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      • KCI등재

        돈황 막고굴에 나타난 다보탑의 변천

        조정식,김버들,조해현,김보람,Cho,,Jeong-Sik,Kim,,Bue-Dyel,Jo,,Jae-Hyun,Kim,,Bo-Ram 한국건축역사학회 2013 건축역사연구 Vol.22 No.5

        This study aims to investigate the architectural characteristics of the Da-bo stupa by examining the correlation among architectural languages and by studying the features of its architectural components and transitional changes shown in Da-bo stupa line drawings in Dunhuang Mogao Grottes. The results are as follows. 1st, the Da-bo stupa of Dunhuang faithfully follows the sutra of lotus, and although the form changes, the fundamental essence of Bo-tap-yong-chul and two seated Buddhas provided by the Gyun-bo-tap-pum in the sutra of lotus is consistent. 2nd, the pagoda body can be periodically divided into parasol, stupa, and royal palace types. The parasol type has an incomplete tower body, which makes distinguishing each of its architectural components difficult. The stupa type appeared between the early (AD 618-712) and middle (AD 766-835) Tang dynasty. It combines the form of Indian stupa type and East Asian wood structural architecture. The royal palace type, which appeared between the peak period of the Tang (713-765) and Sung Dynasties, shows the standardized pattern of the Da-bo stupa described as two seated Buddhas and Bo-tap-yong-chul. 3rd, the use of a stylobate does not appear in the early construction of Da-bo stupa, only in the later period, in the form of high pillars. Forms include many Su-mi-jwah and three-way stairways and Dab-do, but as time passes, the forms are simplified to the form of high pillars. 4th, the purpose of early Da-bo stupa was to provide space for Da-bo-yu-rae of Gyun-bo-tap-pum; hence, it did not have sangryoon(the top part). However, after it was influenced by general pagodas, sangryoon was established. Toward the Tang Dynasty, sangryoon has come to emphasize the forms of boryoon(nine wheels) or dome. However, this form is eventually simplified to only retain bo-joo(the orb).

      • KCI등재

        고려후기 주역 인식의 특성과 그 의미 : 白文寶를 중심으로

        김보경 한국한문학회 2003 韓國漢文學硏究 Vol.0 No.32

        본고는 淡菴 白文寶(1903~1374) 周易 認識의 특성과 의미를 고찰함으로써 高麗時代 性理學의 한 면목을 고구하고자 시도되었다. 백문보의 주역 인식에는 宋代 象數易的 경향이 나타나고 있다. 그는 邵雍의 상수역 이론을 받아 들여 數를 제1의로 삼아 세계를 해석했다. 이것은 寓倬이 『程傳』을 연구·교수하고 元 制科 고시 과목에 朱子易과 함께 정신역이 포함되 있었으나, 그것이 확정적 지배력을 획득하지는 못했음을 반증하는 것이다. 한편으로는, 고려후기 元의 다기한 易學 조류를 감안하면 그의 상수역적 경향은 오히려 자연스러운 것으로 보인다. 백문보 주역 인식의 특성은 세 가지로 정리된다. 첫째, 그는 ‘一本萬殊'라는 개념을 제시하고 一本이 萬殊로 현상되는 것은 ‘此心'이 움직이고 그치는 것으로 해석했다. 이것은 이전의 문인들에게서는 좀처럼 찾아 보기 힘든, 거의 최초라고 할 만한, 세계의 본질과 생성에 대한 해석이다. 또한 일본만수는 자연과 인간, 주체와 객체가 하나의 상관하는 전체임을 함의한다. 이러한 전체로서의 세계를 가능하게 해주는 것을 一氣라고 보았다. 즉, 그는 氣를 본원자로 파악하고, 그 氣에는 天人의 조화와 합일의 근거를 찾고 있는 것이다. 둘째, 그는 이러한 一氣的 世界觀의 바탕 위에서 인간과 자연의 조웅과 합일경지를 추구했다. 인간과 자연은 美的 범주에서 끊임없이 상호 조웅을 이루며, 나아가 道德的 범주에서도 상호 융합하는 경지를 지향한다. 이 도덕적 융합의 경지가 바로 人道로써 天德에 합치하는 天人合一이다. 특히 『斥佛疏』는 성리학에 입각해 불교를 배척하는 글이거니와, 천인합일의 도덕 내용이 성리학으로 명백히 규정되고 있음이 주목된다. 셋째, 그의 주역 인식에서는 生成의 의지와 함께 變通의 논리가 적극적으로 강조되어 있다. 生成의 의지는 단순히 生物學的인 生에 그치지 않고 사회·역사적인 의미를 띠고 나타난다. 그는 邵雍의 元會運世說·皇帝玉覇說을 동원하고 檀君紀元說을 적용해 당시 고려가 변혁을 이룰 시기에 도달해 있다고 주장했다. 백문보 역시 인식에 나타난 數와 氣에 대한 강조, 一本萬殊에 입각한 세계 본질 및 생성에 대한 해석은 중대한 사상적 의미를 갖는다. 한편, 그가 주역에서 다시 고려 현실에 대응하는 논리를 끌어 내었던 점도 중요하게 지적될 수 있다. 차후 李穡 등 후배 문인들의 주역 인식을 고찰하는 작업이 이어진다면, 고려후기 사상 상황이 더욱 제 모습을 드러낼 수 있을 것으로 기대한다. This thesis makes an attempt to consider the one aspects of Seongree-hak(性理學) in the latter period of Coryo by means of studying the traits and significance in the way Moon-Bo Baek(1303- 1374), a.k.a. Damam, perceived Jooyeok(周易). Moodo Baek's conception of Jooyeok shows a tendency of Sangsooyeok(象數易). He interprets the world with a primary basis on Soo(數), while accepting Ong So's theory of Sansooyeok. This fact provides the counter-evidence against the established dominance of Jeongieon(程傳), which was studied and taught by Tak Woo and served as a main role in the inclusion of Jeongiyeok(정신역) along with the doctrines of Joojayeok(朱子易) in the state examination subjects of Won In the meantime, it seems rather natural that Moon-Bo Baek should have a propensity toward Sangsooyeok, considering the divergent trends of Won's Yeok in the latter tenn of Coryo. The characteristics of Moon-Bo Baek's perception about Jooyeok can be three-fold. First of all, he proffers the notion of 'Il-Bon-Man-Soo(一本萬殊) , and renders the manifestation of Il-Bon into Man-Soo as the moving and Ceasing Of 'Cha-Sim(此心). This is almost the first interpretation regarding the essence and generation of the world, which is hardly to be found in the thoughts of his predecessors. The idea of Il-Bon-Man-Soo entails that there is an interrelational wholeness between nature and human on the one hand, and subject and object on the other. He looks upon Il-Gi(一氣) as the being that makes possible the wholeness of the world. That is to say, he considers Gi to be the source, and here he seeks the foundation of the harmony and unity of heaven and human. Second of all, He pursues the accordance and union of human and nature, on the basis of the kind of Il-Gi outlook on world. Human and nature correspond continuously with each other in the domain of beauty and, furthemore, aims at the mutual amalgamation in the domain of morality, as well. This very amalgamation of morals is called humanity which corresponds to the heavenly virtue, i.e., the union of heaven and human Cheokbulso(斥佛疏), especially, ostracizes Buddhism from the standpoint of Seongree-hak and draws attention to the fact that the moral of heaven-human unity is patently defined via Seongree-hak. Lastly, in His understanding of Jooyeok, the logic of flexibility along with the volition of generation is positively emphasized. The volition of generation is represented with m social and historical significance, which is not just a biological birth. He turns to Ong So's Wonhoiwoonse(元會運世) theory and Hwangjewangpae(皇帝玉覇) theory. In addition, he adapts Dangoongiwon(檀君紀元) theory. By dint of these theories, he argues that Coryo should come to the stage of reformation at that time. Moan-Bo Baekk emphasis on Soo and Gi, and the interpretation of the nature and generation of world, grounding on Il-Gi-Man-Soo, have critical ideological implications. Meanwhile, it is importantly pointed out that he extracts from Jooyeok the corresponding logic to the contemporary reality of Coryo. With some ensuing examinations on the perceptions of Jooyeok by the successors like Sack Lee, it is expected that the ideological situation of the late period of Coryo will come to richer light.

      • KCI등재

        Mechanisms of herbicide resistance in weeds

        Bo,,Aung,Bo,Won,,Ok,Jae,Sin,,Hun,Tak,Lee,,Jeung,Joo,Park,,Kee,Woong Institute of Agricultural Science 2017 Korean Journal of Agricultural Science Vol.44 No.1

        In major field crops, synthetic herbicides have been used to control weeds worldwide. Globally, herbicide resistance in weeds should be minimized because it is a major limiting factor for food security. Cross resistance can occur with herbicides within the same or in different herbicide families and with the same or different sites of action. Multiple resistance refers to evolved mechanisms of resistance to more than one herbicide (e.g., resistance to both ALS-inhibitors and ACCase-inhibitors) and this resistance was brought about by separate selection processes. Target site resistance could occur from changes at the biochemical site of action of one herbicide. Non target site resistance occurs through mechanisms which reduce the number of herbicide molecules that reach the herbicide target site. There are currently 480 unique cases (species ${\times}$ site of action) of herbicide resistance globally in 252 plant species (145 dicots and 105 monocots). To date, resistance in weeds has been reported to 161 different herbicides, involving 23 of the 26 known herbicide sites of action. Finally, it can be concluded that we can protect crops associated to herbicide resistant weeds by applications of biochemical, genetic and crop control strategies.

      • KCI등재

        Glyphosate Resistant Conyza canadensis Occurring in Tangerine Orchards of Jeju Province of Korea

        Bo,,Aung,Bo,Won,,Ok,Jae,Park,,In,Kon,Roh,,Sug-Won,Park,,Kee,Woong The Korean Society of Weed Science The Turfgrass S 2017 Weed & Turfgrass Science Vol.6 No.4

        Conyza canadensis is the weed species which most frequently develops resistance to glyphosate in many agricultural crop fields. The continuous use of glyphosate has resulted in the spontaneous occurrences of resistant biotypes. This research was conducted to investigate the response of suspected C. canadensis biotypes to glyphosate. Seeds of C. canadensis were collected from 18 sites in tangerine orchards in Jeju province of Korea. In the preliminary screening, 6 resistant and 12 susceptible biotypes were found at the recommended glyphosate rate ($3.28kga.i.ha^{-1}$). The susceptible biotypes were completely killed at the field application rate whereas the resistant biotypes were initially injured but recovered 14 days after glyphosate application. This is the first case of glyphosate resistance found in Korea despite the national ban on genetically modified glyphosate tolerant crops cultivation. Extended monitoring should be conducted to understand how widely spread the glyphosate resistant C. canadensis is and to estimate the severity of this weed problem in the tangerine orchards of Korea.

      • PE-300 : Pancreaticojejunostomy, Hepaticojejunostomy and Double Roux-En-Y Digestive Tract Reconstruction for Benign Biliary Obstruction and Chronic Pancreatitis

        ( Bo Bo Htay ), ( Myat Su Mon Soe ), ( Aye Min San ), ( Myo Myat Thu ) 대한간학회 2020 춘·추계 학술대회 (KASL) Vol.2020 No.1

        Aims: Biliary obstruction due to chronic pancreatitis is not uncommon. Moreover, the patients with chronic pancreatitis sometimes have biliary stones diseases. The pain due to chronic pancreatitis need to be addressed while treating biliary obstruction. Biliary and pancreatic stenting in these conditions require repeated changing of the stents with multiple admissions, and the long-term success rate is low. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of five cases of chronic pancreatitis with benign biliary obstruction. Pancreaticojejunostomy, hepaticojejunostomy and double Roux-en-Y digestive tract reconstruction were performed in all patients. Four patients had pancreatic duct dilatation with stones, and cystic dilatation of the duct with distal CBD compression in pancreatic head region found in one patient. Longitudinal pancreaticojejunostomy performed in four patients, and distal pancreatectomy and end-to-side pancreaticojejunostomy done in one patient. Biliary stricture due to chronic pancreatitis was found in three patients, and multiple stones in both intra and extrahepatic ducts found in one patient whom additional subcutaneous access loop was created for future removal of stones. Results: The recovery of all patients was uneventful and no complication such as leakage and digestive tract obstruction occurred in the postoperative period. All patients did not complaint of pain during follow-up visits. One patient needed read mission to medical ward for pancreatic endocrine insufficiency. Conclusions: Surgery is the best option for chronic pancreatitis with biliary obstruction. For the good-risk patients and for the patients with failed endoscopic procedures, double Roux-en-Y digestive tract reconstruction is effective alternative surgical treatment modality where Frey procedure is not appropriate.

      • PE-299 : Postoperative Choledochoscopic Removal of Intrahepatic Stones via Subcutaneous Hepaticojejunal Access Loop for Complicated Recurrent Pyogenic Cholangitis (RPC)

        ( Bo Bo Htay ) 대한간학회 2020 춘·추계 학술대회 (KASL) Vol.2020 No.1

        Aims: Complicated recurrent pyogenic cholangitis (RPC) is a lifelong, progressive disease. A high rate of residual stones, recurrent stones and repeated symptoms after the initial surgery are the major concern. Reoperation can be a formidable challenge and definitely hazardous, and the patient morbidity is high because of dense adhesion, the risk of bleeding and nearby organ injury. Methods: Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy with subcutaneous access loop was done in all patients with complicated RPC admitted to Surgical Ward (3), Yangon General Hospital in 20 months duration. During one year follow up period, the patients having residual or recurrent stones with symptoms were chosen for stone removal using choledochoscope via access loop. Outcome was determined by successful utilization of the access loop, clearance of the stones and relief of the symptoms after the procedure. Results: There were 77 patients who underwent Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy with subcutaneous access loop. The overall incidences of residual stone, stone recurrence and symptom recurrence were 27.2%, 13.6% and 31.8%. Total ten sessions of choledochoscopic stone removal were done in eight patients. Successful utilization of the access loop was accomplished in 85.7%. There were 75% successful stone clearance. Symptom relief after endoscopic intervention was 88.9%. There was no complication after the procedure. The mean hospital stay after procedure was 2.6 days. Conclusions: Subcutaneous hepaticojejunal access loop is effective in treating residual and recurrent calculi occurred in complicated RPC. High success rates, short hospitalization periods, and no complications make it a well-accepted method for management of complicated RPC.

      • KCI등재

        Mechanisms of herbicide resistance in weeds

        Aung,Bo,Bo,Ok,Jae,Won,Hun,Tak,Sin,Jeung,Joo,Lee,Kee,Woong,Park 충남대학교 농업과학연구소 2017 Korean Journal of Agricultural Science Vol.44 No.1

        In major field crops, synthetic herbicides have been used to control weeds worldwide. Globally, herbicide resistance in weeds should be minimized because it is a major limiting factor for food security. Cross resistance can occur with herbicides within the same or in different herbicide families and with the same or different sites of action. Multiple resistance refers to evolved mechanisms of resistance to more than one herbicide (e.g., resistance to both ALS-inhibitors and ACCase-inhibitors) and this resistance was brought about by separate selection processes. Target site resistance could occur from changes at the biochemical site of action of one herbicide. Non target site resistance occurs through mechanisms which reduce the number of herbicide molecules that reach the herbicide target site. There are currently 480 unique cases (species × site of action) of herbicide resistance globally in 252 plant species (145 dicots and 105 monocots). To date, resistance in weeds has been reported to 161 different herbicides, involving 23 of the 26 known herbicide sites of action. Finally, it can be concluded that we can protect crops associated to herbicide resistant weeds by applications of biochemical, genetic and crop control strategies.

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