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이 글은 포항 중성리신라비의 쟁점을 점검하고 이것이 신라사 연구에서 가지는 의미를 밝히는 데 목적을 두었다. 중성리비에서 Ⅵ·Ⅷ행 상단에는 1글자 정도가 탈락되었을 가능성이 있다. 필획의 변이가 큰 글자의 판독에서는 필획과 함께 전후 맥락이 중시되어야 한다. ‘喙’은 喙沙利에서는 인명으로 쓰였고, 牟旦伐喙과 ?波喙에서는 부명에 연결되었다. 경주 중심부의 근거지를 가리켰던 喙은 모단벌탁·본파탁에 이어 여타 부로 확산되었다. 중성리비는 그 과정을 보여준다. 干群 京位는 탁부·사탁부를 중심으로 편성되었는데, 501년 이전의 모단벌탁에서는 伊干支와 沙干支가 임명되었다. 이들은 아간지, 일간지, 급벌간지와 함께 마립간을 보위했다. 여타 부에서는 간지 이하의 자치적 위호가 율령 반포 직후까지 별도로 운영되었다. 경위체제 하에서도 6부의 업무에 참여하는 무관등자가 가계집단의 자치적 위계를 바탕으로 공적 역할을 담당했다. 일벌은 부·촌 간지의 최고 보위자에서 유래했다. 비문 서두의 敎는 뒤에 제시된 절차의 근거로서 제시되었다. ‘白’은 분쟁사안에 대해 사뢰었던 실무적 보고이다. ‘云’은 교의 근거가 되었던 진술이다. Ⅶ행의 令은 敎令과 혼용되었는데 , 보완적 敎에 가까운 敎令보다 등급이 떨어졌다. 영은 6부 차원과 道使 차원에서 다양한 형태로 내려졌다. ‘部’는 Ⅰ행의 ‘지절로’ 앞에서도 관칭되었을 가능성이 있다. 6부의 편성 시기는 자비마립간 12년 이전으로 올라간다. 마립간은 경위자와 간지 등의 보위를 받아 신라 6부를 대표하는 존재가 되었다. 마립간 출현 기사는 그 점진적 과정을 내포한다. This paper aims to examine issues related to the Pohang Jungseong-ri Silla-stele, and to explain the meaning of this at the study of history of Silla. It may have disappeared about an letter at the first space of the 6th·8th vertical line. It should be important to pay attention to the context of the front and back at the reading letters which have great variation in stroke. Tak(喙) was used as the name of the person at Taksari (喙沙利), and as the name of Bu(部) at Modanbeoltak(牟旦伐喙) and Bonpatak(?波喙). Tak pointed out the center of Gyeongju originally, after all Modanbeoltak and Bonpatak, further more other Bu. The people of Takbu(喙部) and Satakbu(喙沙部) was appointed Gan-series Gyeongwi(京位) originally. But the people of Modanbeoltak was also appointed Gan-series one after A.D.501 at least. The autonomous title which belonged to Ganzi(干支) had been maintained on their own by immediately after the time when the nation announced its Yulrung(律令) in other Bu(部). On the other hand, the people of no official rank carried out official work formally for 6-Bu(六部) on the basis of autonomous hierarchy of his family. Gyo(敎) was presented in the Jungseong-ri Silla-stele as the basis of the procedure followed. ‘Baek’(白) was practical report related to the litigation. ‘Woon(云)’ was a statement which was the basis for Gyo(敎). Ryoung(令) of the 7th vertical line was in a lower grade than Gyoryoung(敎令). Ryoung was presented as various forms by 6-Bu as well as by Dosa(道使). ‘Bu’ may had been recorded before ‘Zicheollo(只折盧)’ of the first vertical line. 6-Bu had its origin before 12th years of Zabea-Maripgan(慈悲麻立干) at least. Maripgan represented 6-Bu being assisted by Gyeongwi and Ganzi(干支). The Maripgan"s status recorded in Samguksagi was the result of gradual change described above.
As a result of dramatic changes in mathematics education around the world, in Turkey both elementary and secondary school mathematics curriculums have changed in the light of new demands since 2005. In order to perform the expected change in newly developed curriculum, computer should be integrated into learning and teaching process. Teachers' beliefs play a key role in this integration process. Negative beliefs against using computer in mathematics teaching may lead to failure of this process. With the help of this study, it is aimed to detect mathematics teachers' beliefs concerning Computer Assisted Mathematics Instruction (CAMI). Within the scope of this aim, the conducted questionnaire (The opinions of teachers about using computer in Mathematics Instruction) has been carried out on 91 mathematics teachers in the city of Trabzon. The acquired results have shown that mathematics teachers have developed negative opinions against CAMI. This state has revealed that there is a huge inconsistency between curriculum's positive expectations arising from computer usage and teachers' convictions.
Mixed oxides containing cobalt oxides in electrolitic manganese dioxide have been prepared by on electrochemical process on titanium anode and cathode with manganes nitrate and cobalt nitrate solution. These oxides have been prepared in various electrolysis conditions current density, bath temperature, and Mixing Ratio. According to there results, current efficiency was excellent in low current density and high bath temperature, and there mixed oxides were superior to IC Sample Activity percentage value of these oxides has heigher value than one of IC Sample. By X-ray diffraction pattern, when low current density, crystal structure is homogeneous and discharge capacity is excellent.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) exhibit mild to moderate symptoms, whereas 15% of COVID-19 cases progress to pneumonia, some associated cutaneous findings are also reported as maculopapular eruptions, morbilliform rashes, urticaria, chickenpox-like lesions, and livedo reticularis. The inactivated COVID‐19 vaccines are authorized for use in some countries including Turkey. Here, we report an unusual case of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) reactivation in a 68-year-old male patient who was vaccinated against COVID-19. The patient presented to family medicine clinic with a stinging sensation and pain radiating from the right side of his chest to his back. Physical examination revealed multiple pinheaded vesicular lesions upon an erythematous base occupying an area on his right mammary region and back corresponding to T3–T5 dermatomes. He reported that he got his second dose of COVID-19 vaccine 5 days ago. As COVID 19 decreases the cell-mediated immunity, it could also increase the risk of herpes zoster (HZ). Although the exact reason remains unsolved, vaccine-induced immunomodulation caused by live attenuated vaccines and attenuated alloreactivity caused by inactivated vaccines may be responsible mechanisms for the reactivation of HZ. Epidemiological studies are needed to clarify the possible connection between vaccination and reactivation of herpesvirus infections.
The discharge reaction mechanism of the Leclanche cells was studied. The cell were discharged through flash light continuously. Discharge products were examined by chenical analysis and X-Ray diffraction. The discharge reaction product was MnOOH in a homogeneous solid-phase reaction. The X-Ray diffraction evidence on the single phase reduction of MnO^2 to MnOOH were presented. The products of these discharge reactions will be dependent on the kinds of Manganese Dioxide, electrloytes, potentials, and depth of discharge.
Hadi와 Simonoff(1993)가 제안한 회귀이상점 식별방법은 자료에 이상점이 다수 포함된 경우에도 이상점들을 효과적으로 식별할 수 있는 것으로 알려졌다. 그러나 식별 알고리즘의 미 단계에서 유사한 진단치를 반복적으로 계산하여 이를 바탕으로 이상점을 식별하기 위한 검정을 하므로 이에 요구되는 계산의 양이 매우 방대하다. 각 반복단계에서 기본부분집합이나 깨끗한 부분집합의 구성 형태를 분석한 결과, 소수의 관찰치만 변동되며 특히 하나의 관찰치만이 새로운 부분집합에 추가되는 경우가 많다는 사실을 확인하였다. 따라서 최신화 기법을 적용하여 필요한 계산을 효율적으로 실행할 수 있는 방법을 제안하였으며, 모의실험을 통하여 제안된 방법의 계산효율성이 우수함을 입증하였다. 한편, 구성된 부분집합의 자료는 악조건상태의 행렬인 경우가 많으므로 수치안정성에 문제가 발생하여 계산의 정확성이 낮아진다. 따라서 QR분해기법에 의해 진단치들을 계산하는 방안을 강구하였으며, 나아가서 계산의 정확성을 높이기 위해 반복 정제기법의 적용을 제안하였다. We investigate a procedure proposed by Hadi and Simonoff(1993) for the identification of multiple outliers in linear regression. The procedure is effective in the detection of multiple outliers, does not require presetting the number of outliers, does not require Monte Carlo simulation to determine cutoff values, and is relatively resistant to masking and swamping problems. However, it requires a great deal of computation since the diagnostics should be computed at each iteration. We have found that a small number of observations are changed, and at many iterations only one observation is added to the basic or clean subsets. Thus, to improve its computational efficiency, we propose an updating technique which can be applied to the computation of hat matrix, estimate of regression coefficients, residuals, and estimate of variances. Also the performance of the proposed technique is compared with that of the existing computing method on the basis of real and simulated data sets. It appears, from the Monte Carlo experiments, that the proposed technique is more computationally efficient than the existing one. On the other hand, since subsets constructed at each iteration are usually ill-conditioned, the numerical instability problem occurs and hence provokes inaccurate computations. Thus, QR-decomposition approach is employed to deal with the numerical instability problem, and the iterative refinement technique is used to obtain more accurate diagnostics.
This experimental study was done to compare the efficacy of Korean and Chinese Carthami Semen on analgesic effect and remedy of inflammation and arthritis. The results were as follows; 1. In analgesic action on the writhing syndrome in mice induced by 0.7% acetic acid, Korean and Chinese Carthami Semen extract group showed significant decrease in comparison with control group. And in analgesic action on the writhing syndrome in mice induced by Acetylcholine HC1, Korean and chinese Carthami Semen extract group showed significant decrease in comparison with control group. 2. In Anti-inflammatory effects, Chinese Carthami Semen extract group showed significant decrease at 150 and 180 minutes after inducing paw-edema in comparison with control group. 3. In the method of adjuvant arthritis, orally administered for 21 days, Korean Carthami Semen extract group showed significant inhibition of the hind paw edema after 1 day and 21 days. Whereas Chinese Carthami Semen extract group showed some reduction, but the results didn's show significant decrease. 4. In the level of leucocytes count, Korean and Chinese Carthami Semen extract group showed significant decrease in comparison with control group. And in the level of total protein. CRP and glucose, Korean and Chinese Carthami Semen extract group didn't showed significant change in comparison with control group.
Meliae Toosendan Fructus is used in oriental medicine. We investgated toxicity, poisoning symptoms, poisoning treatment of Meliae Toosendan Fructus. The results were summarized as follows: 1. The main ingredients of poisoning were toosendanin and azaridine. 2. Meliae Toosendan Fructus has a litt3e 4oxicity, And if we eat 6 fruits or more, we get poisoned by them. 3. In the case of using Moline Toosendan Fructus in clinical medicine, side effects were dizziness, nausea and vomiting etc. 4. The main poisoning symptoms were symptoms of the digestive system, the nervous system, the heart-blood vessel system and the urinary system. 5. The representative methods of poisoning treatment were promotion of vomiting, washing out the stomach, fluid infusion, purgation etc, And allopathic treatment was requested.
A new method is used to estimate the amount of water evaporation from Class A Pan with higher precision and accuracy. The principle of method is to detect the weight change of a buoyant sinker resulting from a change in water level of Class A Pan. A strain-gauge load cell is used to measure the weight change. Field observation of evaporation was done at Pohang Meteorological Station from June 24 to August 4, 2002. By using this new method, it is possible to measure hourly evaporation accurately even under a strong solar radiation and wind disturbance, enabling a direct comparison of evaporation with other meteorological elements. At night, under low humidity and high wind speed conditions, more evaporation was recorded than during daytime. Maximum evaporation rates observed during this period exceed 1.0 mm/hour under the sunny and windy conditions with low humidity. To understand relationships between meteorological elements and latent heat flux at ground level, we suggest intensive field experiments using high accuracy evaporation recording instruments with hourly time interval.