Henan Polytechnic University in 21th January, 2016. In the report, firstly, the 10 worst disaster incidents of each province in 2014-2015 are selected, and then every index of the accidents is graded through being analyzed with consulting American evaluation index system for emergency management and the reaction of the different kinds of accidents. At last, the weighted averages of the indexes are worked out. Meanwhile, the performance capability for emergency management in 31 provinces of China in 2014-2015, including precautions, responses and aftermath, is evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively from aspects of natural disasters, human disasters and comprehensive performance. Based on it, the relevant performance capability is ranked and classified according to four grades: excellent, good, medium and poor. The evaluation report shows that comprehensive performance of Beijing and other 5 provinces is excellent; comprehensive performance of Jiangxi and other 13 provinces is good; comprehensive performance of Chongqing and other 10 provinces is medium; comprehensive performance of Tianjin and some other provinces is poor. To sum up, the excellent evaluation depends on whether the reasonable measures have been taken and whether the better result have been seen; the good and medium evaluation implies that there is some situation discovered in those provinces, just like the worse results in several accidents and lack of risk consciousness; the others are evaluated for the poor performance capability because of their faults full from the precautions to the aftermath. The report also attracts some friends from domestic mainstream media, such as the Paper, Sohu, China News, Science Net and China Youth Online, who consider that the performance capability for emergency management of China’s provinces is cognized deeply and the feasible blueprint is drawn on improving capability for emergency management in China through the report.

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