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<P>Abstract. A new aerosol microphysical module MATRIX, the Multiconfiguration Aerosol TRacker of mIXing state, and its application in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) climate model (ModelE) are described. This module, which is based on the quadrature method of moments (QMOM), represents nucleation, condensation, coagulation, internal and external mixing, and cloud-drop activation and provides aerosol particle mass and number concentration and particle size information for up to 16 mixed-mode aerosol populations. Internal and external mixing among aerosol components sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, carbonaceous aerosols, dust and sea-salt particles are represented. The solubility of each aerosol population, which is explicitly calculated based on its soluble and insoluble components, enables calculation of the dependence of cloud drop activation on the microphysical characterization of multiple soluble aerosol populations. A detailed model description and results of box-model simulations of various aerosol population configurations are presented. The box model experiments demonstrate the dependence of cloud activating aerosol number concentration on the aerosol population configuration; comparisons to sectional models are quite favorable. MATRIX is incorporated into the GISS climate model and simulations are carried out primarily to assess its performance/efficiency for global-scale atmospheric model application. Simulation results were compared with aircraft and station measurements of aerosol mass and number concentration and particle size to assess the ability of the new method to yield data suitable for such comparison. The model accurately captures the observed size distributions in the Aitken and accumulation modes up to particle diameter 1 μm, in which sulfate, nitrate, black and organic carbon are predominantly located; however the model underestimates coarse-mode number concentration and size, especially in the marine environment. This is more likely due to oversimplifications of the representation of sea salt emissions - sea salt emissions are only calculated for two size classes - than to inherent limitations of MATRIX. </P>
The purpose of this study was to determine if international guidelines differ in their recommendations concerning additive therapy for advanced, but potentially curable, gastric cancer. A systematic search of the English and German literature was conducted in the databases Medline, Cochrane Database, Embase, and PubMed. The search terms used were 'guidelines gastric cancer,' 'guidelines stomach cancer,' and 'Leitlinien Magenkarzinom.' Six different guidelines published after January 1, 2010, in which the tumors were classified according to the seventh edition of the TNM system (2010), were identified. Although the examined guidelines were based on the same study results, their recommendations concerning accompanying therapy for gastric cancer differ considerably. While perioperative chemotherapy is recommended in Germany, Great Britain, and large parts of Europe, postoperative adjuvant radiochemotherapy or perioperative chemotherapy is recommended in the USA and Canada. In Japan, postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy is recommended. The results of identical studies were interpreted differently in different countries. Since considerable effort is required for each country to separately test relevant studies for their validity and suitability, an international cooperation could simplify the creation of a common basis for guidelines and contribute to improved comparability of international guidelines.
The paper reports about methodology at design of interactive e-learning modules that are suitable both for teaching and learning. They cover special topics of electrical engineering, starting from the fundamentals, through electrical machines, power electronics to the fields of controlled electromechanical energy conversion, like electrical drives, complex drive systems, application of drives, mechatronic systems, telemanipulation, and robotics. In the paper, the emphasis is devoted in detail to philosophy and realization of the modules from fields of Power Electronics and Electrical Drives. On several examples there are explained main principles and specialties at their development.
Purpose: According to current guidelines, perioperative chemotherapy is an integral part of the treatment strategy for advanced gastric cancer. Randomized controlled studies have been conducted in order to determine whether perioperative chemotherapy leads to improved R0 resection rates, fewer recurrences, and prolonged survival. The aim of our project was to critically appraise three major studies to establish whether perioperative chemotherapy for advanced, potentially resectable gastric cancer can be recommended on the basis of their findings. Materials and Methods: We analyzed the validity of the three most important studies (MAGIC, ACCORD, and EORTC) using a standardized questionnaire. Each study was evaluated for the study design, patient selection, randomization, changes in protocol, participating clinics, preoperative staging, chemotherapy, homogeneity of subjects, surgical quality, analysis of the results, and recruitment period. Results: All three studies had serious shortcomings with respect to patient selection, homogeneity of subjects, changes in protocol, surgical quality, and analysis of the results. The protocols of the MAGIC and ACCORD-studies were changed during the study period because of insufficient recruitment, such that carcinomas of the lower esophagus and the stomach were examined collectively. In neither the MAGIC study nor the ACCORD study did patients undergo adequate lymphadenectomy, and only about half of the patients in the chemotherapy group could undergo the treatment specified in the protocol. The EORTC study had insufficient statistical power. Conclusions: We concluded that none of the three studies was sufficiently robust to justify an unrestrained recommendation for perioperative chemotherapy in cases of advanced gastric cancer.
This paper presents product level considerations for multichip packaging as a cost effective alternative to single chip packaging in the design and manufacture of mobile telephony products. Important aspects include component functionality and complexity, acquisition and logistics costs, product modularity and integration. Multichip packaging offers unique solutions and significant system level cost savings in many applications including RF modules, digital matrix functions and product options such as security, data storage, voice recognition, etc.
Bauer, Siegfried,Kim, Ji-Eun,La, Kyong-Suk,Yoo, Young,Lee, Kee-Hyoung,Park, Sang-Hee,Choung, Ji-Tae,Kim, Chul-Whan The Korean Pediatric Society 2010 Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics (CEP) Vol.53 No.11
Pulmonary cryptococcosis is rare in immunocompetent subjects. Here, we present the case of a 16-year-old boy who was referred to our pediatric department for the management of multiple consolidations detected on chest radiography, which was routinely performed when the patient was being evaluated for an ankle fracture. Fine needle aspiration biopsy was performed, and the definitive diagnosis was established as cryptococcal pneumonia. After 8 weeks of antifungal treatment, the pulmonary nodules on the chest radiographs disappeared.
The processing of dietary lipids can be distinguished in several sequential steps, including their emulsification, hydrolysis and micellization, before they are absorbed by the enterocytes. Emulsification of lipids starts in the stomach and is mediated by physical forces and favoured by the partial lipolysis of the dietary lipids due to the activity of gastric lipase. The process of lipid digestion continues in the duodenum where pancreatic triacylglycerol lipase (PTL) releases 50 to 70% of dietary fatty acids. Bile salts at low concentrations stimulate PTL activity, but higher concentrations inhibit PTL activity. Pancreatic triacylglycerol lipase activity is regulated by colipase, that interacts with bile salts and PTL and can release bile salt mediated PTL inhibition. Without colipase, PTL is unable to hydrolyse fatty acids from dietary triacylglycerols, resulting in fat malabsorption with severe consequences on bioavailability of dietary lipids and fat-soluble vitamins. Furthermore, carboxyl ester lipase, a pancreatic enzyme that is bile salt-stimulated and displays wide substrate reactivities, is involved in lipid digestion. The products of lipolysis are removed from the water-oil interface by incorporation into mixed micelles that are formed spontaneously by the interaction of bile salts. Monoacylglycerols and phospholipids enhance the ability of bile salts to form mixed micelles. Formation of mixed micelles is necessary to move the non-polar lipids across the unstirred water layer adjacent to the mucosal cells, thereby facilitating absorption.
<P>The task of natural language parsing can naturally be embedded in the maximum-margin framework for structured output prediction using an appropriate joint feature map and a suitable structured loss function. While there are efficient learning algorithms based on the cutting-plane method for optimizing the resulting quadratic objective with potentially exponential number of linear constraints, their efficiency crucially depends on the inference algorithms used to infer the most violated constraint in a current iteration. In this paper, we derive an extension of the well-known Cocke-Kasami-Younger (CKY) algorithm used for parsing with probabilistic context-free grammars for the case of loss-augmented inference enabling an effective training in the cutting-plane approach. The resulting algorithm is guaranteed to find an optimal solution in polynomial time exceeding the running time of the CKY algorithm by a term, which only depends on the number of possible loss values. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of the presented algorithm, we perform a set of experiments for parsing English sentences.</P>
<P>Structural support vector machine (SVM) is an elegant approach for building complex and accurate models with structured outputs. However, its applicability relies on the availability of efficient inference algorithms-the state-of-the-art training algorithms repeatedly perform inference to compute a subgradient or to find the most violating configuration. In this paper, we propose an exact inference algorithm for maximizing nondecomposable objectives due to special type of a high-order potential having a decomposable internal structure. As an important application, our method covers the loss augmented inference, which enables the slack and margin scaling formulations of structural SVM with a variety of dissimilarity measures, e.g., Hamming loss, precision and recall, F-beta-loss, intersection over union, and many other functions that can be efficiently computed from the contingency table. We demonstrate the advantages of our approach in natural language parsing and sequence segmentation applications.</P>