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Various responses of forest ecosystems to climate change underscore the need to improve our understanding of the environmentally-driven changes in forests, most effectively by long-term monitoring protocols. We have explored vegetation dynamics based on changes in community structure, species composition, diversity and demographics in four Korean National Long Term Ecological Research (KNLTER) sites--Mt. Nam, Mt. Jeombong, Mt. Worak, and Mt. Jiri--between 2004 and 2009. Most of the sites and forests studied exhibited increments in total basal area, but this was not observed in Quercus mongolica forests in Mt. Nam and Mt. Worak. Stem density exhibited various changes. Altitude gradient was the representative factor in differences in species composition. Two patterns of compositional change--convergence and divergence--were detected. The vegetation of Mt. Nam and Q. mongolica community of Mt. Work showed relatively larger changes in composition. However, in the other sites, few changes were observed. Changes of species richness were not notable except for Mt. Nam, where three species were added in the pine forest, whereas one species disappeared in the oak forest. In the oak forests, mortality rate was as follows (in descending order): Mt. Nam (25.5%), Mt. Jeombong (24.3%), Mt. Worak (16.4%) and Mt. Jiri (0.8%). In the pine forest, the recruitment rate was as follows (in descending order): Mt. Nam (63.7%), Mt. Worak (12.9%), Mt. Jeombong (7.6%) and Mt. Jiri (7.3%). The mortality rate and change rate of basal area were strongly negatively correlated (r = -0.9, P = 0.002), and the recruitment rate and change rate of density were positively correlated (r = 0.77, P = 0.026). In the KNLTER sites, larger vegetation changes were attributed to anthropogenic activities such as salvage logging. Suppression or competition for resources would also affect these changes. Research suggestions such as monitoring to clarify the causes of species mortality were discussed.
전통주 주박을 이용한 고부가가치 식품소재 개발을 위해, 상업적 시설에서 생산된 3종 약주(J-B, J-S, J-Y) 및 2종 탁주(J-H, J-W) 주박의 ethanol 추출물 및 열수 추출물을 조제하고 이들의 혈액응고 저해활성, 혈소판 응집저해 활성 및 인간 적혈구 용혈활성을 평가하였다. 5종 주박의 pH는 3.90~4.29로 유사하였으나, brix는 5.0~27.0으로 다양하게 나타났으며, 수분 및 알코올 함량에서도 시료에 따라 1.8배의 차이를 나타내었다. 주박의 색차와 성분은 첨가된 부재료 및 사용누룩에 좌우되었으며, J-W 주박의 경우 수분함량이 80.3%, brix 13, 알코올 함량 1.8%를 함유하여 다른 주박에 비해 다양한 식품제조에 용이하게 이용 가능하리라 판단되었다. Ethanol 추출효율은 J-H, J-W, J-B, J-S, J-Y의 순, 열수 추출효율은 J-S, J-B, J-W, J-H, J-Y의 순으로 높았으며, 총폴리페놀 및 총플라보노이드함량은 ethanol 추출물 중에서는 J-H, 열수 추출물 중에서는 J-Y 주박에서 가장 높았다. 5종 주박의 10종 추출물은 모두 5 mg/ml 농도까지 인간 적혈구에 대한 용혈활성이 나타나지 않았으며, J-B, J-S, J-Y의 약주 주박의 ethanol 추출물에서 유의적인 혈액응고저해 활성이 나타났으며, J-W 탁주 주박의 열수 추출물에서 thrombin 저해 활성과 J-B, J-S 및 J-H 주박 열수 추출물에서 혈액 응고인자 저해활성을 확인하였다. 혈소판 응집저해 활성평가의 경우 J-W 탁주 주박의 ethanol 및 열수 추출물에서만 아스피린에 필적하는 우수한 활성이 확인되었다. 본 연구결과는 다양한 약주 및 탁주 주박이 항혈전 활성을 가지고 있으며, 주박으로부터 항혈전제 개발이 가능함을 제시하고 있다. In this study, ethanol and hot water extracts of lees from Korean traditional wine (J-B, J-S, J-Y, J-H, and J-W) were prepared, and their effects on blood coagulation, platelet aggregation, and hemolysis of human red blood cells (hRBCs) were investigated to develop functional food ingredients from lees. The pH and brix of the lees ranged from 3.90 to 4.29 and 5.0 to 27.0o, respectively, and there was a huge difference in the water and ethanol content among the lees. The nuruk and additives used affected the color and physicochemical properties of lees. The J-W takju made from only rice and traditional nuruk, which has 13o brix and 1.8% of alcohol, has potential as functional food ingredient. With regard to the extraction yields of lees, higher yields were obtained from J-H, which contains different medicinal plants, in ethanol, followed by J-W, J-B, J-S, and J-Y. Higher extraction yields of lees were obtained from J-S in hot water, followed by J-B, J-W, J-H, and J-Y, respectively. The ethanol extract of J-H and the hot water extract of J-Y had the highest contents of total polyphenol and total flavonoids among the lees extracts. The 10 lees extracts did not show hemolysis activity against hRBCs up to 5 mg/ml. In an anticoagulation activity assay, the ethanol extracts of three yakju lees (J-B, J-S, and J-Y) and the hot water extract of J-W inhibited thrombin activity, whereas the hot water extract of J-B, J-S, and J-H inhibited blood coagulation factors. In an antiplatelet aggregation activity assay, only the J-W takju lees showed significant inhibition activity. Our results suggest that lees from traditional wine had high potential as a novel antithrombosis agent.
( Byung Ju Kang ),( Kyung Wook Jo ),( Tai Sun Park ),( Jung Wan Yoo ),( Sei Won Lee ),( Chang Min Choi ),( Yeon Mok Oh ),( Sang Do Lee ),( Woo Sung Kim ),( Dong Soon Kim ),( Tae Sun Shim ) 대한결핵 및 호흡기학회 2013 Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases Vol.75 No.6
Background: The aim of our study was to evaluate the “diagnosis changed” rate in patients notified as tuberculosis (TB) on the Korean TB surveillance system (KTBS). Methods: A total of 1,273 patients notified as TB cases on the KTBS in one private tertiary hospital in 2011 were enrolled in the present study. Patients were classified into three groups: “diagnosis maintained”, “diagnosis changed” (initially notified as TB, but ultimately diagnosed as non-TB), and “administrative error” (notified as TB due to administrative errors). Results: Excluding 17 patients in the “administrative error” group, the “diagnosis maintained” and “diagnosis changed” groups included 1,097 (87.3%) and 159 patients (12.7%), respectively. Common causes of “diagnosis changed” were nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) disease (51.7%, 61/118), and pneumonia (17.8%) in cases notified as pulmonary TB, and meningitis (19.5%, 8/41) and Crohn`s disease (12.2%) in cases notified as extrapulmonary TB. Being older than 35 years of age (odds ratio [OR], 2.18) and a positive acid-fast bacilli stain (OR, 1.58) were positive predictors and a TB-related radiological finding (OR, 0.42) was a negative predictor for a “diagnosis changed” result via multivariate logistic regression analysis in pulmonary TB cases. Conclusion: Because of a high “diagnosis changed” rate in TB notifications to the KTBS, the TB incidence rate measured by the KTBS may be overestimated. Considering the worldwide trend toward increased NTM disease, the “diagnosis changed” rate may increase over time. Thus, when reporting the annual TB notification rate in Korea, the exclusion of “diagnosis changed” cases is desirable.
In an attempt of elucidate the pathologic and histochemical changes of aflatoxin B_2-induced hepatie lesions, the present study in male Sprague-Dawley rats was undertaken to evalute the relation between pathologic change of the liver and histochemical changes of several enzymes : alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase and succinic dehydrogenase at 3. 9. 24. 48. 72, and 144 hours after single administration of aflatoxin B_1 by gastric tube. The aflatoxin B_1 was dissolved in peanut oil(0.5㎎ aflatoxin B_1 to 0.5ml peanut oil). Grouop of male rats received aflatoxin B_1 1㎎ per ㎏ of body weight, respectively. Control animals were given a similar volume of peanut oil alone. The results on morphologic and histochemical changes were as follows: 1. The necrotic change of liver was mainly periportal, and it became most severe at 24 hours and was more prominent in the large dose group than the small dose group. 2. Biliary ductular cell proliferation started to appear within 72 hours and after became regressed later in the small dose group, but it remained approximately 144 hours after exposure in the large dose group. 3. Electron microscopically, all three groups showed irregular nuclear membrane and nucleolar change characterized by segregation of granular and fibrillar elements. All the group showed cytoplasmie changes such as dilatation of rough endoplasmic reticulum with detached ribosome, hyperplasia of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, increased numbers of lipid droplets and mitochondrial alteration. The above change in the large dose group was more severe than those of the small dose group. 4. In the histochemical study of experimental animals, there was a decrease in the intensity of the staining reaction of alkaline phosphatase and succinic dehydrogenase within 24 hours and a progressive decrease in staining intensity was noted at 144 hours. And then the staining intensity of the acid phosphatase was similar to that shown by the control animal. In summary, the data obtained by present experiments indicate aflatoxin B_1 exerts periportal necrosis of hepatic lobules accompanied by bile ductular cell proliferation, and inhibition of protein synthesis, as jedged by elertron microscopic and histochemical changes.
이재경 ( Jae Kyung Lee ),김창현 ( Chang-hyun Kim ),홍동균 ( Dongkyun Hong ),정경은 ( Kyung Eun Jung ),서영준 ( Young-joon Seo ),김창덕 ( Chang-deok Kim ),이진선 ( Jin Sun Lee ),권인선 ( In Sun Kwon ),박상현 ( Sanghyun Park ),이영 대한피부과학회 2021 大韓皮膚科學會誌 Vol.59 No.7
Background: Hormone therapy, which includes tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors, is the most common adjuvant therapy used for breast cancer. However, only a few studies have reported endocrine therapy induced alopecia. Objective: We investigated the effects of long-term adjuvant hormone therapy on hair in patients with breast cancer, in addition to patients’ concerns and current treatment for hair loss. Methods: Patients completed a questionnaire that included information on self-perceived hair changes after each adjuvant therapy session, distress, and current treatment for hair loss. Using a folliscope, we measured hair density and thickness in each patient and in healthy controls. Results: The study included 93 patients with breast cancer (mean age 51.9±9.8 years). The density and hair thickness were 106.36±21.85 hairs/cm2 and 0.07±0.01 mm in the patient group and 147.86±30.67 hairs/cm2 and 0.07±0.01 mm in the control group (n=98, mean age 52.10±8.40 years), respectively. The mean hair density was significantly lower in the patient group than in the control group; however, no statistically significant intergroup difference was observed in hair thickness. Among 76 patients who perceived hair changes after adjuvant therapy, 71.1% (n=54) were distressed with regard to hair changes. However, only 7.8% of the patients, including two who were treated by dermatologists, currently received treatment for hair changes. Conclusion: Dermatologists should be familiar with hair changes in patients with breast cancer and provide appropriate education to encourage patients to consult dermatologists for hair loss and thinning after breast cancer treatment. (Korean J Dermatol 2021;59(7):521∼526)
Alcohol is well known agent which can damage the human tissues such as liver via stimulating lipid peroxidation and storage, denaturation of macromolecules, and inhibiting protein metabolism. On the other hand, carotenoids in addition to vitamins A, C, E and lipoic acid, play important roles in protecting these oxidative damages as well as preventing the production of free radicals. This study was carried out to elucidate the precise effects of alcohol administration into rats on the antioxidative functions of dietary carotenoids and isolated β-carotene, and to find out any parameters to uncover more detailed biochemical mechanisms of these agents. For these purposes, two different approaches were performed: 1) examination of the changes in hematological parameters (e.g., total proteins, A/G ratio, ALT/AST et. al) and statistical correlations among inter- and intragroups, 2) examination of the histopathological changes by an electron microscope. The results were analyzed and summarized as following; (1) Carrot diet for one week caused a slight increase in albumin. A/G ratio and AST levels, and a slight decrease in ALT, ALP, BUN and uric acid levels. Two-week alcohol administration following carrot diet increased total proteins, albumin A/G ratio and BUN levels. However, both groups were shown to have little significant changes in cholesterol concentrations. (2) Cheese diet for one week caused a significant increase in total proteins, albumin, AST, ALP, uric acid and total cholesterol levels, and a significant decrease in A/G ratio and glucose concentrations. However, two-week β-carotene diet following cheese intake increased total proteins albumin, A/G ratio, BUN and total cholesterol levels, whereas AST, ALT, ALP and uric acid levels were decreased. (3) Alcohol administration for one week caused an increase in AST activities and a decrease in total proteins, albumin, ALT, ALP and BUN levels. A successive β-carotene diet following alcohol administration increased total proteins, albumin, ALT, ALP and BUN levels, whereas decreased AST and uric acid levels. However, there were not significant changes in A/G ratio, glucose and total cholesterol levels in both groups. (4) β-carotene diet for one week caused a slight increase in albumin, glucose, AST and uric acid levels, and a slight decrease in ALP and BUN levels. Two-weeks alcohol administration following β-carotene diet increased albumin, glucose, BUN and total cholesterol levels, whereas decreased AST, ALT, ALP and uric acid levels. (5) Although the pathological investigation on the liver did not reveal significant changes, cheese diet group (CH-BC/1-CH) was shown to have some lipid deposits. Some results were unexpected and different from typical hematological changes shown by other researchers. Nonetheless, these results strongly suggest that the liver damage or hepatism caused by alcohol intake affects many kinds of biochemical metabolisms, which results in significant changes in many hematological parameters. In addition, dietary carotenoid and isolated β-carotene were shown to have protective roles against the biochemical changes by alcohol intake.
Kang, Byung Ju,Jo, Kyung-Wook,Park, Tai Sun,Yoo, Jung-Wan,Lee, Sei Won,Choi, Chang-Min,Oh, Yeon-Mok,Lee, Sang-Do,Kim, Woo Sung,Kim, Dong Soon,Shim, Tae Sun The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory 2013 Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases Vol.75 No.6
Background: The aim of our study was to evaluate the "diagnosis changed" rate in patients notified as tuberculosis (TB) on the Korean TB surveillance system (KTBS). Methods: A total of 1,273 patients notified as TB cases on the KTBS in one private tertiary hospital in 2011 were enrolled in the present study. Patients were classified into three groups: "diagnosis maintained", "diagnosis changed" (initially notified as TB, but ultimately diagnosed as non-TB), and "administrative error" (notified as TB due to administrative errors). Results: Excluding 17 patients in the "administrative error" group, the "diagnosis maintained" and "diagnosis changed" groups included 1,097 (87.3%) and 159 patients (12.7%), respectively. Common causes of "diagnosis changed" were nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) disease (51.7%, 61/118), and pneumonia (17.8%) in cases notified as pulmonary TB, and meningitis (19.5%, 8/41) and Crohn's disease (12.2%) in cases notified as extrapulmonary TB. Being older than 35 years of age (odds ratio [OR], 2.18) and a positive acid-fast bacilli stain (OR, 1.58) were positive predictors and a TB-related radiological finding (OR, 0.42) was a negative predictor for a "diagnosis changed" result via multivariate logistic regression analysis in pulmonary TB cases. Conclusion: Because of a high "diagnosis changed" rate in TB notifications to the KTBS, the TB incidence rate measured by the KTBS may be overestimated. Considering the worldwide trend toward increased NTM disease, the "diagnosis changed" rate may increase over time. Thus, when reporting the annual TB notification rate in Korea, the exclusion of "diagnosis changed" cases is desirable.
Global climate change, especially global warming is considered as threat to our future and posterity. Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gas such as carbon dioxide (CO₂), methane (CH₄) and nitrous oxide (N₂O) are the main causes of global warming. The Korean government has set a goal to cut the carbon emissions by 37% based on business-as-usual levels by 2030. According to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), agricultural sector is an important source of greenhouse gas emissions. In this regard, it is common belief that reducing of such emission is of great significance to global climate change. In Korea, upland is one of the main sources of agricultural N₂O emission. In order to analyze domestic research trends related to N₂O emissions in the upland, 53 academic publications from 2009 to September 2019 were critically reviewed. The results were classified according to the research purposes. Reduction technologies of N₂O emission account for approximately 28.3%. N₂O characteristics and assessment for 24.5%, development of N₂O emission factors for 22.6%, and N₂O inventory assessment for 20.8% etc. Biochar, green manure, no tillage, and inhibitor were studied as a means of reducing N₂O release. The optimum technologies to reduce N₂O emission in Korea were discussed and proposed through the previous researches.
Greenhouse industry has been growing in many countries due to both the advantage of stable year-round crop production and increased demand for fresh vegetables. In greenhouse cultivation, $CO_2$ concentration plays an essential role in the photosynthesis process of crops. Continuous and accurate monitoring of $CO_2$ level in the greenhouse would improve profitability and reduce environmental impact, through optimum control of greenhouse $CO_2$ enrichment and efficient crop production, as compared with the conventional management practices without monitoring and control of $CO_2$ level. In this study, a mathematical model was developed to estimate the $CO_2$ emission from soil as affected by environmental factors in greenhouses. Among various model types evaluated, a linear regression model provided the best coefficient of determination. Selected predictor variables were solar radiation and relative humidity and exponential transformation of both. As a response variable in the model, the difference between $CO_2$ concentrations at the soil surface and 5-cm depth showed are latively strong relationship with the predictor variables. Segmented regression analysis showed that better models were obtained when the entire daily dataset was divided into segments of shorter time ranges, and best models were obtained for segmented data where more variability in solar radiation and humidity were present (i.e., after sun-rise, before sun-set) than other segments. To consider time delay in the response of $CO_2$ concentration, concept of time lag was implemented in the regression analysis. As a result, there was an improvement in the performance of the models as the coefficients of determination were 0.93 and 0.87 with segmented time frames for sun-rise and sun-set periods, respectively. Validation tests of the models to predict $CO_2$ emission from soil showed that the developed empirical model would be applicable to real-time monitoring and diagnosis of significant factors for $CO_2$ enrichment in a soil-based greenhouse.
The purpose of this study was to identify the change of the dietary pattern, food craving in accordance with menstrual cycle among women with the premenstrual dysphoric disorder(PMDD) and women with no premenstrual symptoms(Non-PMS). The 24 subjects were divided by two groups, PMDD group and Non-PMS group. And the change of dietary pattern and food craving were measured for 4 weeks according to the menstrual cycle. The frequency of meal, the amount of meal and the change of palatability of meat intake, fatty food, carbonate drinks, fruit, confectionery and caffeine containing beverage were more significantly increased in luteal and menstrual phase than follicular phase without regard to PMDD group and Non-PMS group, but there were no statistically difference between groups. The change of palatability of vegetable & alcohol were no difference among the phase without regard to PMDD group and Non-PMS group, and there were no statistically difference between groups. Above the findings showed that the change of women's dietary pattern has connection with the change of menstrual cycle. It is considered that unconsidered variables in this study could be applied for the therapy of premenstrual symptom or management method in connection with variable related to menstrual cycle the systematic study is requested.