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This paper presents a computer model of the secondary arc associated with single phase auto-reclosing(SPAR) to use in system simulation studies. The computer model is based on the mathematical model described by A.T.Johns, et,al, and is implemented by the EMTDC which is similar to the Electro Magnetic Transient Program(EMTP). Simulation results using the computer model compare with a previous simulation and field test results.
Angioneurotic edema is rarely seen in dental practice and manifested by acute attacks of swelling of the extremities, face, airway, or abdominal visera, occuring spontaneously and suddenly or secondary to trauma. Two types are recognized : hereditary and nonhereditary. Prophylatic therapy may be used by fresh frozen plasma or antifibrinolytic agents in hereditary type. Good supportive care for acute attacks, together with a knowledge of course of the disease, can prevent asphyxiation from airway obstruction. A case of acute angioneurotic edema of the facial area in a 19-year-old man is presented in conjunction with a review of the literature. Angioneurotic edema attacks him acutely after the extraction of the lower, right 3rd molar.
BACKGROUND: While it was emphasized the advantages for breast-feeding and recommanded breast-feeding, it was least to solve the mother's probems in breast-feeding. To continue breast-feed, the mothers need be probided the care for the early problems. METHODS: We interviewed 62 women with questionaire during puerperium(2-31days) in Soonchunhyang Chunan Hospital OB unit. They were breast-feeding. RESULTS: The experience at early breast-feeding was very positive, which were 'the realization of role transition, the formation of attachment, the feeling of happiness. The best important problems of early breast-feeding were 'baby falls asleep, leaking breasts, and worry about insuffcient milk because of small breasts'. The maternal learning needs were significantly related with the problems that they really experienced. CONCLUSION: The education about breastfeeding and its problems should be based on the maternal learning needs and their experience. And the method of educaton should be changed from topic-oriented to problem-solving.
Purpose: Recently there are scientific evidences for the health effects of Asian dust-storms. Particularly in 2002, the daily average of PM_(10) exceeded 600 and 700 ㎍/㎥ in March and April respectively. We examined the effects of Asian dust-storms on perceived symptoms and preventive behaviors among children, adults, and elders. Method: The subjects of this study were 425 children, 444 adults and 60 elders. A questionnaire survey was carried out on the children and the adults by teachers and on the elders by interviewers to obtain information on demographic variables, perceived symptoms and preventive behaviors, previous respiratory disease, environmental tobacco smoke, and proximity between the house and the road during Asian dust-storms. We analyzed using descriptive statistics, X_(2) test and multiple logistic regression models. After adjustment for potential confounders, we estimated the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of the children and the elders for perceived symptoms and preventive behaviors. Result: The elders had a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms than the other groups. The children had a significantly higher prevalence than the adults in getting URI (1.51), coughing (1.68), rhinorrhea (1.46), fever (2.39) and medication for allergy or asthma (1.90). The children had better behaviors than the elders in closing windows (3.57), taking less outdoor recreational activity (2.59) and staying home (2.60).
목적 : 본 연구를 통하여 Rockwood 제 3형 급성 견봉-쇄골 관절 분리 환자에서 Phemister 술식과 modified Phemister 술식의 치료 결과를 비교하고자 한다. 대상 및 방법 : 1992년 2월부터 2001년 8월까지 제 3형 급성 견봉-쇄골 관절 분리로 수술적 치료를 받고 1년 이상 추시 가능하였던 45명, 45예의 환자를 대상으로 하였다. 평균 연령은 28.1세였으며, 남자가 42명, 여자가 3명이었다. 진단은 이학적 검사와 단순 방사선 부하 촬영법을 이용하였으며, 수상일로부터 수술적 치료까지의 평균 기간은 7.8일이었다. 술장 소견상 오구-쇄골인대 봉합술이 어려운 15예에서는 Phemister 술식을 시행하였고 (Ⅰ군), 인대 봉합이 가능한 30예에서는 modified Phemister 술식을 시행하였다(Ⅱ군). 수술 후 추시 기간은 평균 16.2개월이었고, 결과 판정은 최종 추시 때의 임상 소견과 이학적 검사 및 방사선 촬영을 통해 UCLA shoulder scoring system과 acromio-clavicular separation scoring system을 이용하였다. 결과 : 술후 합병증은 Ⅱ군에만 표재성 감염이 2예, K-강선 이주가 1예에서 발생하였다. 최종 추시상 전예에서 동통, 관절 운동 범위의 제한은 없었고 , Ⅱ군에서만 방사선 촬영상 2예에서 아탈구가 관찰되었다. UCLA shoulder scoring system은 Ⅱ군에서 우수 93.3%, 양호 6.7%였고, acromio-clavicular shoulder scoring system은 Ⅱ군에서 우수 90%, 양호 10%였다. 결론 : 활동적인 연령에서 발생한 제 3형 급성 견봉-쇄골 관절 손상의 환자에서 Phemister 술식만으로도 좋은 결과를 보일 수 있을 것으로 사료된다. Purpose : The purpose of this study is to compare the Phemister technique with the modified Phemister technique for the patients with Rockwood type 3, acromio-clavicular separation. Materials and Methods : The 45 cases of 45 patients received surgical treatment for Rockwood type 3, acute acromio-clavicular separation in our hospital from Feb. 1992 to Aug. 2001 later with the follow-up study were selected as subjects. The average ages were 28.1 years old, male and female were 42, 3 persons, respectively. Physical examination and plain radiography were used for their diagnosis and the intervals between injury and surgical treatment were 7.8 days. In intraoperative finding, we performed Phemister technique in 15 cases according not to be able to repair coraco-clavicular ligament (groupⅠ), modified Phemister technique in 30 cases according to be able to repair that (groupⅡ). The average follow up period was 16.2 months, and the UCLA shoulder scoring system and the acromio-clavicular separation scoring system were used to obtain clinical results. Results : Only in Group Ⅱ, the complication after surgery were associated with superficial infection in two cases and K-wire migration in one case. At last follow up, there were no pain and limitation of range of motion in all cases, and two cases in Group Ⅱ were found to be subluxation in radiography. Clinical results revealed excellent was 93.3%, good was 6.7% in UCLA shoulder scoring system in both groups, and excellent was 90%, good was 10% for group Ⅱ in acromio-clavicular separation scoring system. Conclusion : The results are considered to be food with only Phemister technique in type 3, acute injury occurred in working ages.
The results of this Study are as follows:33.6% of all participants have insomnia; 22.5% of those who have insomnia are DIS(difficulty in initiating sleep), 17.3% are DMS(difficulty returning to sleep once awakened) and 7.0% awakened too early. 3 4.8% experience sleepiness during daytime. Type 1, experiencing insomnia and sleepi ness during daytime together, is 12.0%, Type 2, with insomnia only, is 21.6%, Type 3, with sleepiness during daytime only, is 22.8% and 43.5% experience no sleeping disturbances. After studying only those with 3 types of sleeping disturbances, it is found that the most common cause of such disturbance is stress 88.4%, anxiety 56.0%, no apparent reason 33.8%, anxiety/fear/terror 29.3%, hurry 23.6%, alcohol/caffeine 16.9%, bedroom tem perature 11.1%, urination during nighttime and persons living together 10.7%, noise from inside 8.9%, illumination 8.0%, and pain/itch 5.8%. The one group revealed significant differences in residential environment(p=0.003). Sex, age, education level, medicine, monthly earning revealed no meaningful differences. Of sleeping behavior, mean duration of sleep latency(p=0.000), whether or not feeling freshness(p=0.000), whether taking enough sleep(p=0.029), whether taking regular sleep(p=0.005) showed significant differences depending on whether or not having insomnia, and mean duration of sleep time, time to sleep, time of rising, whether taking naps did not reveal significant differences. Of sleep behavior, time to sleep(p=0.000), whether taking naps(p=0.000), indicated significant differences. Of sleeping behavior, mean duration of sleep latency(p=0.000), whether or not feeling freshness(p=0.000), and whether taking enough sleep(p=0.000), time of going to bed (p=0.002), whether or not taking nap(p=0.000), whether or not taking regular sleep(p=0.010) indicated significant differences among the sleeping disturbance types.
Lee, Borim and Ki-jeong Lee. 2000. Journal of the Linguistic Association of Korea, 8(3), 47-63. In this paper we deal with some functional considerations behind phonological processes which appear to destroy the underlying contrasts. A series of truncation phenomena, in their nature, result in loss of underlying information, which in turn damages intelligibility in communication. From a functional point of view, there may exist certain processes which seem to compensate for the destruction caused by extensive truncation. We discuss a neutralization process, an influence of deleted segments over the remaining segments, a homonymy-avoiding process, and a case of restructuring in a suffix of a secret language of Lardil. We conclude, then, that all these phenomena deserve new interpretations in the context of recoverability of underlying contrasts, which is based on functional constraints in languages. (Wonkwang University and Hanyang University)