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The abnormal meat could caused by abscess, fibrosis and granuloma in the region of the neck by the adverse effect of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccination practice for Korean swine. After FMD vaccination was implemented in 2010, the number of incidences of abnormal meat has been increasing. In this study, it was evaluated whether needless intradermal injection (NII) of FMD vaccine reduces abnormal meat at the injection site in comparison to conventional intramuscular injection (IM). In addition, the onset of humoral immunity was analyzed in order to see if NII of this vaccine is able to mount comparable antibody response with IM. This study was carried out in four Korean pig farms. The O-type FMD vaccine was implemented via NII at three farms and the control group was vaccinated via IM. Antibody titers were compared from the serum samples taken from 10 random pigs at age of 8, 12, 16 and 22~24 weeks of age. The O+A type FMD vaccine was also compared with the same protocol. When test animals were slaughtered, incidence, type and size of abnormal meat were recorded. The results of this study showed that the antibody titers between intradermal and intramuscular group were similar but a significant difference in the incidence of abnormal meat formation was observed between two groups (p < 0.05). In summary, needless intradermal injection of FMD vaccination was proven to be effective for the onset of humoral immunity and reducing abnormal meat formation.
Background: Melasma is a common hypermelanosis that frequently appears on the face. In recent studies, it is suggested that dermal structural alteration, including solar elastosis and basement membrane disruption, may have an important role in the pathogenesis of melasma. Forma device (InMode Inc, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada, North America) is a radiofrequency dermal heating device used on facial wrinkles and rhytides. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Forma device on melasma in a small group of volunteers. Methods: All volunteers were treated 4 times at 3 weeks intervals. Every visit, melanin index and erythema index was measured to assess the improvement in hyperpigmentation and erythema. Clinical photos were evaluated to estimate the degree of skin changes. Results: Clinical and instrumental evaluation showed that melasma improved after INMODE forma treatment. Conclusion: We suggest that treatment with Forma device may have beneficial effects on melasma by dermal remodeling and direct heat delivery on melanocytes.
Objectives : Woohwangchungsim-won has been used for acute diseases such as cerebrovascular disease (stroke), heart disease. The aim of this study was to determine the effects, significance & necessity of Woohwangchungsim-won in acute stages of these disease by reviewing Korean articles about Woohwangchungsim-won. Methods : Article searches were performed on 8 major Korean web article search engine from January 1980 to August 2010. There were no restrictions on the types of publication, including grey articles. Results : Forty-three articles were included. Twenty one were efficacy tests, thirteen were comparative efficacy tests, eight were toxicity tests, and one was new method development. Eighteen articles were multicenter studies and twenty five were single center studies. Thirty two articles were animal testing, only ten articles were clinical articles. Thirty seven articles presented the composition and quantity of Woohwangchungsim-won, but six did not. Conclusions : The results of Korean articles about Woohwangchungsim-won can not strongly support the effects, significance & necessity of Woohwangchungsim-won. More rigorous studies are required for determination of the effects of Woohwangchungsim-won.
Aims: We aimed to investigate the association between the change of muscle mass and change of fibrosis and steatosis in NAFLD patients. Methods: We analyzed 2,893 NAFLD subjects who had health check-up more than twice in St. Vincent’s Hospital between November 2009 and December 2017. NAFLD was diagnosed by ultrasound, and appendicular muscle mass (ASM) was assessed by Inbody 720, and Sarcopenia index was calculated as ASM divided by weight (SI%) and ASM divided by body mass index (SI-BMI). Non-invasive markers were used to evaluate the severity of hepatic fibrosis and steatosis; NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS), Fibrosis-4 (Fib-4) score, and Forn’s index for fibrosis, and hepatic steatosis index (HSI) and fatty liver index (FLI) for steatosis. Results: The mean age was 47.3±10.4 years, and 1956 subjects (67.6%) were male. Diabetes, hypertension, metabolic syndrome were more prevalent in sarcopenic subjects (P<0.01), and non-invasive fibrosis and steatosis markers were higher in sarcopenic subjects (P< 0.01). The mean interval between two health check-up was 39.8±21.9 months. There was no significant association between the change of NFS, Fib-4, and Forn’s index and the change of SI% and SI-BMI (all P >0.1). However, the changes of HIS and FLI were significantly associated with the change of SI% and SI-BMI (all P<0.01). Multivariate logistic analysis demonstrated the independent association between the change of skeletal muscle mass and the changes of non-invasive steatosis markers after adjusting for other confounding factors (all P< 0.001). However, the changes of non-invasive fibrosis markers did not show an independent association with the change of appendicular muscle mass after adjusting for other confounders (all P >0.1) Conclusions: The change of muscle mass is strongly associated with the change of hepatic steatosis, but not the change of fibrosis.
<P>Highly efficient quantum-dot-sensitized solar cell is fabricated using <I>ca.</I> 2–3 nm sized perovskite (CH<SUB>3</SUB>NH<SUB>3</SUB>)PbI<SUB>3</SUB> nanocrystal. Spin-coating of the equimolar mixture of CH<SUB>3</SUB>NH<SUB>3</SUB>I and PbI<SUB>2</SUB> in γ-butyrolactone solution (perovskite precursor solution) leads to (CH<SUB>3</SUB>NH<SUB>3</SUB>)PbI<SUB>3</SUB> quantum dots (QDs) on nanocrystalline TiO<SUB>2</SUB> surface. By electrochemical junction with iodide/iodine based redox electrolyte, perovskite QD-sensitized 3.6 μm-thick TiO<SUB>2</SUB> film shows maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 78.6% at 530 nm and solar-to-electrical conversion efficiency of 6.54% at AM 1.5G 1 sun intensity (100 mW cm<SUP>−2</SUP>), which is by far the highest efficiency among the reported inorganic quantum dot sensitizers.</P> <P>Graphic Abstract</P><P>Highly efficient perovskite quantum-dot-sensitized solar cell. <IMG SRC='http://pubs.rsc.org/services/images/RSCpubs.ePlatform.Service.FreeContent.ImageService.svc/ImageService/image/GA?id=c1nr10867k'> </P>
<P>Pressure-dependent structural and chemical changes of the metal organic framework (MOF) compound MIL-47(V) have been investigated up to 3 GPa using different pore-penetrating liquids as pressure transmitting media (PTM). We find that at 0.3(1) GPa the terephthalic acid (TPA) template molecules located in the narrow channels of the as synthesized MIL-47(V) are selectively replaced by methanol molecules from a methanol ethanol water mixture and form a methanol inclusion complex. Further pressure increase leads to a gradual narrowing of the channels up to 1.9(1) GPa, where a second irreversible insertion of methanol molecules leads to more methanol molecules being inserted into the pores. After pressure release methanol molecules remain within the pores and can be removed only after heating to 400 degrees C. In contrast, when MIL-47(V) is compressed in water, a reversible replacement of the TPA by H2O molecules takes place near 1 GPa. The observed structural and chemical changes observed in MIL-47(V) demonstrate unique high pressure chemistry depending on the size and type of molecules present in the liquid PTM. This allows postsynthetic nonthermal pressure-induced removal and insertion of organic molecules in MOFs forming novel and stable phases at ambient conditions.</P>
<P>Template matching is an approach for signal pattern recognition, often used for biomedical signals including electroencephalogram (EEG). Since EEG is often severely contaminated by various physiological or pathological artifacts, identification and rejection of these artifacts with improved template matching algorithms would enhance the overall quality of EEG signals. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to improve the accuracy of conventional template matching methods by adopting the dynamic positional warping (DPW) technique, developed recently for handwriting pattern analysis. To validate the feasibility and superiority of the proposed method, eye-blink artifacts in the EEG signals were detected, and the results were then compared to those from conventional methods. DPW was found to outperform the conventional methods in terms of artifact detection accuracy, demonstrating the power of DPW in identifying specific one-dimensional data patterns.</P>
<P>Ictal epileptiform discharges (EDs) are characteristic signal patterns of scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) or intracranial EEG (iEEG) recorded from patients with epilepsy, which assist with the diagnosis and characterization of various types of epilepsy. The EEG signal, however, is often recorded from patients with epilepsy for a long period of time, and thus detection and identification of EDs have been a burden on medical doctors. This paper proposes a new method for automatic identification of two types of EDs, repeated sharp-waves (sharps), and runs of sharp-and-slow-waves (SSWs), which helps to pinpoint epileptogenic foci in secondary generalized epilepsy such as Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS). In the experiments with iEEG data acquired from a patient with LGS, our proposed method detected EDs with an accuracy of 93.76% and classified three different signal patterns with a mean classification accuracy of 87.69%, which was significantly higher than that of a conventional wavelet-based method. Our study shows that it is possible to successfully detect and discriminate sharps and SSWs from background EEG activity using our proposed method.</P>