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        • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

          Reversible Data Hiding Scheme for VQ Indices Based on Absolute Difference Trees

          Chang,,Chin-Chen,Nguyen,,Thai-Son,Lin,,Chia-Chen Korean Society for Internet Information 2014 KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Syst Vol.8 No.7

          Reversible data hiding is a technique for recovering original images without any distortion after secret data are extracted from the image. The technique continues to attract attention from many researchers. In this paper, we introduce a new reversible data hiding scheme based on the adjacent index differences of vector quantization (VQ) indices. The proposed scheme exploits the differences between two adjacent indices to embed secret data. Experimental results show that our scheme can achieve a lower compression rate than an earlier scheme by Yang and Lin. Our scheme's average compression rate, 0.44 bpp, outperforms that of Yang and Lin's scheme, which averages 0.53 bpp. Moreover, the embedding capacity of our scheme can rise to 1.45 bpi, which also is superior to that of Chang et al.'s scheme [35] (1.00 bpi)Yang and Lin's scheme [27] (0.91 bpi) as well as Chang et al.'s scheme [26] (0.74 bpi).

        • KCI등재SCOPUS

          Effects of alkali-borosilicate glass additions on the microstructure and dielectric properties of Ba0.88(Nd1.40Bi0.42La0.30)Ti₄O12

          Chang-Lun,Liao,Kuan-Hong,Lin,Shun-Tian,Lin 한양대학교 세라믹연구소 2008 Journal of Ceramic Processing Research Vol.9 No.6

          The microstructures and dielectric properties of Ba0.88(Nd1.40Bi0.42La0.30)Ti4O12/ alkali-borosilicate glass composites were investigated in this study, with the volume percentage of the glass phase in the composite being either 50, 55, or 60 vol.%. Sintered density measurements indicated that the density increased with an increase in the sintering temperature for the composites with 50 and 55 vol.% glass additions, but, at a sintering temperature higher than 800 oC, the density decreased for the composite with a 60 vol.% glass addition. XRD patterns revealed that the peak of the highest intensity in the B(NBL)T crystal belongs to the (401) crystal plane, while that in the B(NBL)T/glass composites to the (320) crystal plane. Along with the change in crystalline preferred orientation, the lattice constants of the crystal also changed. SEM micrographs indicated that the B(NBL)T phase developed into columnar grains at sintering temperatures higher than 1260 oC. Moreover, when glass was added, the grain morphology changed, especially at sintering temperatures higher than 850 oC. When sintered at 950 oC for 2 hours, the composite with 55 vol.% glass yielded the highest dielectric constant (εr= 23.2), the lowest dielectric loss (tanδ = 4.1 × 10-3), and a high Q×f value (Q × f = 1,620 GHz, Q = 1/tanδ, f = 6.67 GHz). The microstructures and dielectric properties of Ba0.88(Nd1.40Bi0.42La0.30)Ti4O12/ alkali-borosilicate glass composites were investigated in this study, with the volume percentage of the glass phase in the composite being either 50, 55, or 60 vol.%. Sintered density measurements indicated that the density increased with an increase in the sintering temperature for the composites with 50 and 55 vol.% glass additions, but, at a sintering temperature higher than 800 oC, the density decreased for the composite with a 60 vol.% glass addition. XRD patterns revealed that the peak of the highest intensity in the B(NBL)T crystal belongs to the (401) crystal plane, while that in the B(NBL)T/glass composites to the (320) crystal plane. Along with the change in crystalline preferred orientation, the lattice constants of the crystal also changed. SEM micrographs indicated that the B(NBL)T phase developed into columnar grains at sintering temperatures higher than 1260 oC. Moreover, when glass was added, the grain morphology changed, especially at sintering temperatures higher than 850 oC. When sintered at 950 oC for 2 hours, the composite with 55 vol.% glass yielded the highest dielectric constant (εr= 23.2), the lowest dielectric loss (tanδ = 4.1 × 10-3), and a high Q×f value (Q × f = 1,620 GHz, Q = 1/tanδ, f = 6.67 GHz).

        • KCI등재SCOPUS

          Reversible Data Hiding Scheme for VQ Indices Based on Absolute Difference Trees

          ( Chin-chen Chang ), ( Thai-son Nguyen ), ( Chia-chen Lin ) 한국인터넷정보학회 2014 KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Syst Vol.8 No.7

          Reversible data hiding is a technique for recovering original images without any distortion after secret data are extracted from the image. The technique continues to attract attention from many researchers. In this paper, we introduce a new reversible data hiding scheme based on the adjacent index differences of vector quantization (VQ) indices. The proposed scheme exploits the differences between two adjacent indices to embed secret data. Experimental results show that our scheme can achieve a lower compression rate than an earlier scheme by Yang and Lin. Our scheme`s average compression rate, 0.44 bpp, outperforms that of Yang and Lin`s scheme, which averages 0.53 bpp. Moreover, the embedding capacity of our scheme can rise to 1.45 bpi, which also is superior to that of Chang et al.`s scheme [35] (1.00 bpi)Yang and Lin`s scheme [27] (0.91 bpi) as well as Chang et al.`s scheme [26] (0.74 bpi).

        • Blocking of Cell Proliferation, Cytokines Production and Genes Expression Following Administration of Cordyceps Sinensis in the Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluids Cells

          Kuo,,Yuh-Chi,Wu,,Chia-Lin,Tasi,,Wei-Jern,Wang,,Jir-Yenn,Chang,,Shi-Chung,Lin,,Ching-Yuang,Shiao,,Ming-Shi 경희대학교 동서의학연구소 1999 INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON EAST-WEST MEDICINE Vol.1999 No.1

          Yuh-Chi Kuo¹,Chia-Lin Wn¹,Wei-jern Tasi¹,Jir-Yenn Wang²,Shi-Chung Chang₃,Ching-Yung Lin⁴,and Ming-Shi Shiao⁴¹National Research Institute of Chinese Medicine, ²Department of Biology,Fu Jen University, ³Department of Chest, ⁴Department of Pediatrics, □De[art,amt of Medical Research and Education. Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan Yuh-Chi Kuo¹,Chia-Lin Wn¹,Wei-jern Tasi¹,Jir-Yenn Wang²,Shi-Chung Chang²,Ching-Yung Lin³,and Ming-Shi Shiao⁴.¹National Research Institute of Chinese Medicine, ²Department of Biology,Fu Jen University, ³Department of Chest, ⁴Department of Pediatrics, □De[art,amt of Medical Research and Education. Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. Blocking of Cell Proliferation, Cytokines Production and Genes Expression Following Administration of Cordyceps sinensis in the Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluids Cells. Proceedings of international Symposium on East-West Medicine, Seoul. 44-64, 1999.-Cordyceps sinensis is a major parasitic fungus on larva of Lepidoptera. It is one of the well know fungi used in traditional Chinese medicine for treatment asthma, lung and kideney diseases. Many fungi belonging to the genus Cordyceps have been demonstrated to produce natural products with various biological activities. Reported biological activities of genus cordyceps include:(a)inhibition of DNA and RNA synthesis;(b)enhancement of cell differentiation;(c)restruction of cytoskeleton;(d)inhibition of protein kinase activity;(e)antitumor activity on bladder, colon, lung carcinoma as well as fibroblastoma;(f)inhibition of the infection and revers transciptase activity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1; and(g) inhibition of methylation of nucleic acid. Thus, it is suggested that the extracts of Cordyceps sp. Contain antitumor, antiviral, and many other biological activities. In our previous studies, we proved that C. sinensis contains the antitumor and immunomodulatory agents. In the present studies, effects of C. sinensis on bronchoalveolar lavage fluids(BAL)cells were demonstrated. The crude methanolic extracts of C. sinensis were fractionated into 15 fractions by silica gel column chromatography. Effects of various fraction on BAL cells proliferation and lipopolysaccharide(LPS) stimulated interleukin-1β(IL-8),platelet activating factor(PAF), interleukin-6(IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α),and interleukin-8(IL-8) production on BAL cells were determined. The result indicated that the CS-19-22 fraction suppressed BAL cells proliferation activated by LPS. The median inhibitory concentration(IC50) was 6㎍/ml. The CS-19-22 fraction also decreased IL-1β,PAF,IL-6, TNF-αand IL-8 production.The results of revers transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) demonstrated that the CS-19-22 fraction did not affect IL-1β,PAF,IL-6, TNF-α,and IL-8 mRNAs expression in BAL cells activated by LPS. By contrast, it inhibited the IL-10 mRNA expression but enhanced IFN-γand IL-12 mRNAs expression in activated BAL cells. Moreover, the CS-19-22 fraction blocked PAF-induced platelet aggregation. It is unlikely that cytotoxicity was involved. Because no cell deths were observable. We hypothesize that inhibitory mechanisms of CS-19-22 on BAL cells proliferation may be related to the impairments of gene expression and production of cytokines in BAL cells. The explanation of C. sinensis antiasthma function may involved the following(1)C.sinenesis contained immunomodulatory agents that stimulated IFN-γand IL-12 expression in TH1cells.(2)Enhanced secretion of IFN-γand IL-12 will inhibit the Tγcells immune responses Ex. Decreasing of IL-6 and IL-10 production.(3) The impairments of cytokines production in TH2 cells suppressed th BAL cells proliferation then more cytokines production Ex.IL-1β,PAF,IL-6,TNF-αand IL-8 in activated BAL cells were decreased. (4)The suppression of TH2cells immune responses will inhibit the growth and differentiation of B cells then IgE production will be decreased. (5)Reduced production of IgE will decreased asthma attack occurring in individuals. However, the results of the present study suggested that C. sinensis may also have acted to treat asthma in part by inhibiting BAL cells proliferation and cytokine gene expression and production. Future, experiments with treatment of animals with asthma with C. sinensis will be necessary to defined whether C. sinensis can reduce asthma injury. Plans are underway for the isolation of pure principal growth inhibitors and their mechanisms of action are subjected for further study.

        • KCI등재SCOPUS

          BRCA1/2 mutation status in patients with metachronous breast and ovarian malignancies: clues towards the implementation of genetic counseling

          Angel,Chao,Yi-Hao,Lin,Lan-Yan,Yang,Ren-Chin,Wu,Wei-Yang,Chang,Pi-Yueh,Chang,Shih-Cheng,Chang,Chiao-Yun,Lin,Huei-Jean,Huang,Cheng-Tao,Lin,Hung-Hsueh,Chou,Kuan-Gen,Huang,Wen-Ling,Kuo,Ting-Chang,Chang,Ch 대한부인종양학회 2020 Journal of Gynecologic Oncology Vol.31 No.3

          Objective: The characteristics of patients with metachronous breast and ovarian malignancies and the pathogenic role of BRCA1/2 mutations remain poorly understood. We investigated these issues through a review of hospital records and nationwide Taiwanese registry data, followed by BRCA1/2 mutation analysis in hospital-based cases. Methods: We retrospectively retrieved consecutive clinical records of Taiwanese patients who presented with these malignancies to our hospital between 2001 and 2017. We also collected information from the Data Science Center of the Taiwan Cancer Registry (TCR) between 2007 and 2015. Next-generation sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification were used to identify BRCA1/2 mutations and large genomic rearrangements, respectively. When BRCA1/2 mutations were identified in index cases, pedigrees were reconstructed and genetic testing was offered to family members. Results: A total of 12,769 patients with breast cancer and 1,537 with ovarian cancer were retrieved from our hospital records. Of them, 28 had metachronous breast and ovarian malignancies. We also identified 113 cases from the TCR dataset. Eighteen hospital-based cases underwent BRCA1/2 sequencing and germline pathogenic mutations were detected in 7 patients (38.9%, 5 in BRCA1 and 2 in BRCA2). All BRCA1/2 mutation carriers had ovarian high-grade serous carcinomas. Of the 12 patients who were alive at the time of analysis, 5 were BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. All of them had family members with BRCA1/2-associated malignancies. Conclusions: Our results provide pilot evidence that BRCA1/2 mutations are common in Taiwanese patients with metachronous breast and ovarian malignancies, supporting the clinical utility of genetic counseling.

        • KCI등재SCOPUS

          Energy-efficient Custom Topology Generation for Link-failure-aware Network-on-chip in Voltage-frequency Island Regime

          Chang-Lin,Li,Jae-Chern,Yoo,Tae,Hee,Han 대한전자공학회 2016 Journal of semiconductor technology and science Vol.16 No.6

          The voltage-frequency island (VFI) design paradigm has strong potential for achieving high energy efficiency in communication centric manycore system-on-chip (SoC) design called network-on-chip (NoC). However, because of the diminished scaling of wire-dimension and supply voltage as well as threshold voltage in modern CMOS technology, the vulnerability to link failure in VFI NoC is becoming a crucial challenge. In this paper, we propose an energy-optimized topology generation technique for VFI NoC to cope with permanent link failures. Based on the energy consumption model, we exploit the on-chip communication traffic patterns and characteristics of link failures in the early design stage to accommodate diverse applications and architectures. Experimental results using a number of multimedia application benchmarks show the effectiveness of the proposed three-step custom topology generation method in terms of energy consumption and latency without any degradation in the fault coverage metric.

        • Photocatalytic study of Zinc Oxide with bismuth doping prepared by spray pyrolysis

          Lin,,Tzu-Yang,Hsu,,Yu-Ting,Lan,,Wen-How,Huang,,Chien-Jung,Chen,,Lung-Chien,Huang,,Yu-Hsuan,Lin,,Jia-Ching,Chang,,Kuo-Jen,Lin,,Wen-Jen,Huang,,Kai-Feng Techno-Press 2015 Advances in nano research Vol.3 No.3

          The unintentionally doped and bismuth (Bi) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) films were prepared by spray pyrolysis at $450^{\circ}C$ with zinc acetate and bismuth nitrate precursor. The n-type conduction with concentration $6.13{\times}10^{16}cm^{-3}$ can be observed for the unintentionally doped ZnO. With the increasing of bismuth nitrate concentration in precursor, the p-type conduction can be observed. The p-type concentration $4.44{\times}10^{17}cm^{-3}$ can be achieved for the film with the Bi/Zn atomic ratio 5% in the precursor. The photoluminescence spectroscopy with HeCd laser light source was studied for films with different Bi doping. The photocatalytic activity for the unintentionally doped and Bi-doped ZnO films was studied through the photodegradation of Congo red under UV light illumination. The effects of different Bi contents on photocatalytic activity are studied and discussed. Results show that appropriate Bi doping in ZnO can increase photocatalytic activity.

        • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

          The Effect of Inhibitors on the Electrochemical Deposition of Copper Through-silicon Via and its CMP Process Optimization

          Lin,,Paul-Chang,Xu,,Jin-Hai,Lu,,Hong-Liang,Zhang,,David,Wei,Li,,Pei The Institute of Electronics and Information Engin 2017 Journal of semiconductor technology and science Vol.17 No.3

          Through silicon via (TSV) technology is extensively used in 3D IC integrations. The special structure of the TSV is realized by CMP (Chemically Mechanical Polishing) process with a high Cu removal rate and, low dishing, yielding fine topography without defects. In this study, we investigated the electrochemical behavior of copper slurries with various inhibitors in the Cu CMP process for advanced TSV applications. One of the slurries was carried out for the most promising process with a high removal rate (${\sim}18000{\AA}/Min$ @ 3 psi) and low dishing (${\sim}800{\AA}$), providing good microstructure. The effects of pH value and $H_2O_2$ concentration on the slurry corrosion potential and Cu static etching rate (SER) were also examined. The slurry formula with a pH of 6 and 2% $H_2O_2$, hadthe lowest SER (${\sim}75{\AA}/Min$) and was the best for TSV CMP. A novel Cu TSV CMP process was developed with two CMPs and an additional annealing step after some of the bulk Cu had been removed, effectively improving the condition of the TSV Cu surface and preventing the formation of crack defects by variations in wafer stress during TSV process integration.

        • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

          Effect of Monochromic Light-emitting Diode Light with Different Color on the Growth and Reproductive Performances of Breeder Geese

          Chang,,S.C.,Lin,,M.J.,Zhuang,,Z.X.,Huang,,S.Y.,Lin,,T.Y.,Jea,,Y.S.,Fan,,Y.K.,Lee,,T.T. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2016 Animal Bioscience Vol.29 No.6

          The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of monochromic light-emitting diode (LED) light with different color on the growth and reproductive performances of white Roman breeder geese. A randomized complete batch design was utilized for the trial, and the replicate was regarded as one batch. Twenty ganders and fifty-five dames were used in batch 1 (started on 2011/6/17 and ended on 2012/1/31), thirty ganders and eighty-four dames were used in batch 2 (started on 2012/3/23 and ended on 2012/10/26), and thirty ganders and seventy-two dames were used in batch 3 (started on 2013/3/12 and ended on 2013/12/20). Two hundred and ninety-one geese were randomly assigned to 6 rooms in an environmentally controlled house. They were randomly allotted into one of three monochromatic light treatments: Blue, red, or white. The results showed that there was no significant difference in body weight among the three lighting groups at any point throughout the experimental period. However, compared to the blue light group, significantly more eggs were produced by the red and white light groups (p<0.05). Furthermore, the laying period of the red light group was significantly longer than that of other two groups (p<0.05). In conclusion, our results suggested that red LED-light has the best effect on reproductive performance (i.e. longer laying period and higher total eggs number) at 30 lux light intensity, and is therefore a better choice for the management of breeding geese than blue or white LED-light.

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