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        • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재후보

          Computational assessment of blockage and wind simulator proximity effects for a new full-scale testing facility

          Bitsuamlak,,Girma,T.,Dagnew,,Agerneh,Chowdhury,,Arindam,Gan Techno-Press 2010 Wind and Structures, An International Journal (WAS Vol.13 No.1

          A new full scale testing apparatus generically named the Wall of Wind (WoW) has been built by the researchers at the International Hurricane Research Center (IHRC) at Florida International University (FIU). WoW is capable of testing single story building models subjected up to category 3 hurricane wind speeds. Depending on the relative model and WoW wind field sizes, testing may entail blockage issues. In addition, the proximity of the test building to the wind simulator may also affect the aerodynamic data. This study focuses on the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) assessment of the effects on the quality of the aerodynamic data of (i) blockage due to model buildings of various sizes and (ii) wind simulator proximity for various distances between the wind simulator and the test building. The test buildings were assumed to have simple parallelepiped shapes. The computer simulations were performed under both finite WoW wind-field conditions and in an extended Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) wind flow. Mean pressure coefficients for the roof and the windward and leeward walls served as measures of the blockage and wind simulator proximity effects. The study uses the commercial software FLUENT with Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes equations and a Renormalization Group (RNG) k-${\varepsilon}$ turbulence model. The results indicated that for larger size test specimens (i.e. for cases where the height of test specimen is larger than one third of the wind field height) blockage correction may become necessary. The test specimen should also be placed at a distance greater than twice the height of the test specimen from the fans to reduce proximity effect.

        • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재후보

          Effects of upstream two-dimensional hills on design wind loads: A computational approach

          Bitsuamlak,,G.,Stathopoulos,,T.,Bedard,,C. Techno-Press 2006 Wind and Structures, An International Journal (WAS Vol.9 No.1

          The paper describes a study about effects of upstream hills on design wind loads using two mathematical approaches: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Artificial Neural Network (NN for short). For this purpose CFD and NN tools have been developed using an object-oriented approach and C++ programming language. The CFD tool consists of solving the Reynolds time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations and $k-{\varepsilon}$ turbulence model using body-fitted nearly-orthogonal coordinate system. Subsequently, design wind load parameters such as speed-up ratio values have been generated for a wide spectrum of two-dimensional hill geometries that includes isolated and multiple steep and shallow hills. Ground roughness effect has also been considered. Such CFD solutions, however, normally require among other things ample computational time, background knowledge and high-capacity hardware. To assist the enduser, an easier, faster and more inexpensive NN model trained with the CFD-generated data is proposed in this paper. Prior to using the CFD data for training purposes, extensive validation work has been carried out by comparing with boundary layer wind tunnel (BLWT) data. The CFD trained NN (CFD-NN) has produced speed-up ratio values for cases such as multiple hills that are not covered by wind design standards such as the Commentaries of the National Building Code of Canada (1995). The CFD-NN results compare well with BLWT data available in literature and the proposed approach requires fewer resources compared to running BLWT experiments.

        • KCI등재SCOPUS
        • KCI등재SCOPUS

          Computational assessment of blockage and wind simulator proximity effects for a new full-scale testing facility

          Girma,T.,Bitsuamlak,Agerneh,Dagnew,Arindam,Gan,Chowdhury 한국풍공학회 2010 Wind and Structures, An International Journal (WAS Vol.13 No.1

          A new full scale testing apparatus generically named the Wall of Wind (WoW) has been built by the researchers at the International Hurricane Research Center (IHRC) at Florida International University (FIU). WoW is capable of testing single story building models subjected up to category 3 hurricane wind speeds. Depending on the relative model and WoW wind field sizes, testing may entail blockage issues. In addition, the proximity of the test building to the wind simulator may also affect the aerodynamic data. This study focuses on the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) assessment of the effects on the quality of the aerodynamic data of (i) blockage due to model buildings of various sizes and (ii) wind simulator proximity for various distances between the wind simulator and the test building. The test buildings were assumed to have simple parallelepiped shapes. The computer simulations were performed under both finite WoW wind-field conditions and in an extended Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) wind flow. Mean pressure coefficients for the roof and the windward and leeward walls served as measures of the blockage and wind simulator proximity effects. The study uses the commercial software FLUENT with Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes equations and a Renormalization Group (RNG) k-? turbulence model. The results indicated that for larger size test specimens (i.e. for cases where the height of test specimen is larger than one third of the wind field height) blockage correction may become necessary. The test specimen should also be placed at a distance greater than twice the height of the test specimen from the fans to reduce proximity effect.

        • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재후보

          Ridge and field tile aerodynamics for a low-rise building: a full-scale study

          Tecle,,Amanuel,Bitsuamlak,,Girma,T.,Suskawang,,Nakin,Chowdury,,Arindam,Gan,Fuez,,Serge Techno-Press 2013 Wind and Structures, An International Journal (WAS Vol.16 No.4

          Recent major post-hurricane damage assessments in the United States have reported that the most common damages result from the loss of building roof coverings and subsequent wind driven rain intrusion. In an effort to look further into this problem, this paper presents a full-scale (Wall of Wind --WoW--) investigation of external and underneath wind pressures on roof tiles installed on a low-rise building model with various gable roofs. The optimal dimensions for the low-rise building that was tested with the WOW are 2.74 m (9 ft) long, 2.13 m (7 ft) wide, and 2.13 m (7 ft) high. The building is tested with interchangeable gable roofs at three different slopes (2:12; 5:12 and 7:12). The field tiles of these gable roofs are considered with three different tile profiles namely high (HP), medium (MP), and low profiles (LP) in accordance with Florida practice. For the ridge, two different types namely rounded and three-sided tiles were considered. The effect of weather block on the "underneath" pressure that develops between the tiles and the roof deck was also examined. These tests revealed the following: high pressure coefficients for the ridge tile compared to the field tiles, including those located at the corners; considerably higher pressure on the gable end ridge tiles compared to ridge tiles at the middle of the ridge line; and marginally higher pressure on barrel type tiles compared to the three-sided ridge tiles. The weather blocking of clay tiles, while useful in preventing water intrusion, it doesn't have significant effect on the wind loads of the field tiles. The case with weather blocking produces positive mean underneath pressure on the field tiles on the windward side thus reducing the net pressures on the windward surface of the roof. On the leeward side, reductions in net pressure to a non-significant level were observed due to the opposite direction of the internal and external pressures. The effect of the weather blocking on the external pressure on the ridge tile was negligible.

        • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재후보

          Topographic effects on tornado-like vortex

          Nasir,,Zoheb,Bitsuamlak,,Girma,T. Techno-Press 2018 Wind and Structures, An International Journal (WAS Vol.27 No.2

          The effects of steep and shallow hills on a stationary tornado-like vortex with a swirl ratio of 0.4 are simulated and quantified as Fractional Speed Up Ratios (FSUR) at three different locations of the vortex with respect to the crests of the hills. Steady state Reynolds Averaged Naiver Stokes (RANS) equations closed using Reynolds Stress Turbulence model are used to simulate stationary tornadoes. The tornado wind field obtained from the numerical simulations is first validated with previous experimental and numerical studies by comparing radial and tangential velocities, and ground static pressure. A modified fractional speed-up ratio (FSUR) evaluation technique, appropriate to the complexity of the tornadic flow, is then developed. The effects of the hill on the radial, tangential and vertical flow components are assessed. It is observed that the effect of the hill on the radial and vertical component of the flow is more pronounced, compared to the tangential component. Besides, the presence of the hill is also seen to relocate the center of tornadic flow. New FSUR values are produced for shallow and steep hills.

        • KCI등재SCOPUS

          Topographic effects on tornado-like vortex

          Zoheb,Nasir,Girma,T.,Bitsuamlak 한국풍공학회 2018 Wind and Structures, An International Journal (WAS Vol.27 No.2

          The effects of steep and shallow hills on a stationary tornado-like vortex with a swirl ratio of 0.4 are simulated and quantified as Fractional Speed Up Ratios (FSUR) at three different locations of the vortex with respect to the crests of the hills. Steady state Reynolds Averaged Naiver Stokes (RANS) equations closed using Reynolds Stress Turbulence model are used to simulate stationary tornadoes. The tornado wind field obtained from the numerical simulations is first validated with previous experimental and numerical studies by comparing radial and tangential velocities, and ground static pressure. A modified fractional speed-up ratio (FSUR) evaluation technique, appropriate to the complexity of the tornadic flow, is then developed. The effects of the hill on the radial, tangential and vertical flow components are assessed. It is observed that the effect of the hill on the radial and vertical component of the flow is more pronounced, compared to the tangential component. Besides, the presence of the hill is also seen to relocate the center of tornadic flow. New FSUR values are produced for shallow and steep hills.

        • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재후보

          Numerical evaluation of the effect of multiple roughness changes

          Abdi,,Daniel,S.,Bitsuamlak,,Girma,T. Techno-Press 2014 Wind and Structures, An International Journal (WAS Vol.19 No.6

          The effect of multiple roughness changes close to a building site was examined through three dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations conducted in a virtual boundary layer wind tunnel (V-BLWT). The results obtained were compared with existing wind speed models, namely ESDU-82026 and Wang and Stathopoulos (WS) model. The latter was verified by wind tunnel tests of sixty nine cases of multiple roughness patches, and also with a simplified 2D numerical model. This work extends that numerical study to three dimensions and also models roughness elements explicitly. The current numerical study shows better agreement with the WS model, that has shown better agreements with BLWT tests, than the ESDU model. This is in contrast to previous results of Wang and Stathopoulos, who concluded that CFD shows better agreement with the ESDU model. Many cases were simulated in a V-BLWT that has same dimensions as BLWT used in the original experiment and also in a reduced symmetrical version (S-BLWT) that takes advantage of regular arrangement of roughness blocks. The S-BLWT gives results almost identical to V-BLWT simulations, while achieving significant reduction on computational time and resources.

        • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

          Internal pressure in a low-rise building with existing envelope openings and sudden breaching

          Tecle,,Amanuel,S.,Bitsuamlak,,Girma,T.,Aly,,Aly,Mousaad Techno-Press 2013 Wind and Structures, An International Journal (WAS Vol.16 No.1

          This paper presents a boundary-layer wind tunnel (BLWT) study on the effect of variable dominant openings on steady and transient responses of wind-induced internal pressure in a low-rise building. The paper presents a parametric study focusing on differences and similarities between transient and steady-state responses, the effects of size and locations of dominant openings and vent openings, and the effects of wind angle of attack. In addition, the necessity of internal volume correction during sudden breaching, i.e., a transient response experiment was investigated. A comparison of the BLWT data with ASCE 7-2010, as well as with limited large-scale data obtained at a 'Wall of Wind' facility, is presented.

        • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재후보

          Computational evaluation of wind loads on a standard tall building using LES

          Dagnew,,Agerneh,K.,Bitsuamlak,,Girma,T. Techno-Press 2014 Wind and Structures, An International Journal (WAS Vol.18 No.5

          In this paper, wind induced aerodynamic loads on a standard tall building have been evaluated through large-eddy simulation (LES) technique. The flow parameters of an open terrain were recorded from the downstream of an empty boundary layer wind tunnel (BLWT) and used to prescribe the transient inlet boundary of the LES simulations. Three different numerically generated inflow boundary conditions have been investigated to assess their suitability for LES. A high frequency pressure integration (HFPI) approach has been employed to obtain the wind load. A total of 280 pressure monitoring points have been systematically distributed on the surfaces of the LES model building. Similar BLWT experiments were also done to validate the numerical results. In addition, the effects of adjacent buildings were studied. Among the three wind field generation methods (synthetic, Simirnov's, and Lund's recycling method), LES with perturbation from the synthetic random flow approach showed better agreement with the BLWT data. In general, LES predicted peak wind loads comparable with the BLWT data, with a maximum difference of 15% and an average difference of 5%, for an isolated building case and however higher estimation errors were observed for cases where adjacent buildings were placed in the vicinity of the study building.

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