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<P>The proto-oncogene c-Myc has been implicated in a variety of cellular processes, such as proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Several c-Myc targets have been studied; however, selective regulation of c-Myc is not easy in cancer cells. Herein, we attempt to identify chemical compounds that induce cell death in c-Myc-overexpressing cells (STF-cMyc and STF-Control) by conducting MTS assays on approximately 4000 chemical compounds. One compound, C604, induced cell death in STF-cMyc cells but not STF-Control cells. Apoptotic proteins, including caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PAPP), were cleaved in C604-treated STF-cMyc cells. In addition, 5W620, HCT116 and NCI-H23 cells, which exhibit higher basal levels of c-Myc, underwent apoptotic cell death in response to C604, suggesting a role for C604 as an inducer of apoptosis in cancer cells with c-Myc amplification. C604 induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase in cells, which was not affected by apoptotic inhibitors. Interestingly, C604 induced accumulation of c-Myc and Cdc25A proteins. In summary, a chemical compound was identified that may induce cell death in cancer cells with c-Myc amplification specifically through an apoptotic pathway. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</P>
Kim,,S.G.,Jo,,Y.H.,Seong,,J.H.,Park,,K.B.,Noh,,M.Y.,Cho,,J.H.,Ko,,H.J.,Kim,,C.E.,Tindwa,,H.,Patnaik,,B.B.,Bang,,I.S.,Lee,,Y.S.,Han,,Y.S. Pergamon Press ; Elsevier Science Ltd 2017 Insect biochemistry and molecular biology Vol.89 No.-
Scavenger receptors (SRs) constitute a family of membrane-bound receptors that bind to multiple ligands. The SR family of proteins is involved in removing cellular debris, oxidized low-density lipoproteins, and pathogens. Specifically, class C scavenger receptors (SR-C) have also been reported to be involved in phagocytosis of gram-positive and -negative bacteria in Drosophila and viruses in shrimp. However, reports are unavailable regarding the role of SR-C in antifungal immune mechanisms in insects. In this study, a full-length Tenebrio molitor SR-C (TmSR-C) sequence was obtained by 5'- and 3'-Rapid amplification of cDNA ends-polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR). The TmSR-C full-length cDNA comprised 1671 bp with 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions of 23- and 107-bp, respectively. TmSR-C encodes a putative protein of 556 amino acid residues that is constitutively expressed in all tissues of late instar larvae and 2-day-old adults, with the highest transcript levels observed in hemocytes of larvae and adults. TmSR-C mRNA showed a 2.5-fold and 3-fold increase at 24 and 6 h after infection with Candida albicans and β-glucan, respectively. Immunoassay with TmSR-C polyclonal antibody showed induction of the putative protein in the cytosols of hemocytes at 3 h after inoculation of C. albicans. RNA interference (RNAi)-based gene silencing and phagocytosis assays were used to understand the role of TmSR-C in antifungal immunity. Silencing of TmSR-C transcripts reduced the survivability of late instar larvae at 2 days post-inoculation of C. albicans, Escherichia coli, or Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, in TmSR-C-silenced larvae, there was a decline in the rate of microorganism phagocytosis. Taken together, results of this study suggest that TmSR-C plays a pivotal role in phagocytosing not only fungi but also gram-negative and -positive bacteria in T. molitor.
RIA has been used to measure accurately a minute quantity of Ags, such as proteins. hormones, enzymes or drugs. However, due to the presence of a radication hazard and the increment of having to pool test specimens. RIA is gradually being replaced by other immunoassay that have a comparable sensitivity but do not require radiocative meterial. Turbidimetric immunoassay, latex immunoassay and fluorescence immunoassay are such examples. We at the department of clinical pathology, Asan medical center, compared CH 50 activity with C3 , C4 quantity by nephelometric method.
César,Hidalgo-García,José,Miguel,Tricás-Moreno,Orosia,Lucha-López,Elena,Estebanezde,Miguel,Elena,Bueno-Gracia,Silvia,Pérez-Guillén,Pablo,Fanlo-Mazas,Alazne,Ruiz-de-Escudero,John,Krauss 국제물리치료학회 2016 Journal of International Academy of Physical Ther Vol.7 No.1
The purpose of this study is to explore the effects of mobilization of C0-C1 and C7-T1 applied to asymptomatic individuals with reduced upper cervical rotation during the FRT. Design: parallel randomized controlled trial. 48 subjects(38.52 years±15.13) with C1-C2 rotation hypomobility in TFR joined the study and were randomized into three groups(C0, C7, control group). FRT in both directions was measured before and after the intervention. C0 intervention consisted of a dorsal translatoric mobilization of C0-C1 in the cervical neutral position. C7 intervention consisted of a ventral cranial translatoric mobilization of C7- T1 in neutral position and the control group maintained a supine position. C0 group experienced a FRT ROM to the restricted side increase of 17.64。(SD=4.55), that was significantly greater (P<0.001) than 5.95。 (SD=4.81) of the C7 group and 2.45。(SD=5.05) of the control group. The results showed that a dorsal translatoric mobilization of C0-C1 in neutral position restored the physiological FRT mobility in subjects with C1-C2 hypomobility and experienced statistical significant improvement in FRT as compared to a C7-T1 translatoric mobilization and a control group. (Level of evidence: 1b).
<P>A survey of C2H <I>N</I> = 1 − 0 and N2H<SUP>+</SUP><I>J</I> = 1 − 0 toward <I>Planck</I> Galactic cold clumps (PGCCs) was performed using the Purple Mountain Observatory’s 13.7 m telescope. C2H and N2H<SUP>+</SUP> were chosen to study the chemical evolutionary states of PGCCs. Among 121 observed molecular cores associated with PGCCs, 71 and 58 are detected with C2H <I>N</I> = 1 − 0 and N2H<SUP>+</SUP><I>J</I> = 1 − 0, respectively. The detected lines of most sources can be fitted with a single component with compatible <I>V</I>LSR and line widths, which confirms that these PGCC cores are very cold (with gas temperatures 9-21 K) and quiescent while still dominanted by turbulence. The ratio between the column densities of C2H and N2H<SUP>+</SUP> (<I>N</I>(C2H)/<I>N</I>(N2H<SUP>+</SUP>)) is found to be a good tracer for the evolutionary states of PGCC cores. Gas-grain chemical model can reproduce the decreasing trend of <I>N</I>(C2H)/<I>N</I>(N2H<SUP>+</SUP>) as a function of time. The cores with the lowest abundances of N2H<SUP>+</SUP> (<I>X</I>[N2H<SUP>+</SUP>] < 10<SUP>−10</SUP>) are the youngest, and have nearly constant abundances of C2H. In evolved cores with <I>X</I>[N2H<SUP>+</SUP>] ~10<SUP>−9</SUP>, abundances of C2H drop quickly as the exhaustion of carbon atoms. Although these PGCC cores are in different evolutionary states, they are all quite young (< 5 × 10<SUP>5</SUP> yr) with <I>N</I>(C2H) > <I>N</I>(N2H<SUP>+</SUP>). Mapping observations are carried out toward 20 PGCC cores. The PGCC cores in Cepheus have lower <I>N</I>(C2H)/<I>N</I>(N2H<SUP>+</SUP>) and larger line widths compared with those in Taurus. This implies that PGCC cores in Taurus are less chemically evolved than those in Cepheus.</P>
Cdc25C (cell division cycle 25C) phosphatase triggers entry into mitosis in the cell cycle by dephosphorylating cyclin B-Cdk1. Cdc25C exhibits basal phosphatase activity during interphase and then becomes activated at the G<SUB>2</SUB>/M transition after hyperphosphorylation on multiple sites and dissociation from 14-3-3. Although the role of Cdc25C in mitosis has been extensively studied, its function in interphase remains elusive. Here, we show that during interphase Cdc25C suppresses apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1), a member of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase kinase family that mediates apoptosis. Cdc25C phosphatase dephosphorylates phospho-Thr-838 in the activation loop of ASK1 in vitro and in interphase cells. In addition, knockdown of Cdc25C increases the activity of ASK1 and ASK1 downstream targets in interphase cells, and overexpression of Cdc25C inhibits ASK1-mediated apoptosis, suggesting that Cdc25C binds to and negatively regulates ASK1. Furthermore, we showed that ASK1 kinase activity correlated with Cdc25C activation during mitotic arrest and enhanced ASK1 activity in the presence of activated Cdc25C resulted from the weak association between ASK1 and Cdc25C. In cells synchronized in mitosis following nocodazole treatment, phosphorylation of Thr-838 in the activation loop of ASK1 increased. Compared with hypophosphorylated Cdc25C, which exhibited basal phosphatase activity in interphase, hyperphosphorylated Cdc25C exhibited enhanced phosphatase activity during mitotic arrest, but had significantly reduced affinity to ASK1, suggesting that enhanced ASK1 activity in mitosis was due to reduced binding of hyperphosphorylated Cdc25C to ASK1. These findings suggest that Cdc25C negatively regulates proapoptotic ASK1 in a cell cycle-dependent manner and may play a role in G<SUB>2</SUB>/M checkpoint-mediated apoptosis.
In an attempt to elucidate the fate of 3, 4-DCA and TCAB in various French soils, uniformly ^(14)C-ring-labeled 3,4-DCA and TCAB mere utilized and the following results obtained. 1) The rate of breakdown of ^(14)C-3,4-DCA into ^(14)CO₂ was relatively higher in the early stage than that in the later stage. In 6 months of incubation in alkaline soil (pH 7.9), the rate was as high as 6.5% at dose 1 (1.5 ppm) and as low as 1.92% at dose 2(94 ppm), whereas in organic acid soil (pH 5. 5) the rate was 4.91% at dose 1 and 4.24% at dose 2, respectively, without making any great difference between the two levels. 2) At dose 1, 47.70% of the initial radioactivity of ^(14)C-3,4-DCA was bound to soil in organic acid soil and 29.49% bound in alkaline soil, whereas at dose 2, 38.40% in organic acid soil and 20.30% in alkaline soil, respectively. 3) The amount of formation of ^(14)C-TCAB from 14C-3, 4-DCA seems to depend largely on the concentration of 3, 4-DCA applied rather than on soil types. At dose 2, the amount was 50% of the total radioactivity extracted in organic acid soil and 30% in alkaline soil, corresponding to 1.8% and 1.4% of the initial radioactivity applied to soil, respectively. Cis-TCAB also seemed to be formed at dose 2 in both soils. Meanwhile, at dose 1, even though ^(14)C-TCAB was detected in trace on tlc and glc in both soils, the amount does not exceed 2 to 3% of the radioactivity extracted, corresponding to 0.05 to 0.1% of the initial radioactivity. 4) The rate of breakdown of ^(14)C-TCAB into ^(14)CO₂ ranged from 0.05 to 0.20% in all the four soils. Most of the applied ^(14)C-TCAB remained intact after 3 months, not producing any detectable metabolites. 5) The fact that much more ^(14)C-TCAB was adsorbed to alkaline soil than to the other soils strongly indicates that in alkaline condition trans-isomer was converted tocisisomer which has the higher adsorption affinity than the former.
<P>This study was performed to measure the equivalent scattered radiation dose delivered to susceptible organs while simulating orthopaedic surgery using conventional and mini C-arm fluoroscopy. In addition, shielding effects on the thyroid, thymus, and gonad, and the direct exposure delivered to the patient's hands were also compared. A conventional and mini C-arms were installed in an operating room, and a hand and an operator phantom were used to simulate a patient's hand and a surgeon. Photoluminescence dosimeters were used to measure the equivalent dose by scattered radiation arriving at the thyroid, thymus, and gonad on a whole-body phantom in the position of the surgeon. Equivalent scattered radiation doses were measured in four groups: (1) unshielded conventional C-arm group; (2) unshielded mini C-arm group; (3) lead-shielded conventional C-arm group; and (4) lead-shielded mini C-arm group. Equivalent scattered radiation doses to the unshielded group were significantly lower in the mini C-arm group than those in the conventional C-arm group for all organs. The gonad in the lead-shielded conventional C-arm group showed the highest equivalent dose among operator-susceptible organs, and radiation dose was reduced by approximately 96% compared with that in the unshielded group. Scattered radiation was not detected in any susceptible organ in the lead-shielded mini C-arm group. The direct radiation dose to the hand phantom measured from the mini C-arm was significantly lower than that measured from the conventional C-arm. The results show that the equivalent scattered radiation dose to the surgeon's susceptible organs and the direct radiation dose to a patient's hand can be decreased significantly by using a mini C-arm rather than a conventional C-arm. However, protective lead garments, such as a thyroid shield and apron, should be applied to minimize radiation exposure to susceptible organs, even during use of mini C-arm fluoroscopy.</P>
소의 흰 반점 관련 후보유전자로 c-KIT receptor 유전자를 선정하여, c-KIT receptor 유전자내의 변이를 탐색하고 변이가 흰반점 표현형과 연관성이 있는지를 분석하였다. 한우, Angus, Brown Swiss, Charolais, Hereford, Holstein, Limousin 및 Simmental 등 8개 품종의 DNA 시료를 사용하여 c-KIT receptor 유전자의 intron 6번 영역에서 다형성을 조사하고 분석하였다. c-KIT receptor 유전자의 intron 6번 영역에서는 4개의 염기치환이 발견되어, MspⅠ, BsrBⅠ 및 NdeⅠ 제한효소를 이용하여 PCR-RFLP 분석을 실시하였다. Intron 6번을 포함하는 영역의 PCR 산물 크기는 2,440 bp 이었다. MspⅠ다형성은 PCR-RFLP 분석 결과 3개의 대립유전자가 존재하였으며, 한우품종에서는 3개의 대립유전자 모두가 발견되었고, CC 형태이 유전자형을 제외한 5개의 유전자형 (AA, AB, AC, BC 및 BB)을 확인하였다. Angus, Brown Swiss, Hereford, Holstein 및 Simmental 품종에서는 A 대립유전자만을 갖는 것으로 조사되었고, 한우는 44%만 AA 유전자형을 나타내었다. BsrBⅠ 다형성은 2개의 대립유전자로서 3개의 유전자형이 나타나는 것을 확인하였으며, Charolais 및 Hereford 품종이 다른 소 품종에 비하여 A 대립유전자의 빈도가 높게 나타났다. NdeⅠ 다형성을 분석한 결과 Brown Swiss 품종에서는 NdeⅠ에 의해 절단되는 형태인 A 대립유전자만 관찰되었으며, Holstein 품종은 92%, Simmental 품종은 72%가 절단되는 형태를 나타내어, 모색이 흰색을 띠는 소 품종에서 절단되는 형태가 많았다. 소 c-KIT receptor 유전자의 intron 6번 영역에서 확인된 4개의 염기치환은 품종에 따라 다른 빈도를 보였으나, 이들 염기치환과 흰 반점과의 연관성에 대한 증거는 발견하지 못하였다. 그러므로 소의 흰 반점과 c-KIT receptor 유전자 내의 변이와의 관련성은 다른 영역에 대한 추가적인 분석과, 이미 보고된 다른 모색관련 유전자의 다형성과의 연관성 분석 등과 같은 연구가 필요한 것으로 판단된다. We considered KIT gene as a candidate gene for the white-spotting pattern in cattle. This study was carried out to detect genetic variation of c-KIT receptor gene and to investigate association between the mutation and the white-spotting pattern in cattle. PCR-RFLP analysis within intron 6 of c-KIT receptor gene were performed with 8 cattle breeds including Hanwoo, Angus, Brown Swiss, Charolais, Hereford, Holstein, Limousin and Simmental. When PCR product of approximately 2,440 bp including intron 6 of c-KIT receptor gene was sequenced, four nucleotide substitutions were found within intron 6 of the bovine c-KIT receptor gene. In PCR-RFLP analysis, three alleles (A, B and C), two alleles (A and B) and two alleles (A and B) at each locus were identified by Msp Ⅰ, BsrBⅠ and NdeⅠ, respectively. Although frequencies of allele at each locus were different among cattle breeds, we could not get any evidence related with white or white spotting phenotypes in these mutations on intron 6 of c-KIT receptor gene. However, we can not entirely exclude the possibility that c-KIT receptor gene is responsible for white spotting phenotype in cattle. Thus, further studies need to detect other mutations in c-KIT receptor gene and to test association of those mutations and coat color phenotypes in cattle.
<P>A chain molecule can be entropically collapsed in a crowded medium in a free or confined space. Here, we present a unified view of how molecular crowding collapses a flexible polymer in three distinct spaces: free, cylindrical, and (two-dimensional) slit-like. Despite their seeming disparities, a few general features characterize all these cases, even though the phi(c)-dependence of chain compaction differs between the two cases: a > a(c) and a < a(c), where phi(c) is the volume fraction of crowders, a is the monomer size, and ac is the crowder size. For a > a(c) (applicable to a coarse-grained model of bacterial chromosomes), chain size depends on the ratio a phi(c)/a(c), and 'full'' compaction occurs universally at a phi(c)/a(c) approximate to 1; for a(c) > a (relevant for protein folding), it is controlled by phi(c) alone and crowding has a modest effect on chain size in a cellular environment (phi(c) approximate to 0.3). Also for a typical parameter range of biological relevance, molecular crowding can be viewed as effectively reducing the solvent quality, independent of confinement.</P>