http://chineseinput.net/에서 pinyin(병음)방식으로 중국어를 변환할 수 있습니다.
변환된 중국어를 복사하여 사용하시면 됩니다.
개별검색 DB통합검색이 안되는 DB는 DB아이콘을 클릭하여 이용하실 수 있습니다.
통계정보 및 조사
예술 / 패션
<해외전자자료 이용권한 안내>
- 이용 대상 : RISS의 모든 해외전자자료는 교수, 강사, 대학(원)생, 연구원, 대학직원에 한하여(로그인 필수) 이용 가능
- 구독대학 소속 이용자: RISS 해외전자자료 통합검색 및 등록된 대학IP 대역 내에서 24시간 무료 이용
- 미구독대학 소속 이용자: RISS 해외전자자료 통합검색을 통한 오후 4시~익일 오전 9시 무료 이용
※ 단, EBSCO ASC/BSC(오후 5시~익일 오전 9시 무료 이용)
In this study, we are taking step to actively manage osteoarthritis that may help gain control over osteoar-thritic pain and delay the degenerative changes in articular cartilage in future. We transiently over expressed cartilage transcriptional factor, human sox-9 gene in chondrocytes derived from consented osteoarthritic patients after joint surgery. The expression vector carrying human sox-9 gene, pAdTrack-sox9 was transformed into One Shot® TOP10 Chemically Competent E. coli according to the manufacturer protocol. Plasmid purification was performed in accordance with QIAGEN® plasmid purification kit procedure. We compared the efficiency between two transfection techniques i.e. lipofection using Lipofectamine™ 2000 kit from Invitrogen, USA and nucleofection using Human Chondrocytes Nucleofector® kit from Amaxa Biosystem, Germany. Chondrocytes were cultured and transfected with sox-9 gene at passage 1 according to the manufacturers’ protocols. Transfected chondrocytes were expanded until passage 3. Expression of chondrogenic markers namely collagen type II, aggrecan core protein and sox-9 were evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR method using iScriptTM One Step RT-PCR Kit with SYBR® Green, BIO-RAD. Chondrogenic dedifferentiation marker, collagen type I was also analyzed using the quantitative RT-PCR method. Expression level of each targeted gene was normalized to the housekeeping gene, human glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Overall efficiency ranging from 50% to 60% could be achieved using both transfection techniques. Transiently transfecting cells demonstrated remarkable competency sustaining specific chondrogenic genes namely collagen type II, aggrecan core protein and sox-9, significantly better than in the non-transfected cells. It is believed that this preliminary finding has to be extended to develop its full potential since sox-9 transcription factor is essential for chondrocyte differentiation and cartilage formation. Sox9 gene therapy would delay the degenerative changes in articular cartilage which is consistent to the up-regulation of cartilage-specific markers especially collagen type II synthesis in vivo.
This study was designed to verify the optimal · basic culture media that promote chondrocytes proliferation in vitro in order to facilitate adequate amount of chondrocytes for cartilage reconstructionas well as maintaining cartilage specific phenotype. Human articular chondrocytes were cultured in three types of basic culture media Ham`s F12, DMEM and the equivalent mixture of F12:DMEM. Cultured chondrocytes were trypsinized as they reached confluency. The viability and total number of cell were recorded at every passage. Large-scale culture expansion was used to reconstruct tissue-engineered cartilage. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis was used to evaluate the expression of collagen Type II, collagen Type I, aggrecan and Sox 9 gene, both in monolayer culture and in the engineered cartilage. The mixture of F12:DMEM promotes significantly greater (p<0.05) chondrocytes proliferation at every passage compared to the individual medium. Monolayer cultured chondrocytes exhibited down-regulation expression pattern of collagen Type II gene, aggrecan and Sox 9, whilst the expression of collagen Type I is up-regulated. Tissue-engineered cartilage morphologically and histologically resembled normal hyaline cartilage. Moreover, tissue-engineered cartilage re-expressed the specific chondrogenesis markers; collagen Type II, aggrecan and Sox 9. In conclusion, the mixture of F12:DMEM enhanced human articular chondrocytes proliferation thus provided adequate amount of chondrocytes for cartilage reconstruction. The new cartilage formed phenotypically resembles native cartilage. This results hold promise for the use of tissue-engineered cartilage implant for future orthopaedic reconstructive surgery.
Diabetic muscle infarction (DMI) is a rare complication that usually occurs in patients with longstanding microvascular complications of diabetes. The typical clinical presentation of DMI includes a sudden onset of pain, tenderness, and swelling of the lower limbs. DMI can be diagnosed by typical clinical manifestations and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment usually includes immobilization of the affected extremity and taking analgesics. A 44 year-old woman with type 2 diabetes mellitus and Hashimoto's thyroiditis for 10 years, presented with an abrupt and spontaneous onset of severe pain in the left thigh. In order to evaluate the etiology, angio-computed tomography, bone scan, and MRI of the lower extremities were performed. DMI was diagnosed based on the hyper-intense T2 weighted signals on the MRI. The patient was fully recovered with the conservative treatment.
This study was carried out to get a industrial information about a possibility of IgY antibody production, antimicrobial activity and properties of IgY antibody in egg yolk. The residual antibody activities of IgY were 91.5% after heating for 30min at 60℃. At the same time, these activities, were 73.2% after heating 15min at 65℃ and decreased vapidly at 70℃ and little antibody activity was left after heating for 15min at 80℃. When the prepared IgY was incubated at various pH ranges from 7 to 2 for 5hr at 37℃, the antibody activity was stable from pH 7 to 4 and remained to 69.8% at pH 3.
The deVelopment leVel of the Chinese pharmaceutical industry is not high. The basic science competence lacks the technology applied to commercial technology including medicines, and medicine companies are generally small. In addition, the pharmaceutical industry has many regulations on entering the market, and the leVel of standardiZation is Very low, and multinational companies are dominating. The Chinese goVernment is trying to attract the deVelopment of the pharmaceutical industry by inVesting huge amount of capital due to the fact that the pharmaceutical industry is not only directly connected with the people's medical leVel and quality of life, but also is a high Value-added tertiary industry. As China has large economies and abundant aVailable economic resources, the siZe of R&D inVestment exceeds that of other countries. It will take a long time for the Chinese pharmaceutical industry to eVolVe to a leVel that meets the realities and needs of the people. HoweVer, if a good basic science base and massiVe R & D funding are combined, there is a potential for China to stand out in the pharmaceutical field.
This study is, targeted at Korean students, designed to confirm the opinion of the student on the learning effects of the lectures conjugated by visual measures . The survey was conducted targeting Korean students . The results say the lectures itself have nothing to do with learning effects. The notion of the affirmative appreciations about the lectures will be our preconceptions. Teaching methods and adequacy of a material selection are the core factor to determine the learning effects of the lectures. In addition, the nature of the course have an effects on the learning effects of the lectures conjugated by visual measures also. In conclusion, to encourage and enlarge the lectures conjugated by visual measures uncritically is not so desirable. In order to increase the learning effects, first of all, we have to improve the teaching skill, the adequacy of the selected visual data , to be differentiated teaching methods according to the subject.
식중독 균인 Escherichia coli를 항원으로 하여 산란계에 면역시켜 계란 항체(IgY)의 생산성과 항체의 특성을 조사하고자 실시하였다. 최초 면역후 형청내의 IgG는 1주부터 생성되기 시작하였으나, 난황내의 IgY는 2주부터 생성되기 시작하였다. 이것은 모체인 산란계에서 먼저 항체가 생성된 후 계란의 난황에 이행되어 농축되는 것으로 IgY의 생성과정을 확인하는 결과였다. 또한 혈청 및 난황내의 단백질 함량도 일반 대조군에 비해 다소 높은 경향을 보여 면역단백질의 증가를 뒷받침하였다. 본 실험에서 생산된 IgY는 65℃까지는 다소 안정된 경향을 나타내었으나, 70℃에서는 활성이 급격히 떨어지는 것으로 나타났다. pH에 대한 안정성은 비교적 안정하여 pH4에서도 90% 이상의 활성을 유지하였다. 이러한 결과로 볼 때 계란을 이용한 항체의 생산은 대량생산이 가능할 뿐만 아니라, 항원에 대한 특이성을 이용한 진단 kit제조, 의약품등 다양한 분야에 응용될 수 있으리라 기대된다. This study was investigated to make industrial base from discussion about production possible of IgY antibody, properties of IgY antibody in egg yolk. Immunoglobulin Y in egg yolk and immungoglobulin G in serum were obtained from hens which were immunized with Escherichia coli(ATCC 11775). The antibody titer were evaluate in serum and egg yolk by ELISA. After the initial immunization, the anti-Escherichia coli IgY antibody level in egg yolk increased from the two week, reaching its peak in the fifth week. On the other hand, the antibody level in the serum began to increase from the first week, reaching its peak in the eighth week. The residual antibody activities of IgY after heating at 60℃ for 30min and at 65℃ for 15min were 92%, 70% respectively, and decreased sharply at 70℃ and little antibody activity was left after heating at 80℃ for 15min. When the IgY preparation was incubated at various pHs ranging from 7 to 2 at 37℃ for 5hr. With result that the antibody acivity was stable from pH 5 to 4 and remained to 99% and 90% respectively.
Medical tourism is a tourist business that combines medical services and tourism products, has developed with an aggressive marketing strategy, and is a high value added business compared to general tourism. Medical tourism became active when the legal basis was provided for hospitals to use their facilities for accommodation, with revision of the medical law by the Medical Treatment and Custody Act 2009 and the Medical Device Act 2010. In addition, with the adoption of medical tour visa, it became easy for the hospitals to provide foreign patients with medical services. Out of the about 5000 medical clinics located in Seoul, a total of 2,300 are concentrated in Gangnam, and especially, there are 4690 cosmetic surgery clinics and dermatological clinics in Sinsa-dong and Apgujeong-dong. Medical Tourism requires robust supporting industries and induces several foreward industries. The key aspects of the infrastructure system include convention centers, shopping centers, lodging facilities, galleries, fashion stores and cultural assets. Medical tourism shows big backward-and foreward linkage effects. So, we call the industry golden industry for its high value-added features. Korea boasts high-end medical techniques and services, has been attracted many medical tourists from all over the world. The main source countries for consumers of medical tourism are China, Russia and Japan, and these countries are 2~3 hours away by flight, and there are several China's mega-cities 1-hour away flight. Korea welcome 6.1 million Chinese tourists in 2014. And there were about 200 thousand medical tourists among them, and related harvest totalled about 750 billion won. For the further development of the medical tourism industries, we need to some plans and strategies such as: improvement of related institutional and physical infrastructure, specification of target market and custom-built strategies, diversification of medical and common tour combined tour goods, and construction of traditional and western medicine cooperative examination and treatment system.
감초에서 분리한 각각의 추출물(HWE, ME, AE)을 BALB/c mouse에 투여하여 탐식작용, 용혈반형성, 용혈소 역가특정 및 Rosette형성 실험을 통해 감초가 면역응답에 미치는 영향을 조사하였다. 1. 탐식능 측정에서 복강침출세포(PEC)와 비장세포(spleen cell)는 CON군에 비하여 가각의 약물투여군이 Candida parapsilosis에 대한 효과가 약간 높은 경향을 나타냈지만 유의성은 없었다. 2. 용혈반 형성 및 용혈소 역가측정에서는 CON군에 비하여 HWE, ME, AE투여 군이 유의성을 나타냈다. 3. Rosette형성에 대한 측정에서는 CON군에 비하여 ME, AE투여 군이 높은 유의성을 나타냈다. 본 실험 결과에서 감초 추출물들은 Candida paraprapsilosis에 대하여 약간의 탐식증진효과를 나타냈으며, 항체생성세포의 용혈반 시험 및 용혈소 역가측정과 Rosette형성측정에서의 유의성을 나타낸 것은 감초가 세포성 면역을 주도하는 T세포를 활성화시킬 뿐만 아니라, 체액성 면역을 주도하는 B세포를 활성화시킨다는 것을 확인 할 수 있다. The inverstigation of effecting immune response on BALB/c mouse was experimented with hot water extract(HWE), 50% methanol extract(ME) and aaceton extract(AE) 〔which was extracted from Glycyrrhiza glabra〕. The experiment was carried out by phagocytosis, hemolytic plaque assay, hemolysin titration and rosette assay. Peritoneal exudative cells and spleen cells in phagocytosis ability; the experimental group has shown a slight increase in Candida parapsilosis(HWE, ME & AE). The experiment shows no relevant correlation. The experiment of hemolytic plaque assay and hemolysin titration was treated by HWE, ME and AE. The experimental group was treated by ME and AE through the measurement of rosette assay. The experimental group has given significant increase compared with the control. As the result, the extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra (HWE, ME and AE) has effedted slightly to Cnadida parapsilosis in phagocytosis. The reason of effecting the immunocyte in hemolysin titration, rosette assay and hemolytic plaque assay ; Glycyrrhiza glabra has activated the T-cell which controlled cell mediated immunity. Same with B-cell which could also control humoral immunity.
This study was carried out to get a industrial information about a possibility of IgY antibody production, antimicrobial activity and properties of IgY antibody in egg yolk. After the initial immunization the anti-Salmonella typhimurium IgY antibody level gradually were decreased from firth week to tenth week. On the other hand, the antibody level in the serum were increased from the first week, reaching its peak in the sixth week. Molecular weights of IgY were estimated approximately 72~75KD in a heavy chain and 30~40KD in a light chain by electrophoresis.