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An action spectrum for photosensitivity in sponge larvae published by Leys et al. [J. Comp. Physiol., A, 2002, 188, 199-202] was interpreted by the authors as being due to a combination of light absorption by flavin or carotenoid in the blue region, and another pigment such as pterin in the long-wavelength region. Here we show here that their action spectrum closely matches the absorption spectrum of reduced cytochrome c oxidase that is present in sponges, and compare with other photoreactions which are thought to be due to this chromoprotein.
Singapore is a city state that in 2019 imported 90% of its food from 176 countries, whilst throwing away 600,000 tonnes, posing strong challenges to the notion of environmental justice in today"s rapidly shifting environmental ecology. The real challenge, however, is hidden within the citizens themselves. Many today are far disconnected from agriculture and their food source; the farms that do operate in land scare Singapore have a heavy reliance on migrant workers. There is a need for a resurgence of local citizens taking up the responsibility of securing our food supply for the future. We explore in this paper the outcomes of a social urban farming experiment that connects the natural, economical, technological, and societal aspects in the city state.
Semantic representations which are unerspecified with respect to, for example, scope, have recently attracted much attention. Most research in this area has focused on treating English language phenomena in a theoretical fashion. Our paper deviates from this twofold: We take Japanese as the language of our in-vestigations and describe how our ideas about underspecified Japanese semantics (e.g., on modality adverbs) have been implemented in a spoken-language machine translation system.
Adopting Maria Manzon's theoretical framework, which draws on Foucault and proposes that comparative education as an academic field is socially constructed, I suggest that the field is neither stable nor well defined. To demonstrate this, I conduct a content analysis of the Comparative Education Review, using Klaus Krippendorff's methodological framework to study comparative and international education (CIE) researchers' understanding of the national—and of their related knowledge production in the field. Many comparativists express interests in multiple countries, and their knowledge production takes the form of individual country studies. The countries are habitually studied using a “problem approach” focusing on one specific aspect of the country under investigation and using an associated social science methodology deemed appropriate. Few comparativists are making explicit use of or reference to any methodology that is unique to comparative education. Efforts to catalog and systematize CIE research have demonstrated that the field is becoming so inclusive that it hardly is distinguishable from educational studies as a whole. Hence, I suggest that instead of speaking about unifying features of the field, it may be more relevant to speak about frequent elements, such as a focus on the national, and a knowledge production characterized by the academic practitioner who desires to improve the education systems studied. A third frequent element may be the focus on educational development, thus justifying the label of “comparative, international, and development education.” One challenge of the field is its dependence on Western social science discourses, which may be marginalizing other voices.