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본 연구는 국내 산업용수 이용량과 산업연관표를 연계하여 물 투입-산출 모형을 설정하고, 선형계획 법을 이용해 산업 부문(농업, 공업, 서비스업)별 수자원의 잠재가격을 추정하였다. 물 이용량과 산업 연관표 간의 통합을 위해 연동이 가능한 2014년 최근 자료(수자원통계 및 한국은행 산업연관표)를 적용하였으며, 산업용수 이용 업종 분류 체계에 맞추어 산업연관표의 30개 대분류를 12개 산업 부문 으로 재정의하였다. 각 부문별 물 투입 계수를 포함한 물 투입산출표를 설정한 뒤, 가용 수자원량과 업종 간 생산관계의 제약 속에서 각 용수의 잠재가격과 물 부족 시나리오에 따른 부문별 잠재가격 변화를 추정하였다. 주요 결과는 다음과 같다. 농업용수, 공업용수, 서비스업용수의 잠재가격은 각각 864원/㎥, 27,545원/㎥, 275,449원/㎥로 나타났으며, 물 부족 시나리오에 따른 잠재가격 변화 범위 (10% 제약~90% 제약)는 농업용수가 1,518원/㎥ ~ 2,369원/㎥, 공업용수가 61,721원/㎥ ~ 997,092원/㎥, 서비스업용수가 294,923원/㎥ ~ 381,192원/㎥이었다. 특히, 공업부문의 피해 수준이 50% 제약 수준에 서 급격히 증가된다는 점을 확인하였다. This study set the water input-output model by linking the amount of water use to inter-industry relations table (IRT), and estimated shadow prices of water resources in agricultural, industrial and service sector using linear programming method. The 2014 water data and IRT data were collected and linked for integration of water usage and input-output table, and 30 major categories of IRT were redefined into 12 sub-sectors. Using the data, the shadow prices and their changes in each sector were estimated according to drought scenarios. The main results derived from the water input-output linear programming are as follows. Shadow prices of agriculture water, industrial water and service industry water were 864 won/㎥, 27,545 won/㎥ and 275,449 won/㎥ respectively. The shadow price changes by water shortage (10% to 90% constraint) ranged from 1,518 to 2,369 won/㎥ for agricultural use, 61,721 to 997,092 won/㎥ for industrial use, and 294,923 to 381,192 won/㎥ for service industry. In particular, it was confirmed that the damage level in the industrial sector increased sharply at the 50% restriction level.
( Chan Hee Nam ), ( Mi Soo Choi ), ( Ji Seok Kim ), ( Jee Young Kim ), ( Seungphil Hong ), ( Byung Cheol Park ), ( Ha Krim Kim ), ( Taewon Lee ), ( Kyu Bong Kim ), ( Myung Hwa Kim ) 대한피부과학회 2014 대한피부과학회 학술발표대회집 Vol.66 No.2
Background: Ingredients of cosmetics are able to pass in variable amount across the skin and generate adverse effects at given level of systemic exposure. Recently, cosmetic products are widely used even in adolescents and babies and the type and prevalence of cosmetic products for men are increasing prominently. Objectives: A database was created with person-oriented information regarding demographics of consumers and usage patterns for 72 kinds of cosmetics. Methods: We analyzed data from the online survey carried out 5 cities and 18,000 adults and adolescents comprising 908 males and 892 females ranged from 15 to 59 years completed the digital questionnaire. Results: - The average number of the cosmetic products which the participants use was 27.4 in women and 13.3 in men. The most commonly used products in men were shampoo, facial moisturizer and body cleanser. The use of base makeup and color makeup products of male respondents (21.7% and 32.3%, respectively) was reported to be quite higher than that of the past survey in other countries (0.5%). The average number of cosmetics for babies is 0.2 and the most commonly used products are lotion, shampoo and body cleanser. The teenagers use the average 24.1 cosmetic products and the commonly used ones in order are shampoo, lotion and hand cream. Conclusion: Our study provides valuable information on the usage pattern and exposure data of cosmetic products especially, in babies, teenagers and men
This essay explores how Nathaniel Hawthorne's The Blithedale Romance (1852) reflects the development of optical devices departing from the camera obscura, leading the change in the concept of perception and the blurred boundaries of subjectivity and objectivity. Exploring the trajectory behind Miles Coverdale's abrupt confession of his love for Priscilla at the end of the work, this essay foregrounds the status of Coverdale as an observer in the camera obscura, an outdated optical device. Isolation, darkness, and distance, which Coverdale attempts to obtain in Blithedale and beyond, are prerequisites for the camera obscura to function properly, but society no longer allows this outdated mode of observation and the distance itself is presented as an obstacle in Coverdale's search for the truth. In addition, Coverdale is obliged to embrace the notion of his observation as one of many possibilities and to admit that visual reality is subjective and relative. His declaration of love for Priscilla, in the end, comes from his recognition of her as “an optical delusion,” and signals his recognition of the limitations of his outdated mode of observation against the backdrop of changes in visual perception and optics during the nineteenth century.
Airport concrete pavement slabs show contraction and expansion behavior due to environmental factors such as temperature and humidity. Among the various environmental factors, temperature is the most influential factor in the concrete slab. However, it is inadequate to consider air temperature or surface temperature as influential factors especially for airport concrete slabs with very large thicknesses. Therefore, this study intends to utilize the equivalent linear temperature difference calculated from the data of the thermometer embedded in 5 depths(50mm, 150mm, 250mm, 350mm, 450mm) on the airport concrete slab. Equivalent linear temperature difference is the temperature difference between the uppermost and lowermost part of the concrete slab, which shows the same behavior due to actual temperature. Since the upper part of the concrete slab is more affected by air temperature than the lower part, the daily temperature range is large. Therefore, the equivalent linear temperature difference increases during the day and decreases at night, and concrete slabs show curl-down during the day and curl-up at night. This daily variation of curling behavior causes a difference in HWD experimental results. The HWD(Heavy Weight Deflectometer) test is mainly performed to investigate the condition of the pavement. And the calculated values are deflection, ISM(Impact Stiffness Modulus), LTE(Load Transfer Efficiency). The equivalent linear temperature difference represents the behavior of the concrete slab by the environmental load, and the calculated values by the HWD test represent the behavior. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the behavior of concrete slab by combined load including environmental load and traffic load through correlation analysis between these values. This study was supported by Incheon International Airport Corporation(BEX00625) and Korea Airports Corporation.
Stereo microscopes have been used in the field of bio-medicine because micro-units things in three-dimensional objects, which human eye cannot see, cannot be seen through them. These devices, however, have been used for only simple observation so that it is difficult to measure micro things captured by them, and to digitalize the captured images. In this paper, we propose a stereo microscope measurement system where users can do the digitization and measurement of micro-things such as distance of selected two points and area of selected region. The proposed system has been developed through 3-step processes, segmentation, computation of disparity map, and 3D reconstruction, for stereo-images observed through stereoscopic microscopes.