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In the case of cemented (W,Ti)C, Co is added as a binder for the formation of composite structures. However, the high cost of Co and the low corrosion resistance of the (W,Ti)C-Co cermet have generated interest in recent years for alternative binder phases. In this study, NiAl<SUB>3</SUB> was used as a binder and consolidated by the high-frequency induction heated sintering (HFIHS) method. The densification of both monolithic (W,Ti)C and (W,Ti)C-NiAl<SUB>3</SUB> cermet was accomplished within 3min. Highly dense (W,Ti)C and (W,Ti)C-NiAl<SUB>3</SUB> with a relative density of upto 99% were obtained within 3min by HFIHS under a pressure of 80MPa. The method was found to enable not only the rapid densification but also the prohibition of grain growth preserving the nano-scale microstructure. The average grain sizes of the sintered (W,Ti)C and (W,Ti)C-NiAl<SUB>3</SUB> were lower than 100nm. The addition of NiAl<SUB>3</SUB> to (W,Ti)C enhanced the toughness at the expense of the slight decrease in hardness. The hardness of (W,Ti)C and (W,Ti)C-NiAl<SUB>3</SUB> was significantly higher than that of (W,Ti)C-Co or (W,Ti)C-Ni. The fracture toughness and hardness values of (W,Ti)C, (W,Ti)C-5vol.%NiAl<SUB>3</SUB>, and (W,Ti)C-10vol.%NiAl<SUB>3</SUB> consolidated by HFIHS with a pressure of 80MPa and a induced current were 7.6+/-0.4MPam<SUP>½</SUP> and 2850+/-35kg/mm<SUP>2</SUP>, 8.5+/-0.3MPam<SUP>½</SUP> and 2610+/-37kg/mm<SUP>2</SUP>, 9.7+/-0.5MPam<SUP>½</SUP> and 2520+/-26kg/mm<SUP>2</SUP>, respectively.
<P>We present a comprehensive view of the W51B H II region complex and the W51C supernova remnant (SNR) using new radio observations from the VLA, VLBA, MERLIN, JCMT, and CSO along with archival data from Spitzer, ROSAT, ASCA, and Chandra. Our VLA data include the first lambda = 400 cm (74 MHz) continuum image of W51 at high resolution (88 ''). The 400 cm image shows non-thermal emission surrounding the G49.2-0.3 H II region, and a compact source of non-thermal emission (W51B_NT) coincident with the previously-identified OH (1720 MHz) maser spots, non-thermal 21 and 90 cm emission, and a hard X-ray source. W51B_NT falls within the region of high likelihood for the position of TeV gamma-ray emission. Using the VLBA, three OH (1720 MHz) maser spots are detected in the vicinity of W51B_NT with sizes of 60-300 AU and Zeeman effect magnetic field strengths of 1.5-2.2 mG. The multiwavelength data demonstrate that the northern end of the W51B HII region complex has been partly enveloped by the advancing W51C SNR and this interaction explains the presence of W51B_NT and the OH masers. This interaction also appears in the thermal molecular gas which partially encircles W51B_NT and exhibits narrow pre-shock (Delta v similar to 5 km s(-1)) and broad post-shock (Delta v similar to 20 km s(-1)) velocity components. RADEX radiative transfer modeling of these two components yield physical conditions consistent with the passage of a non-dissociative C-type shock. Confirmation of the W51B/W51C interaction provides additional evidence in favor of this region being one of the best candidates for hadronic particle acceleration known thus far.</P>
목적 : 포유류 난포의 성장에 관여하는 기전은 밝혀져 있지 않으나, 줄기세포인자 (stem cell factor, SCF)는 난소의 성장과 발달에 관여하며, inhibin-α는 과립막세포의 분화에 관여하는 인자로 알려져 있다. 본 연구는 발달 단계에 따라 생쥐 난포 내 c-kit, 줄기세포인자 (stem cell factor, SCF)와 inhibin-α의 발현 변화를 면역조직 화학적 방법을 통해 조사하여 c-kit, SCF, inhibin-α 단백질이 난포성장의 어느 시기에 발현하는지를 알아보기 위하여 시행하였다. 연구 방법 : 임신 14일, 16일, 생후 2일, 7일, 그리고 21일된 생쥐 난소를 채취하여 4% paraformaldehyde에 고정한 후 c-kit/SCF, inhibin-α의 면역조직화학 염색을 실시하였다. 결과 : 태자의 경우 난모세포에서 c-kit/SCF의 발현을 확인하였으며, 신생자의 경우에는 원시난포 및 일차난포의 난자에서 SCF가 발현되었다. 미성숙 생쥐의 경우 난포의 발달에 따라 난자 내 c-kit/SCF의 발현이 감소 되었으며, SCF는 전동난포의 난자에서 강하게 발현되었다. Inhibin-α는 미성숙 생쥐의 전동난포 및 초기 동난포의 과립막세포에서 발현되었다. 결론 : c-kit/SCF의 발현은 난포의 성장이 개시된 이후에 감소되며, inhibin-α 의 발현이 증가한 난포에서 c-kit 및 SCF 단백질의 발현이 감소한다는 것을 알 수 있다. 따라서 c-kit/SCF 단백질은 난포가 성장을 개시하기 이전에 작용하는 것으로 생각한다. Objective : It is known that SCF stimulates cellular migration, prolifertation, differentiation and survival upon interaction with its receptor, c-kit. SCF is essential for a normal gonadal development. Inhibin-α subunit gene expression is important for granulosa cell (GC) differentiation. The mechanism concerning the development of the ovarian follicles is not clearly understood. In this study, an immunohistochemical study was performed to find out the follicular expressions of c-kit, SCF, and inhibin-α during different developmental stages in mouse ovary. Materials & Methods : Mouse ovaries obtained from 14 and 16 days post coitum and 2, 7, and 21 days post partum were fixed in paraformaldehyde. Immunohistochemistries for c-kit, SCF, inhibin-α were subsequently carried out. Results : Antigens for both c-kit and SCF were expressed constantly on oogonia regardless of their developmental stages. SCF was expressed on oocytes of primordial and primary follicles of neonate mouse ovaries. In immature mouse ovaries, there was a gradual decrease in expression of c-kit/SCF as the follicles develop. SCF was expressed strongly on the oocytes of preantral follicles, but weakly in granulosa and theca cells. Inhibin-α showed a large expression on granulosa cells of preantral and early entral follicles of the immature mouse ovaries. Conclusion : We concluded that the expression of c-kit/SCF is decreased after the follicle start to grow. The expression of inhibin-α is negatively correlated to the expressions of both c-kit/SCF in the ovarian follicles in mice.
The shelf-life of cony meat was studied out in this experiment. After the rabbit dressed out, the meat was treated with 10 p.p.m. Chlortetracycline (C.T.C.) solution and packed with polyethylene. The samples were taken from the muscle of the rump and the round. We allotted eight treatments: That is, two temperature levels (5℃ and 20℃) that have two treatments: Control and C.T.C.-Treated. And each treatment of each temperature levels has two treatments, Control and Packed with Polyethylene. The items investigated are the change of the number of microorganisms, pH, and methylene blue reducing time. The results are as follows: 1. Effectively, C.T.C. suppressed the increasing of microorganisms of cony meat during the storage. And there was highly significant difference at 1.0% level in the C.T.C.-Treated meats on the Ist day of storage. The number of microorganism reached 10^8 per gram in 20℃-Control by the 2nd day of storage and 10^8 per gram by the 7th day of storage. 2. The increasing of yeasts was apparent in 20℃-C.T.C.-Treated on the 5th and 6th day of storage. And on the 7th day of storage, molds were also found. 3. Polyethylene packing was effective (significant at 5.0%) on the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th day of storage in 5℃-Control, and on the 2nd, 3rd day of storage in 20℃-C.T.C.-Treated. 4. The pH of cony meat during storage was lower in 20℃-C.T.C.-Treated by the 4th day of storage than in 5℃-Control, but after 5th day of storage, the pH of meat. was increased rapidly. 5. The C.T.C. treatment has a more strong effect upon the change of pH of cony meat than the polyethylene packing throughout the storage. And the effect of the temperature was greater than that of C.T.C.-Treatment. 6. C.T.C.-Treatment has shorten methylene blue reducing time than control (significant at 1.0%). And the methylene blue reducing time of 20℃-C.T.C.-Treated was similart to that of 5℃-Control all throughout the experiment period. 7. Polyethylene packing has an effect upon the methylene blue reducing time on the 3rd, 4th day of storage (significant at 5.0%). In the testing of L.S.D., there was no significant differences throughout the period.
We fabricated ex situ MgB<SUB>2</SUB> wires using C-doped MgB<SUB>2</SUB> powder as a precursor in order to improve the core density of the wires and their C doping content. The C-doped powder was prepared with Mg, B, and nano carbon (NC) powders by the in situ technique and then MgB<SUB>2-x</SUB>C<SUB>x</SUB> (x=0, 0.01, and 0.03) wires were fabricated by the ex situ technique using the powder-in-tube method. The phase formation, lattice change, and microstructure were characterized and correlated with the T<SUB>c</SUB> and J<SUB>c</SUB> variations. We observed that the ex situ wire had a higher core density than the in situ wire, however its morphology consisted of agglomerated particles, indicating that sintering and grain growth did not occur completely, even though the sintering was conducted at high temperature (1000<SUP>o</SUP>C). As the C content increased, T<SUB>c</SUB> decreased, while the decrease of J<SUB>c</SUB> with increasing magnetic field became smaller. The J<SUB>c</SUB> of MgB<SUB>1.97</SUB>C<SUB>0.03</SUB> wire made by the ex situ technique was 3.34kA/cm<SUP>2</SUP> at 6.6T and 5K which is comparable to that of the in situ wire (4.81kA/cm<SUP>2</SUP> at 6.6T and 5K).
<P>The c-Met receptor tyrosine kinase and its ligand, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), have been recently introduced to negatively regulate bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-induced osteogenesis. However, the effect of chemical inhibitors of c-Met receptor on osteoblast differentiation process has not been examined, especially the applicability of c-Met chemical inhibitors on in vivo bone regeneration. In this study, we demonstrated that chemical inhibitors of c-Met receptor tyrosine kinase, SYN1143 and SGX523, could potentiate the differentiation of precursor cells to osteoblasts and stimulate regeneration in calvarial bone defects of mice. Treatment with SYN1143 or SGX523 inhibited HGF-induced c-Met phosphorylation in MC3T3-E1 and C3H10T1/2 cells. Cell proliferation of MC3T3-E1 or C3H10T1/2 was not significantly affected by the concentrations of these inhibitors. Co-treatment with chemical inhibitor of c-Met and osteogenic inducing media enhanced osteoblast-specific genes expression and calcium nodule formation accompanied by increased Runx2 expression via c-Met receptor-dependent but Erk-Smad signaling independent pathway. Notably, the administration of these c-Met inhibitors significantly repaired critical-sized calvarial bone defects. Collectively, our results suggest that chemical inhibitors of c-Met receptor tyrosine kinase might be used as novel therapeutics to induce bone regeneration.</P>
소의 흰 반점 관련 후보유전자로 c-KIT receptor 유전자를 선정하여, c-KIT receptor 유전자내의 변이를 탐색하고 변이가 흰반점 표현형과 연관성이 있는지를 분석하였다. 한우, Angus, Brown Swiss, Charolais, Hereford, Holstein, Limousin 및 Simmental 등 8개 품종의 DNA 시료를 사용하여 c-KIT receptor 유전자의 intron 6번 영역에서 다형성을 조사하고 분석하였다. c-KIT receptor 유전자의 intron 6번 영역에서는 4개의 염기치환이 발견되어, MspⅠ, BsrBⅠ 및 NdeⅠ 제한효소를 이용하여 PCR-RFLP 분석을 실시하였다. Intron 6번을 포함하는 영역의 PCR 산물 크기는 2,440 bp 이었다. MspⅠ다형성은 PCR-RFLP 분석 결과 3개의 대립유전자가 존재하였으며, 한우품종에서는 3개의 대립유전자 모두가 발견되었고, CC 형태이 유전자형을 제외한 5개의 유전자형 (AA, AB, AC, BC 및 BB)을 확인하였다. Angus, Brown Swiss, Hereford, Holstein 및 Simmental 품종에서는 A 대립유전자만을 갖는 것으로 조사되었고, 한우는 44%만 AA 유전자형을 나타내었다. BsrBⅠ 다형성은 2개의 대립유전자로서 3개의 유전자형이 나타나는 것을 확인하였으며, Charolais 및 Hereford 품종이 다른 소 품종에 비하여 A 대립유전자의 빈도가 높게 나타났다. NdeⅠ 다형성을 분석한 결과 Brown Swiss 품종에서는 NdeⅠ에 의해 절단되는 형태인 A 대립유전자만 관찰되었으며, Holstein 품종은 92%, Simmental 품종은 72%가 절단되는 형태를 나타내어, 모색이 흰색을 띠는 소 품종에서 절단되는 형태가 많았다. 소 c-KIT receptor 유전자의 intron 6번 영역에서 확인된 4개의 염기치환은 품종에 따라 다른 빈도를 보였으나, 이들 염기치환과 흰 반점과의 연관성에 대한 증거는 발견하지 못하였다. 그러므로 소의 흰 반점과 c-KIT receptor 유전자 내의 변이와의 관련성은 다른 영역에 대한 추가적인 분석과, 이미 보고된 다른 모색관련 유전자의 다형성과의 연관성 분석 등과 같은 연구가 필요한 것으로 판단된다. We considered KIT gene as a candidate gene for the white-spotting pattern in cattle. This study was carried out to detect genetic variation of c-KIT receptor gene and to investigate association between the mutation and the white-spotting pattern in cattle. PCR-RFLP analysis within intron 6 of c-KIT receptor gene were performed with 8 cattle breeds including Hanwoo, Angus, Brown Swiss, Charolais, Hereford, Holstein, Limousin and Simmental. When PCR product of approximately 2,440 bp including intron 6 of c-KIT receptor gene was sequenced, four nucleotide substitutions were found within intron 6 of the bovine c-KIT receptor gene. In PCR-RFLP analysis, three alleles (A, B and C), two alleles (A and B) and two alleles (A and B) at each locus were identified by Msp Ⅰ, BsrBⅠ and NdeⅠ, respectively. Although frequencies of allele at each locus were different among cattle breeds, we could not get any evidence related with white or white spotting phenotypes in these mutations on intron 6 of c-KIT receptor gene. However, we can not entirely exclude the possibility that c-KIT receptor gene is responsible for white spotting phenotype in cattle. Thus, further studies need to detect other mutations in c-KIT receptor gene and to test association of those mutations and coat color phenotypes in cattle.
1997년부터 2001년까지 (사)한국종축개량협회의 전국한우능력평가대회에 출품된 642두의 거세한우의 도축 전까지 4회에 걸쳐 주요 10개 부위의 체형 측정치를 조사하여 주성분 분석을 이용하여 체형을 분류하였으며, 각 체형 측정치의 주성분 지수와 도체 형질과의 상관관계를 분석하였으며, 그 결과를 요약하면 다음과 같다. 1. 1차, 2차, 3차 및 4차 체형 측정치의 principal component(이하 P.C) 1의 분산은 각각 7.610, 8.297, 7.269 및 5.736로서 전체분산 중 76.0%, 83.0%, 72.7% 및 57.4%를 나타낼 수 있었고, P.C 1, P.C 2, P.C 3의 합은 전체분산 중 각각 86.69%, 90.49%, 84.62% 및 77.26%를 나타났다. 2. 각 차수별 체형 측정치의 P.C 1의 모든 계수가 양(+)이어서 일반적으로 좋은 체구의 크기를 나타내었으며, 체구의 크기에 가장 크게 영향을 미치는 형질은 흉심(0.328∼0.339)과 요각폭(0.325∼0.341)이였다. 또한 P.C 2, P.C 3 및 P.C 4는 각 차수별로 다양하게 나타났다. 3. 1차, 2차, 3차 및 4차 체형 측정치의 주성분 지수들과 도체형질간의 상관계수 추정에서 대부분의 분산을 차지하는 P.C 1은 도체중(0.539∼0.755), 일당증체량(0.256∼0.564), 등지방두께(0.227∼0.280) 및 배최장근단면적(0.187∼0.344)간에 정(+)의 상관을 보였으며, 육량지수(-0.246∼-0.110)와는 부(-)의 상관을 보였고, 근내지방도(0.066∼0.099)와는 대부분 유의적인 상관을 보이지 않거나 낮은 상관을 보였고, P.C 2, P.C 3 및 P.C 4는 주성분 지수들의 값에 따라 도체형질과 다양한 상관관계를 보였다. 단일 체형형질과 도체형질간의 상관 그리고 P.C 1의 주성분 지수와 도체형질과의 상관간에는 큰 차이가 없었다. Data were consisted of the ten body measurements (withers height, rump height, body length, chest depth, chest width, rump width, rump length, thurls width, hipbone width and chest girth) of 642 steers (Korean cattle), which was entered in the National Beef Quality Contest hosted by the Korea Animal Improvement Association from 1997 to 2001. A principal components analysis was used to classify the body types of the steers, and estimate the correlations between carcass traits and principal components for the body measurements of the first, second, third and fourth period, respectively. The first principal component of body measurements at the first, second, third and fourth period accounted for 76.0%, 83.0%, 72.7% and 57.4% of the total variance, respectively. The sum of first, second and third principal component at each period accounted for 86.69%, 90.49%, 84.62% and 77.26% of the total variance, respectively. At each period, all the first principal component of the body measurements were positive and it generally showed large framed body shape. The size of body was influenced mostly by chest depth(0.328∼0.339) and rump length(0.325∼0.341). The second, third and fourth principal component at the each period were various. There were positive correlations between principal components index of each period and carcass traits such as carcass weight(0.539∼0.755), average daily gain(0.256∼0.564), backfat thickness(0.227∼0.280), and eye muscle area(0.187∼0.344). The correlation with yield grade index(-0.246∼-0.110), however, was negative. The correlation with marbling score(0.066∼0.099) was low or statistically insignificant. According to principal component indexes of the second, third, and fourth components, the correlations with the carcass traits were various. There were no large differences between the correlations of the single body measurement trait with the carcass traits and the correlations of the first principal component indexes with the carcass traits.
The KOTRON-13 cyclotron, which was developed in South Korea for the production of medical radioisotopes, has the structural limitation of only one beam-output port, restricting the production of the carbon-11 isotope. In the present study, we investigate the design of a switchable target system and develop an effective carbon-11 target in the KOTRON-13 cyclotron, for combination with the fluorine-18 target. The target system was designed by introducing a sliding-type element between the fluorine-18 and carbon-11 targets, a tailor-made C-11 target and its cooling system. For the efficient production of [<SUP>11</SUP>C]CO<SUB>2</SUB>, the desirable target shape and internal volume were determined by a Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) simulation program, and the target grid was modified to resist the cavity pressure during beam irradiation. We evaluated the [<SUP>11</SUP>C]CO<SUB>2</SUB> production while varying the material and thickness of the target foil, oxygen content of the nitrogen gas, and target loading pressure. Using sliding-type equipment including an additional gate valve and a high vacuum in a beam line, the bi-directional conversion between the fluorine-18 and carbon-11 targets was efficient regarding the accurate beam irradiation on both targets. The optimal [<SUP>11</SUP>C]CO<SUB>2</SUB> production for 30min irradiation at 60μA (86.6+/-1.7GBq in the target at EOB) was observed at a thickness of 19μm with HAVAR® material as a target foil and a target loading pressure of 24bar with nitrogen plus 300ppb of oxygen gas. Additionally, the coolant cavity system in the target grid and target chamber is useful to remove the heat transferred to the target body by the internal convection of water and thereby ensure the stability of the [<SUP>11</SUP>C]CO<SUB>2</SUB> production under a high beam current. In the application of C-11 labeled radiopharmaceuticals such as [<SUP>11</SUP>C]PIB, [<SUP>11</SUP>C]DASB, [<SUP>11</SUP>C]PBR28, [<SUP>11</SUP>C]Methionine and [<SUP>11</SUP>C]Clozapine, the radiochemical yields were shown to be 25-38% (decay corrected) with over 166GBq/μmol of specific activity. Consequently, the additive carbon-11 target system was successfully developed in only one output port of the KOTRON-13 cyclotron and exhibited the stable production of C-11 labeled radiopharmaceuticals.
I.Influence of deficient or excessive supply of soil moisture. The variety used in this study were Turkish varieties (Smyrna, Samsun, Zichna and Xanthi). Soil moisture content were 30%, 45% and 60% to maximum water-holding capacity for whole growth period. This experiment was carried out to study on the influence of soil moisture to growth and physiology of Turkish varieties. The results are summarized as follow ; a. Dry weight of Samsun and Zichna were-increased at 45% soil moisture content, but Smyrna and Xanthi at 60%. In every soil moisture treatmennt, there were significant difference between D plot and M, W plot but there were no significant difference between M plot and W plot. b. Percentage of dry matter of Smyrna was higher then those of the other varieties in the D plot and W plot. c. Leaf area was increased ill the Samsun of which process was slightly late. In every soil moisture treatment, M plot and W plot were higher than D plot. d. Dry weight per unit leaf area of Smyrna and Zichna were higher than that of Xanthi and Samsun. e. Percentage of dried up leaves was the W plot, and lower at the D and M plot. Smyrna was lower at M plot, Zichna at D and M plot, Xanthi at D plot, but Samsun was no difference among plots. f. In the number of harvested leaves, Smyrna was increased in order W>M>D. In the number of harvested leaves, Smyrna showed difference according to the soil moisture in order W>M>D plot, but Samsun and Zichna showed no difference among each treatments, Xanthi was higher in M plot than D and W plot. From those results, Smyrna showed the highest dry weight on account of the weight of leaf area and percentage of dry weight increased, it was decreased in order Zichna>Samsun Xanthi in the each soil moisture contents. Number of harvested leaves, dried up leaves, leaf area and number of harvested leaves but decreased, percentage of dry matter W treatment increased the number of total leaves, number of dried up leaves, leaf area, percentage of dried up leaves and percentage of dry matter. Yields were the lowest at D treated, there were no difference between M and W treatment. II.Influence of deficient or excessive supply of soil moisture at different growing stages. This experiment was carried out to study on the influence to the growth and physiology according to the soil moisture content during each growth stage on Turkish varieties culture. The varieties used in this study were Samsun, Zichna and Xanthi. The results are summarized as follow; a. Dry leaf weight was decreased in order Zichna>Samsun>Xanthi, there were remakable difference among every variety. In each soil moisture content, weight of dry matter was increased by M and W treated at late stage after MW and MM treated at early and middle stage of growth DWM and MDM plot. Dry leaf weight was decreased at D plot more than M and W plot late stage after early stage was treated by MW and MM. Dry leaf weight was the highest at WWM treate, dthere were high significant difference between varieties and soil moisture contents. b. Percentage of dry matter was decreased in order Zichna=Xanthi>Samsun. In soil moisture treated, it was increased in D treated at the latter stage after MM, MW and WM treated at early and middle stage, but it was decreased by DDM, DWD, MDM, WWD, WMM, and WWM treated. There were high significant interaction between varieties and soil moisture contents. c. Leaf area showed in order Samsun=Zichna>Xanthi. In soil moisture treated, leaf area was increased by WM, MM and MW treated at the middle and latter stage after D treated at early stage, but it was decreased at WWD, WMD, WWM, MWD and MMD treated. d. Dry weight per unit leaf area were no difference among varieties, in soil moisture treated, it was increased by the MMW, MWD, MMD, WMD and DMW treated, weight of per unit leaf area showed significant difference interaction between varieties and soil moisture contents. d. Percentage of dried up leaves showed as follow, Samsun>Xanthi, Samsun=Zichna, Zihna=Xanthi. In soil moisture treated, it was increased by M and W treated at early stage than D treated. f. Number of harvested leaves was decreased in order Xanthi>Samsun>Zichna, there were no difference among soil moisture contents, but appeard high significant difference at the interaction between varieties and soil moisture contents. As the results of this experiment, especially, this experiment will be continue on the influence of soil moisture condition in order to development of home production system.