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The purpose of this study was to compare the root canal shaping ability of 4 rotary NiTi instruments in simulated root canals. For the preparation of thirty two curved root canals, Mtwo instruments using “single length”technique, and Profile, ProTaper Universal, and K3 using crown-down technique (N = 8) were used. All canal samples were prepared by reaching an apical canal size of #30. Pre- and post-instrumentation digital images were recorded and an assessment of canal shape was determined using a computer image analysis program SigmaScan Pro (Systat Software Inc., San Jose, CA, USA). The changes of the dimension of inner walls of canals, (2) the changes of the dimension of outer walls of canals, and (3) the centering ratio were measured at 7 measuring points, and then data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Duncan’s test. The results were as below; 1. The root canal shaping ability of Profile was significantly faster than that of other rotary NiTi instruments (p < 0.05). 2. The deformation and fracture of all instruments used for this study were not experienced. 3. In the degree of changes of the dimension of inner walls of canals, Profile demonstrated the lowest changes of the dimension of inner walls of canals except at the measuring points of the 1 and 2 mm (p < 0.05). However, the ProTaper Universal showed the highest changes of the dimension of inner walls of canals at all measuring points (p < 0.05). 4. In the degree of changes of the dimension of outer walls of canals, Mtwo demonstrated the lowest changse of the dimension of outer walls of canals except at the measuring point of the 1 mm (p < 0.05). However, Profile exhibited the highest changes of the dimension of outer walls of canals at the measuring points of 3 and 4 mm and ProTaper Universal and K3 showed the largest changes of the dimension of outer walls of canals at the measuring points of 1, 2, 6, and 7 mm (p < 0.05). 5. In degree of centering ratio, Profile demonstrated the least centering ratio comparing with the centering ratio shown by other NiTi instruments at the measuring points of 1, 4, 5, and 6 mm. Results suggest that in the coronal part of canal preparation, active cutting files such as ProTaper Universal may efficiently flare the canal orifice and form a better taper, and in the apical part of the canal, files which have a better centering ability such as Profile may maintain the original canal curvature and reduce the shaping time. 이 연구의 목적은 4가지 엔진구동형 NiTi 기구의 근관성형력을 비교하는 것이다. 32개의 투명레진모형을 사용하여 파일의 단면도가 S자 형태이고“single length”방법으로 근관성형을 시행하는 Mtwo와 crown-down 방법으로 근관성형을 하는 Profile, ProTaper Universal 및 K3로 근관성형을 하였다 (n = 8). 모든 근관은 한사람의 술자가 근단공 크기가 #30이 될때까지 성형하였다. 기구 사용 전과 후 근관 모양을 디지털 영상을 기록하였고, 컴퓨터 영상 분석 프로그램(Expression Scanner와 Adobe Photoshop CS)으로 평가하였다. 다음과 같은 결론을 얻었다. 근첨으로부터 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 mm 떨어진 부위의 내측과 외측으로 삭제된 레진 양을 측정하였고, 자료는 SPSS법으로 비교 분석하였다. 1. 근관형성 시간은 Mtwo가 84.50초로 가장 짧았으며, 총 작업시간은 K3가 269.37초로 가장 길었다(p < 0.05). 2. 기구의 변형과 파절은 모든 구동형 NiTi 파일에서 발생하지 않았다. 3. 근관 내측 폭경의 변화는 Profile이 1, 2 mm 부위를 제외한 다른 부위에서 가장 적었으며, ProTaper Universal은 모든 부위에서 가장 많았다(p < 0.05). 4. 근관 외측 폭경의 변화는 Mtwo이 1 mm 부위를 제외한 모든 부위에서 가장 적었으며, Profile은 3, 4 mm 부위에서 가장 많았다(p < 0.05). ProTaper Universal와 K3는 1, 2, 6, 7 mm 부위에서 가장 많았다(p < 0.05). 5. 근관중심변위율(centering ratio)은 Profile이 1, 4, 5, 6 mm 부위에서 가장 적었다(p < 0.05). 이상의 결과, 구동성 NiTi 파일을 이용한 만곡 근관의 근관형성은 치경부는 ProTaper와 같은 삭제력이 높은 파일을 사용하는 것이 근관 입구를 효과적으로 넓히고 더 나은 taper를 형성하며, 근단부는 Profile과 같은 근관 중심 변위가 적은 파일을 사용하는 것이 근관형성 시간을 단축하고 근단부의 근관 변형(transportation)을 줄일 수 있다고 판단된다.
Purpose: Many university students are under a lot of job-seeking stress because the employment rate is low. This study sought to determine the relationship between job-seeking stress, self esteem, self efficacy and appearance management behavior amongst university students focusing on nursing. Methods: This descriptive correlational study evaluated the relationships between job-seeking stress, self esteem, self efficacy and appearance management behavior of 340 university students was conducted between September 1 and October 5, 2015. Results: The correlational analysis between job-seeking stress, self esteem, self efficacy and appearance management behavior revealed a negative correlation between job-seeking stress, self esteem and self efficacy and a positive correlation between job-seeking stress and appearance management behavior. In addition, age also correlated with self esteem, self efficacy and appearance management behavior. Conclusion: Stress correlated with self esteem and self efficacy and appearance management behavior. Therefore job-seeking stress may be reduced through not only self esteem and self efficacy enhancement programs but also management according to age.
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Three cases of rapid cycling affective disorders were examined from a clinical perspective. We presented several different etiologies to the rapid cycling pattern in these patients. It was revealed that the rapid mood swings were due to natural expression of the affective disorder, tricyclic induced, lithium induced, and a combination of the aforementioned etiologies. Brief reviews on factors considered to induce rapid cycling, its etiopathogensis, clinical features and treatment strategies were also presented.
Discoloration of teeth, especially maxillary incisor, that appears in various types and severties causes a major problem in esthetic aspect. The attributing factors can be classified into extrinsic and intrinsic factors : chewing tabacco, coffee, and tea are some example of the former, and intake of tetracycline, fluorosis, pulpal necrosis, iatrogenic agents, systemic condition, genetic factors, and aging process are, the latter. Treatment of a discolored vital tooth include full crown restoration, direct or indirect venner restoration, vital bleaching, and so on. Several vital bleaching techniques have been developed since Capple first introduced a bleaching case using oxalic acid in 1877. Nowadays, the technique that utilizes both hydrogen peroxide and bleaching light is most preferred. The pulpal effect of vital bleaching medicaments and lights have been controversal, but it has been also noted that 98℉~141℉, 30~35% hydrogen peroxide causes only mild reversible inflammation. In these cases, 12 and 10-year-old sisters showed generalized brown discoloration of teeth. Their primary dentitions were normal color, and there were no history of discolored teeth. The exact cause could not be found, but tooth color was improved by vital bleaching of four times. For the better esthetic results, combination therapy of repeated bleaching and veneering restoration is recommended.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the level and effect of stress on physical and mental health. Based on that result, we offer the basic research to lessen students' stress and make a program to promote health condition effectively. Subjects were 526 university students. (male: 232(44.1%) female: 294(55.9%). composed of 7 majors: human studies&social science, management, Science&technology, education. law, medicine, entertainment. freshman 108(20.5%), sophomore 140(26.6%) junior 148(28.1%), senior 130(24.7%)) Subjects were filled with 127 questionnaires. T test and ANOVA were used to evaluate each stress levels. The .05 level of significance was the critical for this research. Also used the correlation to know the relation between stress levels and effects. The result of the study were as follows: 1. According to gender, male students got 2.37, female students got 2.46 on the stress level(p=.05). And also the belonging items showed female students got higher stresses than male students. 2. According to grade, the average score of stress level was 2.42. sophomores got the highest stress and freshmen got the lowest stress level. But that was not meaningful difference. freshman and sophomore got higher stress on studying. and except the freshman, all grades got severe stress on employment. 3. According to major, there were differences on university life and surroundings. On university life, the students who majored management got highest stress and the students who majored Education got the least stress. And on surroundings, the students who majored Law got highest stress. 4. According to gender, female students suffered from more stress effects than male students.(male 2.3725 female 2.4657 t:-1.968 p:.050) 5. According to grade, the average score of stress was 2.2285. sophomore got 2.3042 and junior got 2.2148 on stress effects. 6. According to major, The students who major in law got more stress effects caused by family than any other students. The students who major in entertainment and gymnastics got more stress effects than any other students in surroundings. 7. There were significant correlations between the stress level and effects(r.=847, p=.000).
The purpose of study was to compare bond strength of Light-cured Glass Ionomer Cement with those of Chemically-cured Glass Ionomer Cement and Composite Resin to enamel and dentin surface. Each extracted molars, the buccal surfaces of which were flattened, were divided into two groups, so that 40 teeth their enamel exposed and the other 40 had their dentin exposed. The materials used were: 1) FujiⅡ LC(Light-cured Glass Ionomer Cement) 2) FujiⅡ&Shofu G.I typeⅡ(Chemically-cured Glass Iomomer Cement) 3) Silux Plus(Composite Resin) Each of the materials was applied to the exposed surface of 10 teeth by insertion into a cylindericalshaped matrix which is 3mm diameter and 2mm in height. The completed specimens were stored at 37。c under 100% humidity for 24 hours: then the shear bond strength of each material to enamel and dentin surface were measured with Instron universal testing machine. The following results were obtained: 1. Bond strength to enamel surface increased in order of Shofu G.I typeⅡ, FujiⅡ, FujiⅡLC, and Silux Plus. Statistical significance was obserbed except for Shofu G.I typeⅡ and FujiⅡ, which are chemically-cured materials(p<0.01). 2. Bond strenght to dentin surface increased in order of Shofu G.I typeⅡ, FujiⅡ, Silux Plus, FujiⅡLC. There was statistical significance(p<0.05). 3. Bond strength to enamel surface was greater than that to dentin. There was statistical significance(p<0.01). From such results, it can be concluded that when Glass Ionomer Cement is used for esthetic restoration, light-cured type, which has greater bond strenth to tooth structure, is preferred to chemically-cured type.
The results of this Study are as follows:33.6% of all participants have insomnia; 22.5% of those who have insomnia are DIS(difficulty in initiating sleep), 17.3% are DMS(difficulty returning to sleep once awakened) and 7.0% awakened too early. 3 4.8% experience sleepiness during daytime. Type 1, experiencing insomnia and sleepi ness during daytime together, is 12.0%, Type 2, with insomnia only, is 21.6%, Type 3, with sleepiness during daytime only, is 22.8% and 43.5% experience no sleeping disturbances. After studying only those with 3 types of sleeping disturbances, it is found that the most common cause of such disturbance is stress 88.4%, anxiety 56.0%, no apparent reason 33.8%, anxiety/fear/terror 29.3%, hurry 23.6%, alcohol/caffeine 16.9%, bedroom tem perature 11.1%, urination during nighttime and persons living together 10.7%, noise from inside 8.9%, illumination 8.0%, and pain/itch 5.8%. The one group revealed significant differences in residential environment(p=0.003). Sex, age, education level, medicine, monthly earning revealed no meaningful differences. Of sleeping behavior, mean duration of sleep latency(p=0.000), whether or not feeling freshness(p=0.000), whether taking enough sleep(p=0.029), whether taking regular sleep(p=0.005) showed significant differences depending on whether or not having insomnia, and mean duration of sleep time, time to sleep, time of rising, whether taking naps did not reveal significant differences. Of sleep behavior, time to sleep(p=0.000), whether taking naps(p=0.000), indicated significant differences. Of sleeping behavior, mean duration of sleep latency(p=0.000), whether or not feeling freshness(p=0.000), and whether taking enough sleep(p=0.000), time of going to bed (p=0.002), whether or not taking nap(p=0.000), whether or not taking regular sleep(p=0.010) indicated significant differences among the sleeping disturbance types.
본 연구는 여성생활사 중심의 유물 박물관인 숙명박물관의 인지도와 브랜딩의 문제를 해결하기 위해 브랜드·스페이스·마케팅을 활용한 통합 브랜드 개발 프로세스를 제안하는데 목적이 있다. 아울러 본 연구는 박물관의 브랜드를 프로모션하고 그래픽, 제품, 공간의 통합 브랜드를 구축하는 일련의 프로세스를 밝히는데 목적이 있다. 이에 본 연구의 시간적 범위는 2017년 3월부터 6월까지 총 15주간 숙명여대 환경디자인학과 <브랜드·스페이스·마케팅>수업에서 진행된 수업의 결과물로서 4개 팀 중, 1개 팀의 작업물로 한다. 본 연구의 대상적 범위는 ‘숙명여자대학교 숙명박물관'의 2D~4D까지의 전반으로 설정한다. 그 결과, 제품부터 공간까지 숙명박물관의 통합된 브랜딩은 일 관성과 객관성, 스토리성을 얻을 수 있었다. ’숙명박물관'은 학교의 박물관이라는 장점을 극대화시켜 가치와 스토리를 부여하고 하나의 브랜드로 리뉴얼했다는 점에서 의의가 있다. 또한 향후 보편적인 박물관들의 차별화된 브랜드 개발의 참고자료로 활용될 수 있을 것으로 기대하며 브랜드 개발에 있어서 G·I, P·I, S·I의 통합 브랜드 메뉴의 기초 자료로 활용될 것으로 사료된다.
신생아실에서의 미숙아 및 선천성 기형의 치료의 발달과 함께 중심 정맥의 필요성이 증가되면서 경피적 중심 정맥 확보인 경피적 정맥 도관(PCVC)을 시행하게 되었으며 현재 널리 이용하계 되었다. 1995년 5월에서부터 1997년 4월까지 본원 신생아실에서 경피적 정맥 도관을 시행받은 78례에 대상으로 후향적으로 성공률의 유무, 도관 유지, 문제점, 합병증등을 알아 보아 향후 치료에 도움을 얻고자 본 연구를 시행하였다. 1. 경피적 정맥 도관을 시행한 78례중 64례(80.8%)에서 시술에 성공하였으며 본 시술만 전담하는 간호사에 의해 시행한 1997년 1월에서 4월까지 성공률은 95.3%였다(p<0.001). 2. 73.1%가 총정맥 영양법을 위해 시행되었고 이중 43.6%가 미숙아로 인한 총정맥 영양법을 위해 본 시술이 필요하였으며 17.9%는 항생제를 포함한 장기간의 약제 사용을 위한 정맥 확보를 위해, 9%에서 고농도의 용액의 사용을 위해 시술되었다. 3. 시술 부위는 주관절 정맥이 59.4%로 가장 많았고 액와 정맥이 35.9%로 많았다. 4. 시술후 도관의 위치는 우심방이 44.9%, 상대 정맥이 12.8%, 액와 정맥이 21.8%, 하대 정맥이 1.3%, 무명정맥이 1.3%로 우심방과 상대 정맥에 위치한 경우와 그이외 말초 부위에 위치한 경우를 비교했을 때 우심방과 상대 정맥에 위치한 경우가 도관의 유지기간이 의의있게 길었다(p<0.001). 5. 도관 제거의 이유는 더 이상 수액 제제가 피료치 않아 계획적으로 제거된 경우가 56.3%, 기계적 폐색등으로 제거된 경우가 21.9%, 도관과 관련된 감염으로 제거된 경우가 3%순이었다. 6. 도관 제거후 배양 검사를 시행한 36례중 9례(25%)에서 균이 배양되었고 staphylococcus epidermidis와 candida albicans가 대부분을 차지하였다. Percutaneous central venous catherization(PCVC) is performed commonly as a vascular access procedure for a various indications in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). We evaluated a total of 78 PCVC cases performed in the NICU over 2 years from April, 1995 to April, 1997 in terms of age, success rate, indications, insertion sites, indwelling time and causes of removal of catheters, and associated complications including sepsis retrospectively. The results are described below ; 1. Patient ages and body weights at the time of insertion ranged from 1-120 days (average age, 10.9 days) and from 660-4,100 gm(average weight, 2,119 gm) respectively. 2. The overall success rate of insertions was 80.8%, however, the insertions attempted by highly- trained nurse were successful in 95.3 % from Jan. to April, 1997. 3. The most common indication was total parenteral nutrition (73.1%). 4. The insertion sites were cubital vein(59.4%), axillary vein(35.9%), and external jugular vein(3.1%). 5. The locations of catheter tip were right atrium(44.9%), axillary vein(21.8%), superior vena cava(12.8%), and inferior vena cava(1.3%). 6. The indwelling time ranged from 1-52 days (average, 12.6 days). When the catheter tips were placed in the right atrium or superior vena cava, the catheter was placed in the longer duration compared to those of other sites significantly. 7. The causes of removal of catheter were elective (56.3 %), mechanical obstruction(21.9%) and catheter related infection(3%). 8. The cultures of catheter tip were done after removal in 36 cases, among them cultures were positive in 9 cases(25%) the most common causes were S. epidermidis and Candida albicans.