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      • KCI등재SCIE

        수종토양중(數種土壤中)에 3,4 - DCA 및 TCAB 의 변화에 관한 연구(제2보) : 14C - 3,4 - DCA 및 C - TCAB 의 분해 Degradation of 14C - 3,4 - DCA and 14C - TCAB

        이재구,후르니에 한국농화학회 1978 Applied Biological Chemistry (Appl Biol Chem) Vol.21 No.2

        In an attempt to elucidate the fate of 3, 4-DCA and TCAB in various French soils, uniformly ^(14)C-ring-labeled 3,4-DCA and TCAB mere utilized and the following results obtained. 1) The rate of breakdown of ^(14)C-3,4-DCA into ^(14)CO₂ was relatively higher in the early stage than that in the later stage. In 6 months of incubation in alkaline soil (pH 7.9), the rate was as high as 6.5% at dose 1 (1.5 ppm) and as low as 1.92% at dose 2(94 ppm), whereas in organic acid soil (pH 5. 5) the rate was 4.91% at dose 1 and 4.24% at dose 2, respectively, without making any great difference between the two levels. 2) At dose 1, 47.70% of the initial radioactivity of ^(14)C-3,4-DCA was bound to soil in organic acid soil and 29.49% bound in alkaline soil, whereas at dose 2, 38.40% in organic acid soil and 20.30% in alkaline soil, respectively. 3) The amount of formation of ^(14)C-TCAB from 14C-3, 4-DCA seems to depend largely on the concentration of 3, 4-DCA applied rather than on soil types. At dose 2, the amount was 50% of the total radioactivity extracted in organic acid soil and 30% in alkaline soil, corresponding to 1.8% and 1.4% of the initial radioactivity applied to soil, respectively. Cis-TCAB also seemed to be formed at dose 2 in both soils. Meanwhile, at dose 1, even though ^(14)C-TCAB was detected in trace on tlc and glc in both soils, the amount does not exceed 2 to 3% of the radioactivity extracted, corresponding to 0.05 to 0.1% of the initial radioactivity. 4) The rate of breakdown of ^(14)C-TCAB into ^(14)CO₂ ranged from 0.05 to 0.20% in all the four soils. Most of the applied ^(14)C-TCAB remained intact after 3 months, not producing any detectable metabolites. 5) The fact that much more ^(14)C-TCAB was adsorbed to alkaline soil than to the other soils strongly indicates that in alkaline condition trans-isomer was converted tocisisomer which has the higher adsorption affinity than the former.

      • KCI등재

        C3, C4 의 Nephelometric 측정 경험

        조병철 ( B C Cho ), 검덕희 ( D H Kim ), 김민숙 ( M S Kim ), 서덕규 ( D K Seo ) 대한임상검사과학회 1990 대한임상검사과학회지(KJCLS) Vol.22 No.1

        RIA has been used to measure accurately a minute quantity of Ags, such as proteins. hormones, enzymes or drugs. However, due to the presence of a radication hazard and the increment of having to pool test specimens. RIA is gradually being replaced by other immunoassay that have a comparable sensitivity but do not require radiocative meterial. Turbidimetric immunoassay, latex immunoassay and fluorescence immunoassay are such examples. We at the department of clinical pathology, Asan medical center, compared CH 50 activity with C3 , C4 quantity by nephelometric method.

      • KCI등재후보

        Short term Efficacy of C0-C1 Mobilization in the Cervical Neutral Position in Upper Cervical Hypomobility: A Randomized Controlled Trial

        César,Hidalgo-García,José,Miguel,Tricás-Moreno,Orosia,Lucha-López,Elena,Estebanezde,Miguel,Elena,Bueno-Gracia,Silvia,Pérez-Guillén,Pablo,Fanlo-Mazas,Alazne,Ruiz-de-Escudero,John,Krauss 국제물리치료학회 2016 Journal of International Academy of Physical Ther Vol.7 No.1

        The purpose of this study is to explore the effects of mobilization of C0-C1 and C7-T1 applied to asymptomatic individuals with reduced upper cervical rotation during the FRT. Design: parallel randomized controlled trial. 48 subjects(38.52 years±15.13) with C1-C2 rotation hypomobility in TFR joined the study and were randomized into three groups(C0, C7, control group). FRT in both directions was measured before and after the intervention. C0 intervention consisted of a dorsal translatoric mobilization of C0-C1 in the cervical neutral position. C7 intervention consisted of a ventral cranial translatoric mobilization of C7- T1 in neutral position and the control group maintained a supine position. C0 group experienced a FRT ROM to the restricted side increase of 17.64。(SD=4.55), that was significantly greater (P<0.001) than 5.95。 (SD=4.81) of the C7 group and 2.45。(SD=5.05) of the control group. The results showed that a dorsal translatoric mobilization of C0-C1 in neutral position restored the physiological FRT mobility in subjects with C1-C2 hypomobility and experienced statistical significant improvement in FRT as compared to a C7-T1 translatoric mobilization and a control group. (Level of evidence: 1b).

      • KCI등재후보SCOPUS

        Status of Milk Fat Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) in Selected Commercial Dairies

        R.C.,Khanal,T.R.,Dhiman 아세아·태평양축산학회 2007 Animal Bioscience Vol.20 No.10

        Because of the increasing evidence of potential benefits of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on human health, there is a need to investigate its status in commercial dairies and develop feeding strategies to enhance the content and supply of CLA in milk and milk products. A two-year experiment was conducted to study the status of milk fat c-9, t-11 CLA on four selected commercial dairy farms in Utah (two) and Idaho (two), USA. Farms A and C grazed cows on pasture and supplemented with 7.0 kg/cow per day of their respective grain mixes during summer, while conserved forage and grain mix was fed during winter. Farm B fed a total mixed diet all year, with 10% of diet dry matter as fresh cut pasture during summer. Farm D had 1/3 of its cows grazed on pasture and supplemented with a total mixed diet during summer, while the rest were fed a total mixed diet. All cows in Farm D were fed a total mixed diet during winter. Farms A, B, C, and D had on average 80, 400, 150, and 500 milking cows, respectively, with Holstein or its crosses as the major breed. On a year-round basis, Farms A and C produced milk with 60% or more milk fat c-9, t-11 CLA and transvaccenic acid (TVA) contents than Farm B. Similarly, Farm D produced 30% or more c-9, t-11 CLA and TVA in milk than Farm B. Milk fat content of CLA and TVA was 150-200% more during summer compared with winter. Individual cows varied from 0.16 to 2.22% in milk fat c-9, t-11 CLA contents and 89% of the cows had c-9, t-11 CLA contents between 0.3 and 1.0% of milk fat. Individual cow variation was larger on Farms A and C compared with Farm D, with least variation on Farm B. Variation was larger in summer than in winter. The bulk tank milk c-9, t-11 CLA content varied from 0.27 to 1.35% of milk fat. Cows on Farms A and C produced similar or higher amounts of milk fat c-9, t-11 CLA on a daily basis even though their milk yield was lowest among the dairies. Concentration and supplies of c-9, t-11 CLA and TVA were highest from June through September and lowest from February through April, which should be the months for targeting improvement in the content and supply of milk fat c-9, t-11 CLA and TVA.

      • KCI등재

        소 c-KIT Receptor 유전자의 다형성에 관한 연구

        장요순,김태헌,윤두학,박응우,이혜원,이학교,정일정 한국동물자원과학회 2002 한국축산학회지 Vol.44 No.6

        소의 흰 반점 관련 후보유전자로 c-KIT receptor 유전자를 선정하여, c-KIT receptor 유전자내의 변이를 탐색하고 변이가 흰반점 표현형과 연관성이 있는지를 분석하였다. 한우, Angus, Brown Swiss, Charolais, Hereford, Holstein, Limousin 및 Simmental 등 8개 품종의 DNA 시료를 사용하여 c-KIT receptor 유전자의 intron 6번 영역에서 다형성을 조사하고 분석하였다. c-KIT receptor 유전자의 intron 6번 영역에서는 4개의 염기치환이 발견되어, MspⅠ, BsrBⅠ 및 NdeⅠ 제한효소를 이용하여 PCR-RFLP 분석을 실시하였다. Intron 6번을 포함하는 영역의 PCR 산물 크기는 2,440 bp 이었다. MspⅠ다형성은 PCR-RFLP 분석 결과 3개의 대립유전자가 존재하였으며, 한우품종에서는 3개의 대립유전자 모두가 발견되었고, CC 형태이 유전자형을 제외한 5개의 유전자형 (AA, AB, AC, BC 및 BB)을 확인하였다. Angus, Brown Swiss, Hereford, Holstein 및 Simmental 품종에서는 A 대립유전자만을 갖는 것으로 조사되었고, 한우는 44%만 AA 유전자형을 나타내었다. BsrBⅠ 다형성은 2개의 대립유전자로서 3개의 유전자형이 나타나는 것을 확인하였으며, Charolais 및 Hereford 품종이 다른 소 품종에 비하여 A 대립유전자의 빈도가 높게 나타났다. NdeⅠ 다형성을 분석한 결과 Brown Swiss 품종에서는 NdeⅠ에 의해 절단되는 형태인 A 대립유전자만 관찰되었으며, Holstein 품종은 92%, Simmental 품종은 72%가 절단되는 형태를 나타내어, 모색이 흰색을 띠는 소 품종에서 절단되는 형태가 많았다. 소 c-KIT receptor 유전자의 intron 6번 영역에서 확인된 4개의 염기치환은 품종에 따라 다른 빈도를 보였으나, 이들 염기치환과 흰 반점과의 연관성에 대한 증거는 발견하지 못하였다. 그러므로 소의 흰 반점과 c-KIT receptor 유전자 내의 변이와의 관련성은 다른 영역에 대한 추가적인 분석과, 이미 보고된 다른 모색관련 유전자의 다형성과의 연관성 분석 등과 같은 연구가 필요한 것으로 판단된다. We considered KIT gene as a candidate gene for the white-spotting pattern in cattle. This study was carried out to detect genetic variation of c-KIT receptor gene and to investigate association between the mutation and the white-spotting pattern in cattle. PCR-RFLP analysis within intron 6 of c-KIT receptor gene were performed with 8 cattle breeds including Hanwoo, Angus, Brown Swiss, Charolais, Hereford, Holstein, Limousin and Simmental. When PCR product of approximately 2,440 bp including intron 6 of c-KIT receptor gene was sequenced, four nucleotide substitutions were found within intron 6 of the bovine c-KIT receptor gene. In PCR-RFLP analysis, three alleles (A, B and C), two alleles (A and B) and two alleles (A and B) at each locus were identified by Msp Ⅰ, BsrBⅠ and NdeⅠ, respectively. Although frequencies of allele at each locus were different among cattle breeds, we could not get any evidence related with white or white spotting phenotypes in these mutations on intron 6 of c-KIT receptor gene. However, we can not entirely exclude the possibility that c-KIT receptor gene is responsible for white spotting phenotype in cattle. Thus, further studies need to detect other mutations in c-KIT receptor gene and to test association of those mutations and coat color phenotypes in cattle.

      • KCI등재후보

        황화물계 3가 크롬도금욕에서 크롬-탄소 및 크롬-탄소-인합금도금의 전착과 결정화거동

        김만(M. Kim), 김대영(D. Y. Kim), 박상언(S. U. Park), 권식철(S. C. Kwon), 최용(Y. Choi) 한국표면공학회 2004 한국표면공학회지 Vol.37 No.2

        Chromium-carbon (Cr-C) and chromium-carbon-phosphorus (Cr-C-P) alloy deposits using trivalent chromium sulfate baths containing potassium formate were prepared to study their current efficiency, hardness change and phase transformations behavior with heat treatment, respectively. The current efficiencies of Cr-C and Cr-C-P alloy deposits increase with increasing current density in the range of 15-35 A/dm². Carbon content of Cr-C and phosphorous of Cr-C-P layers decreases with increasing current density, whereas, the carbon content of Cr-C-P layer is almost constant with the current density. Cr-C deposit shows crystallization at 400℃ and has (Cr+Cr₂₃C₆) phases at 800℃. Cr-C-P deposit shows crystallization at 600℃ and has (Cr+Cr₂₃C₆+Cr₃P) phases at 800℃. The hardness of Cr-C and Cr-C-P deposits after heating treatment for one hour increase up to Hv 1640 and Hv 1540 and decrease about Hv 820 and Hv 1270 with increasing annealing temperature in the range of 400~800℃, respectively. The hardness change with annealing is due to the order of occurring of chromium crystallization, precipitation hardening effect, softening and grain growth with temperature. Less decrease of hardness of Cr-C-P deposit after annealing above 700℃ is related to continuous precipitation of Cr₂₃C₆ and Cr₃P phases which retard grain growth at the temperature.

      • KCI등재후보SCOPUS

        Effects of Protected Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation on Milk Fatty Acid in Dairy Cows

        N.,Piamphon,C.,Wachirapakorn,M.,Wanapat,C.,Navanukraw 아세아·태평양축산학회 2009 Animal Bioscience Vol.22 No.1

        The objective was to determine the effects of supplementation of protected conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), CLA-20 comprising 10% each of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12, on milk production and fatty acid profiles in plasma and milk in lactating dairy cows. Five mid-lactation, multiparous crossbred Holstein Friesian cows with average 40220 kg BW were used in a 55 Latin square design for 21-d periods. Cows were given a total mixed ration (TMR) and supplemented with CLA-20 at 0, 20, 40, 80 and 160 g/d. The results showed that dry matter intake depression occurred in cows supplemented with CLA-20 at 160 g/d. Milk production slightly increased when CLA-20 supplementation was at 20, 40 and 80 g/d. However, 3.5% fat-corrected milk (FCM) was not affected by CLA-20 supplementation. Increased levels of CLA-20 supplementation resulted in a significantly decreased percentage of milk fat. Plasma concentrations of fatty acid were not altered by the amounts of CLA-20 supplementation except for the concentration of trans-10, cis-12 CLA. For all dietary treatments, percentages of fatty acids (C4:0, C6:0, C8:0, C13:0, C14:0 C14:1 C15:0 C15:1 C16:0, C16:1, C18:1n9t, C18:2n6t, C18:2n6c, C20:0, C18:3n6, C18:3n3, C20:1 and C20:3n6) in milk fat were similar. Concentrations of C10:0, C11:0, C12:0 and C18:1n9c were decreased cubically and C18:0 was elevated linearly (p<0.01) according to the increased amounts of CLA-20 supplemented. The linear increase was observed for cis-9, trans-11 CLA (0.62, 1.17, 1.94, 1.87 and 1.82% of total fatty acid), trans-10, cis-12 CLA (0.01, 0.63, 0.67, 0.93 and 0.95% of total fatty acid) and total CLA (0.80, 2.25, 3.16, 3.97 and 3.94% of total fatty acid) in milk fat from 0 to 160 g/d of CLA-20 supplement. In conclusion, concentration of cis-9, trans-11 CLA in milk fat was concomitantly elevated at an increasing rate with the increased amounts of CLA-20. Based on the results in this study, supplementation of CLA-20 at 80 g/d optimally enhanced total CLA in milk fat.

      • 소맥단백질에 LYSINE 첨가수준이 성장중인 흰쥐에서 14C - LYSINE , 14C - THREONINE 및 14C - LEUCINE의 체내대사에 미치는 영향

        이영철,김창혁,전중수행 한국영양사료학회 1998 韓國營養飼料學會誌 Vol.22 No.1

        본 연구는 lysine및 threonine이 결핍된 소맥 글루텐을 사료단백질원으로 사용하여 제 2 제한 아미노산인 threonine을 요구량에 완전히 충족시키고, 제 1 제한 아미노산인 lysine을 5단계로 나누어 첨가하여 사료내 lysine 수준에 의한 사료단백질의 질적향상이 체내 ^(14)C-아미노산의 대사에 어떠한 영향을 미치는 지에 대하여 검토하고자 하였다. 실험방법은 Wistar계 숫쥐를 이용하여 사료단백질 수준을 15PC%, 대사에너지가를 사료 ㎏당 4,100 ㎉로 설정하였고, 사료내 lysine 수준을 0.37, 0.56, 0.75, 0.94 및 1.13%가 되도록 lysine을 첨가하여 휜쥐에 대한 성장시험을 실시하였으며(실험 1), 또한 동일한 사료급여에 의하여 ^(14)C-lysine, ^(14)C-threonine 및 ^(14)C-leucine을 복강내 투여한 뒤 각 해당 아미노산 탄소골격의 대사경로를 측정(실험 2)하여 다음과 같은 결과를 얻었다. 시험 1에서는 21일간의 성장시험에 있어서 증체량과 사료효율은 사료내 lysine수준이 증가할수록 증가하였으며, 사료섭취량은 사료내 lysine 함량이 0.75% 수준에서 최대치를 나타냈다. 또한 시험사료 급여에 의한 혈중 lysine 함량도 사료중 lysine 수준이 0.75% 부근에서 증가하기 시작하였다. 시험 2에서는 ^(14)C-lysine, threonine 및 leucine 투여 6시 간 후 각 아미노산 탄소골격의 대사 변동을 측정한 결과, 호흡탄산가스로 배출된 ^(14)C-lysine의 방사능 활성도는 사료중 lysine 수준이 0.37에서 0.75% 수준까지 매우 낮게 산화된 반면 체단백질 합성을 위한 이용효율은 매우 높았다. 그러나 ^(14)C-threonine 및 ^(14)C-leucine의 체내 이용성은 ^(14)C-lysine 산화율에 비하여 상대적으로 감소하였다. 즉 체내에서 각 아미노산 탄소골격은 사료내 제한 아미노산을 보충함으로서 제한 아미노산 이외의 아미노산의 체내 이용성을 향상시키는 원인이 되었다. 이러한 현상은 동물 체내에서 각 아미노산의 이용에 대하여 사료내 아미노산의 상대적 공급량이 동물의 성장 능력과 체내 아미노산 대사에 중요한 영향 인자가 된다는 것을 실증해 주는 결과라 하겠다. The metabolic fates of the carbon skeletons of lysine, threonine, and leucine were studied in growing rats fed the diets containing 0.37, 0.56, 0.75, 0.94, and 1.13% lysine by use with 15PC% gluten at 4,100 ㎉ of metabolizable energy per ㎏ of diets. In growth experiment for 21 days, body weight gain and food intake increased at higher lysine levels in the diets, and the gain and food intake at 0.75% lysine levels reached a pleatue. The concentrations of plasma free lysine and the expired ^(14)CO₂production after injecting the labeled amino acids in rats fed the gluten diets supplemented with various lysine levels increased with increasing lysine levels from 0.75% level. However, the output of ^(14)CO₂from labeled threonine and leucine decreased with increasing the dietary lysine level from 0.75 to 1.13%. Under this experiment conditions, the calculated lysine requirement of rat was at the 0.6% level; the response criteria of body weight gain, plasma lysine and lysine oxidation. These results showed that, in addition of lysine, the oxidative degradation of essential amino acids other then the limiting one decreased and the efficiency of the amino acid utilization increased.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        정상인 및 당뇨병환자에서의 경구당부하시 혈중 Insulin과 C-Peptide의 변동

        이명철,고창순,최성재,김응진,민헌기 대한핵의학회 1977 핵의학 분자영상 Vol.11 No.1

        저자들은 정상인 및 당뇨병환자에서 insulin과 C-peptide의 변동양상의 의의를 관찰하고 또한 비만이 insulin 반응에 영향을 끼치는 것을 보고자 정상인 15명 (비비만형 10명, 비만형 5명), 중등도당뇨병환자 22례 (비비만형 13례, 비만형 9례) 및 중증당뇨병환자 9례, 총 46명을 대상으로 경구적 당부하시험을 시행하고 각 혈중 insulin과 C-peptide를 방사면역법으로 측정하여 다음과 같은 결과를 얻었기에 보고하는 바이다. 1) 10명의 비비만형정상인에서의 insulin치는 공복시 및 100 gm 경구당부하후 30, 60, 90, 120분에서 각각 15.7±3.4, 48.3±9.8, 4.4±6.7, 37.4±6.5 및 26.0±4.2uU/ml(Mean±S.E.)이고 C-peptide는 각각 1.9±0.3, 3.9±0.6, 6.3±0.6, 5.7±0.5 및 4.0±0.5 ng/ml로서 insulin가 C-peptide 평행한 반응을 보였고 insulin은 30분에서 최고치를 나타낸 반면 C-peptide는 60분에서 최고치를 보였다. 2) 비만형정상인 5례에서 insulin은 각각 38.9±12.3, 59.5±12.3, 59.2±17.1, 56.1±20.0 및 48.4±17.2uU/ml이고 C-peptide는 각각 5.5±0.4, 6.8±0.5, 7.9±0.8, 7.9±0.8 및 7.8±2.0ng/ml로서 비비만형에 비하여 반응이 현저히 증가함을 보였다. 3) 13례의 비비만형중등도당뇨병환자의 혈장내 insulin은 각각 27.1±4.9, 44.1±6.0, 37.3±6.6, 35.5±8.1 및 34.7±10.7uU/ml이고 C-peptide는 각각 2.7±0.4, 4.9±0.7, 6.5±0.5, 7.0±0.3 및 6.7±1.0ng/ml로서 비비만형정상군에 비하여 insulin 및 C-peptide의 차이는 없으나 지연되는 양상을 보였다. 4) 비비만형중등도당뇨병환자 9명에서의 insulin은 각각 22.1±7.9, 80.0±19.3, 108.0±27.0, 62.0±17.6 및 55.5±10.1 uU/ml이었으며 C-peptide는 5.2±0.4, 8.0±1.0, 10.4±1.6, 10.4±1.7 및 10.0±10ng/ml로서 insulin과 C-peptide 반응이 비비만형중둥도당뇨병환자군에 비해 각각 항진됨을 볼 수 있었다. 5) 중증당뇨병환자 9례에서의 혈중 insulin은 8.0±3.8, 12.1±3.5, 16.8±4.6, 19.6±5.2 및 15.0±5.0uU/ml이며 C-peptide는 1.6±0.3, 2.4±0.4, 4.1±0.6, 4.0±0.8 및 4.5±0.7ng/ml로서 insulin과 C-peptide가 각각 현저히 감소하였다. 이 각 당뇨병환자군에서의 총 insulin 및 C-peptide 면적, 그리고 insulinogenic index와 C-peptide index를 산출한 결과 당뇨병정도에 따른 유의한 차이를 관찰하였다. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the significance of the insulin and the C-peptide rseponse to oral glucose loads in normal and diabetic subjects and to establish the effects of the obesity. In this study, the authors have measured plasma insulin and C-peptide by means of radioimmunoassay in 10 nonobese normal, 5 obese normal, 13 nonobese moderate diabetic patients, 9 obese moderate diabetic patients and 9 severe diabetic patients. The results obtained were as follows; 1) In 10 nonobese normal subjects, the plasma insulin level at fasting state and at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after oral glucose loads were 15.7±3.4, 48.3±9.8, 40.4±6.7, 37.4±6.5 and 26.0±4.2uU/ml(Mean±S.E.) and C-peptide were 1.9±0.3, 3.9±0.6, 6.3±0.6, 5.7±0.5 and 4.0±0.5ng/ml. The change of C-peptide was found to go almost parallel with that of insulin and the insulin value reaches to the highest level at 30 min whereas C-peptide reaches to its peak at 60min. 2) The plasma insulin level in 5 obese normal subjects were 38.5±12.3, 59.2±17.1, 56.1±20.0 and 48.4±17.2 uU/ml and the C-peptide were 5.5±0.4, 6.8±0.5, 7.9±0.8, 7.9±0.8 and 7.8±2.0ng/ml. The insulin response appeared to be greater than nonobese normal subjects. 3) In 13 nonobese moderate diabetic patients, the plasma insulin levels were 27.1±4.9, 44.1±6.0, 37.3±6.6, 35.5±8.1 and 34.7±10.7uU/ml and the C-peptide levels were 2.7±0.4, 4.9±0.7, 6.5±0.5, 7.0±0.3 and 6.7±1.0ng/ml. There was little significance compared to nonobese normal groups but delayed pattern is noted. 4) In 9 obese moderated diabetic patients, the plasma insulin levels were 22.1±7.9, 80.0±19.3, 108.0±27.0, 62.0±17.6 and 55.5±10.luU/ml and the C-peptide levels were 5.2±0.4, 8.0±1.0, 10.4±1.6, 10.4±1.7 and 10.1±1.0ng/ml and its response was also greater than that of nonobese moderate diabetic patients. 5) The plasma insulin concentrations in 9 severe diabetic subjects were 8.0±3.8, 12.1±3.5, 16.8±4.6, 19.6±5.2 and 15.0±5.0uU/ml and the C-peptide levels were 1.6±0.3, 2.4/ml and the insulin and C-peptide responses were markedly reduced in severe diabetic groups. 6) There were significant differences between each groups of patients on the magnitude of total insulin or C-peptide areas, the insulinogenic index and the C-peptide index. $quot;

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