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Soil and geo-synthetics have different range of friction by types and characteristics. Conventional PET grids are weak and deforms too much to insure the stability of the retaining wall. This paper describes the shear behavior of the newly developed fiber glass geogrid by laboratory tests. Two different types of test(pullout test and direct shear test) were performed to compare the frictional characteristics of the fiber glass geogrid and of the conventional PET grid. Results show that newly developed fiber glass geogrid deforms less than the conventional PET geogrid resulting in evenly distributed stress along the geogrid. Obtained frictional data will be used for the numerical simulation as well as for the design of the retaining wall.
Retaining walls reinforced by geogrids have many benefits so that the application of geogrids is increasing in civil engineering construction field recently. Since horizontal displacement become large due to the high extension ratio of geogrids, a retaining wall become visually unstable even if it is stable. Fiber glass geogrids that have higher extension ratio than existing geogrids were developed. However, It has not been applied yet in Korea. As a preliminary study, we investigate the behavior of the fiber glass geogrids by numerical analysis when they are applied to retaining walls for reinforcement. From the results, we found that the fiberglass geogrids gave less wall displacements than the existing geogrids so that they could be used effectively as a reinforcement of retaining walls. As a future study, we need to do researches for the application of the fiberglass geogrids to retaining walls in the construction field.
The paper proposes an implementation architecture of DiffServ-over-MPLS traffic engineering (TE) on Intel IXP2400 network processor using Intel IXA SDK 4.0 Framework. Program architecture and functions are described. Also fast and scalable range-match classification scheme is proposed for DiffServ-over-MPLS TE that has been integrated with functional blocks from Intel Microblocks library. Performance test shows that application can process packets at approximate data rate of 3.5 Gbps. The proposed implementation architecture of DiffServ-over-MPLS TE on Network processor can provide guaranteed QoS on high-speed next generation Internet, while being flexible and easily modifiable.
In this paper, the performance of the WebService architecture for QoS guaranteed connection provisioning in inter-AS domain networks has been measured and analyzed for service publish/inquiry, collection of NMSs ASBR details, source routing by ingress NMS in constraint based routing and connection establishment. From the analysis, it has been found that, the connection between inter-AS domain networks can be established within the usual time limits of 3 seconds by the Web Service architecture. Since no standard solutions have been implemented in Interdomain QoS provisioning, this performance analysis assures Web Service architecture as a promising solution and can be easily implemented in the early stages of MPLS network employment.
연구대상은 건축물에 지하부의 이용 극대화 목적으로 지하부의 부력에 대한 부력 저항용 앵커를 고려하였다. 그러나 투수계수가 크고 지하수 유속이 빠른 화산쇄설층에서 앵커 천공부를 통해 지하수가 급격히 유출되어 앵커체 삽입이 불가능하였다. 또한 억지로 삽입된 앵커공에서는 계속적으로 많은 양의 해수와 시멘트가 유출되었으며, 앵커의 일부는 지반에 정착이 되지 않는 현상이 발견되었다. 이러한 문제를 해결하기 위한 지하수 차단방법으로 초고압 분사교반 공법을 적용하였고, 그중 단일공 차수방법을 채택하여 부력방지앵커를 설치하였다. 본 연구에서는 초고압 분사교반 공법을 이용한 단일공 차수방법을 현장에 적용하고 3회에 걸친 시험시공을 통해 본 시공 시험에 적용할 주입재를 결정하였고 투수시험, 코어채취 표준관입시험 일축압축강도시험을 통하여 차수효과 및 지반개량 정도를 확인하였다. 또한 부력방지앵커의 설치 및 인장시험을 통해 앵커의 안정성을 확보하여 화산쇄설층에서 단일 차수공법의 적용성을 검증하였다. In this study, buoyancy-resistance permanent anchor was considered to prevent uplift pressure of a building structure. However, this test was failed to put anchor body in the boring hole because of the rapid outflow of ground water and coefficient of permeability. In addition, the hole where the anchor body was forcefully inserted constantly flew the sea water and cement. And it was found that anchor was not settled in the ground. In order to solve this problem, jet grouting method was applied to block the ground water and the single grouted column method was chosen to install the buoyancy-resistance permanent anchor. In this paper, the single grouted column method was applied with the general jet grouting methods and grout material was fixed by 3-field tests. These tests confirmed the effect of permeability and ground improvement with field permeability test by core sampling, Standard Penetration Test (SPT) and unconfined compression test. Confirming the stability of the buoyancy-resistance permanent anchor with installation and tension test, application of the single grouted column method in the volcanic clastic zones was verified.
When excavation construction, ground anchorage that is the method of reinforcing temporary retaining well has the mechanism that conveys tension affected strand to grout and adhesion of strand. Friction type anchor mainly was used and simple tension type anchor and compression type anchor that can remove strand have been developed. After that time, it can be the history of evolution that compression dispersion type removal anchor that can expect the additional effect of load distribution was developed. In the study, construction site bulb confirmation test was conducted to figure out the effect of grout bulb formation on the soft ground. As a result of the test, capacities of other anchoring and Post-grouting anchor were compared. This study"s purpose is to provide basic data for applying for design by confirming load distribution and behavior by comparing and analyzing capacity of load distributive type anchor applied existing tension type anchor and Post-grouting.
<P>With the increasing deployment of mobile devices and the advent of broadband wireless access systems such as WiBro, mWiMAX, and HSDPA, an efficient IP mobility management protocol becomes one of the most important technical issues for the successful deployment of the broadband wireless data networking service. IETF has proposed the Mobile IPv6 as the basic mobility management protocol for IPv6 networks. To enhance the performance of the basic MIPv6, researchers have been actively working on HMIPv6 and FMIPv6 protocols. In this paper, we propose a new mobility management protocol, HIMIPv6 (Highly Integrated MIPv6), which tightly integrates the hierarchical mobility management mechanism of the HMIPv6 and the proactive handover support of the FMIPv6 to enhance the handover performance especially for the cellular networking environment with high frequent handover activities. We have performed extensive simulation study using ns2 and the results show that the proposed HIMIPv6 outperforms FMIPv6 and HMIPv6. There is no packet loss and consequent service interruption caused by IP handover in HIMIP.</P>
터널의 굴진에 따른 변위량은 터널 주변지반의 지질상태,굴착방법,보조공법 등에 따라 다양한 값을 보여 그 값을 예측하기 어렵다. 본 연구에서는 선행변위량을 파악하여 터널굴진 시 주변지반의 지표침하 및 상부구조물의 침하량을 예측하고, 상부구조물의 사용성에 영향을 미치지 않도록 보완대책 공법의 대책방안을 수립하기 위하여 수평경사계를 이용하여 굴착이전 막장 전반부에서 발생하는 침하량과 굴착직후 발생하는 침하량을 계측 하였다.현장계측 결과를 토대로 역해석을 실시하여 최종 지반 물성치를 도출하였다.도출된 지반 물성치를 이용하여 터널의 굴진이 터널 직상부에 인접한 구조물 기초의 침하거동에 미치는 영향을 분석 하였다. Displacement caused by tunneling is difficult to predict since it is affected by many factors such as ground condition, excavation method and supplementary method of reinforcement. In this study, horizontal inclinometer was employed to monitor ground settlements above a tunnel face before and after the excavation. Monitoring results were analyzed to predict the preceding displacement and settlement of the surface structures. The result of the analysis can be used to establish a proper counter measure which keeps the serviceability of the surface structures. Based on the analysis of the monitoring result, ground properties of the site were deduced and the influence of the tunnel excavation on the settlement of the foundation above the tunnel is analyzed.
최근 들어 WiBro, mobile WiMAX, WCDMA/HSDPA 등의 다양한 무선 데이터 통신 기술이 소개됨에 따라, 이동무선환경에서 효율적인 IP 서비스를 지원하기위한 IP 이동성 관리 프로토콜에 대한 관심이 증대하고 있다. IETF에서는 표준 IP 이동성 관리 프로토콜인 Mobile IPv6(MIPv6)와 MIPv6의 핸드오버 성능을 개선한 Fast Mobile IPv6(FMIPv6), Hierarchical Mobile IPv6(HMIPv6)를 제안하였고, FHMIPv6, S-MIPv6, HIMIPv6 등 IETF의 기본 프로토콜의 장점을 결합한 새로운 프로토콜들에 대한 연구가 활발히 진행되고 있다. 본 논문에서는 이러한 이동성관리 프로토콜들의 다양한 핸드오버 성능 개선 기법이 TCP 성능에 미치는 영향을 ns-2를 사용하여 분석하였다. 시뮬레이션을 이용한 성능분석결과는 계층적 이동성관리, 선행적 핸드오버 기법 및 Simulcasting기법을 사용한 HIMIPv6가 다양한 TCP 버전에서 MIPv6, HMIPv6, FMIPv6보다 우수한 성능을 나타냄을 보여준다. As the set of new mobile data networking service technologies, such as WiBro, mobile WiMAX and WCDMA-HSDPA, have been introduced in recent years, IP mobility management protocols which aim to provide seamless IP service over the mobile networking environment become one of the important building blocks for the successful mobile networks. IETF has introduced a basic mobility management protocol over IPv6 (MIPv6) and a set of enhanced protocols such as FMIPv6 and HMIPv6, followed by FHMIPv6, S-MIPv6 and HIMIPv6 which combine the benefits of the basic protocols. We have studied the impact of the various IP mobility management protocols over TCP sessions through extensive simulations with ns-2. Our simulation results show that TCP performance with the HIMIPv6 outperforms MIPv6, FMIPv6 and HMIPv6 over the various TCP protocols, due to its efficient combination of the hierarchical mobility management scheme of the HMIPv6, the predictive handover scheme of the FMIPv6 and the fast simulcasting scheme of the S-MIP.