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      • Estimation of the transverse dispersion coefficient for two-dimensional models of mixing in natural streams

        Baek,,K.O.,Seo,,I.W. ELSEVIER SCIENCE B.V; AMSTERDAM 2017 JOURNAL OF HYDROENVIRONMENT RESEARCH Vol.15 No.-

        <P>The results of the classification flow chart showed that, at the first step, in the cases where secondary currents data were available for natural streams, the theoretical equation by Baek and Seo (2011) could be used to estimate the transverse dispersion coefficient. At the second step, in the case of large value of P, i.e., P> 0.04, the equation by Baek and Seo (2013) was suitable to estimate the transverse dispersion coefficient, while in the case of a small value of P, equations by Yotukura and Sayer (1976) and Baek and Seo (2013), could be used with little differences. At the third step, for the narrow streams with <50, those proposed by Bansal (1971) and Deng et al. (2001) were preferable to estimate the transverse dispersion coefficient for two-dimensional mixing models. In wide streams with W/h > 50, the results of Jeon et al. (2007) showed much better agreement with the observed values than the others. (C) 2017 International Association for Hydro-environment Engineering and Research, Asia Pacific Division. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</P>

      • KCI등재

        통화(通貨)·생산(生産)·물가(物價)의 비선형인과관계(非線型因果關係) 검정(檢定)

        백웅기,Baek,,Ehung-gi 한국개발연구원 1991 韓國 開發 硏究 Vol.13 No.4

        본고(本稿)는 둘 혹은 여러 변수(變數)가 서로 비선형적(非線型的) 인과관계(因果關係)의 특정한 구조를 가질 때 주어진 관측치(觀測値)로부터 인과관계(因果關係)에 관한 올바른 추론(推論)을 유도하기 위한 새로운 이론인 Baek-Brock의 방법(方法)을 소개하고 이것을 통화(通貨), 생산(生産) 및 물가(物價)의 세 변수(變數)에 적용하여 기존의 인과성(因果性) 검정(檢定)과 어떻게 다른 결과를 얻는지 살펴본다. Baek-Brock의 방법(方法)은 일반적으로 두 변수(變數) 사이의 인과관계(因果關係)를 검정(檢定)하는 데 사용될 수 있으나 변수간(變數間)에 내재하는 실제 인과관계(因果關係)가 선형(線型)인 경우 Granger 검정법(檢定法) 등 기존의 방법(方法)이 높은 검정력(檢定力)을 보이므로 여기서는 주로 비선형인과성(非線型因果性) 검정(檢定)에 초점을 맞춘다. 본(本) 검정법(檢定法)은 인과성(因果性) 여부를 조건부확률에 기초하여 정의한 후 개별확률을 상관적분(相關積分) (correlation integral)을 사용하여 추정(推定)토록 하였다. 이 방법(方法)은 변수간(變數間)의 인과관계(因果關係)가 비선형적(非線型的)일 때 유효하다는 장점을 지니나 인과성(因果性)이 없다는 귀무가설하(歸無假說下)에서 표본수에 따른 검정통계량(檢定統計量)의 점근분포(漸近分布), 그릇된 귀무가설(歸無假說)에 대한 최대의 기각력(棄却力)을 창출하는 척도모수(尺度母數)(scale parameter) 등에 관한 이론적 배경이 미흡하다는 단점이 있다. 본고(本稿)에서는 이를 Monte Carlo 시뮬레이션을 실시하여 보완하였다. 통화(通貨), 생산(生産) 및 물가간(物價間)에는 Granger 검정법(檢定法)을 실시했을 경우 통화(通貨)와 생산(生産)만이 서로 인과성(因果性)이 있을 뿐 물가(物價)와 다른 변수간(變數間)의 인과성(因果性) 증거는 희박하였다. 한편 Baek-Brock의 검정법(檢定法)은 이미 벡터자기회귀모형(自己回歸模型)(VAR)을 통해 밝혀진 선형관계(線型關係) 외에 물가(物價)가 생산(生産) 및 통화(通貨)에 미치는 비선형인과성(非線型因果性)에 관한 추가적 정보를 제공해 주고 있으며 구체적으로 그러한 인과관계(因果關係)가 몇 기(期) 후부터 나타나는지 밝혀 준다. 그러나 이를 이용한 구체적인 모형화(模型化)는 추후의 논문을 통해 밝히기로 한다. The purpose of this paper is primarily to introduce a nonparametric statistical tool developed by Baek and Brock to detect a unidirectional causal ordering between two economic variables and apply it to interesting macroeconomic relationships among money, production and prices. It can be applied to any other causal structure, for instance, defense spending and economic performance, stock market index and market interest rates etc. A key building block of the test for nonlinear Granger causality used in this paper is the correlation. The main emphasis is put on nonlinear causal structure rather than a linear one because the conventional F-test provides high power against the linear causal relationship. Based on asymptotic normality of our test statistic, the nonlinear causality test is finally derived. Size of the test is reported for some parameters. When it is applied to a money, production and prices model, some evidences of nonlinear causality are found by the corrected size of the test. For instance, nonlinear causal relationships between production and prices are demonstrated in both directions, however, these results were ignored by the conventional F-test. A similar results between money and prices are obtained at high lag variables.

      • KCI등재후보

        K-function Test for the Spatial Randomness among the Earthquakes in the Korean Peninsula

        Baek,,Jangsun,Bae,,Jong,Sung 한국통계학회 2001 Communications for statistical applications and me Vol.8 No.2

        Kim and Baek (2000) tested the spatial randomness for the earthquake occurrence in the Korean Peninsula by using the nearest-neighbor test statistics and empirical distribution functions. The K-function, however, has obvious advantages over the methods used in Kim and Baek (2000), such as it does not depend on the shape of the study region and is an effective summary of spatial dependence over a wide range of scales. We applied the K-function method for testing the randomness to both of the historical and the instrumental seismicity data. It was found that the earthquake occurrences for historical and instrumental seismicity data are not random and clustered rather than scattered.

      • KCI등재

        Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α Directly Induces the Expression of Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-κB Ligand in Chondrocytes

        Kyunghwa,Baek,Hyun-Jung,Park,Jeong-Hwa,Baek 대한구강생물학회 2016 International Journal of Oral Biology Vol.41 No.1

        Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) is an osteoblast/stromal cell-derived essential factor for osteoclastogenesis. During endochondral bone formation, hypertrophic chondrocytes calcify cartilage matrix that is subsequently resorbed by osteoclasts in order to be replaced by new bone. Hypoxia-induced upregulation of RANKL expression has been previously demonstrated in an in vitro system using osteoblasts; however, the involved mechanism remains unclear in chondrocytes. In the present study, we investigated whether hypoxia regulates RANKL expression in ATDC5 cells, a murine chondrogenic cell line, and hypoxiainducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) mediates hypoxia-induced RANKL expression by transactivating the RANKL promoter. The expression levels of RANKL mRNA and protein, as well as HIF-1α protein, were significantly increased in ATDC5 cells under hypoxic condition. Constitutively active HIF-1α alone significantly increased the levels of RANKL expression under normoxic conditions, whereas dominant negative HIF-1α reduced hypoxia-induced RANKL expression. HIF-1α increased RANKL promoter reporter activity in a HIF-1α binding element-dependent manner in ATDC5 cells. Hypoxia-induced RANKL levels were much higher in differentiated ATDC5 cells, as compared to proliferating ATDC5 cells. These results suggested that under hypoxic conditions, HIF-1α mediates induction of RANKL expression in chondrocytes; in addition, hypoxia plays a role in osteoclastogenesis during endochondral bone formation, at least in part, through the induction of RANKL expression in hypertrophic chondrocytes.

      • KCI등재

        국제개발협력 정부기관 비교 연구 - 6개 원조공여국의 농촌지도를 중심으로 -

        백숙희 ( Sookhee¸ Baek ), 임형백 ( Hyung Baek¸ Lim ) 전남대학교 지역개발연구소 2020 지역개발연구 Vol.52 No.2

        농촌지도(rural extension)는 전 세계의 많은 국가에 존재하는 정부기관이다. 농촌지도는 오랜 역사를 가지고 있고, 많은 원조공여국과 원조수원국에 존재한다. 농촌지도는 국제개발협력에서 중요한 농업기관이다. 한국에는 일제강점기에 도입되었고, 현재에도 농림축산식품부 산하 농촌진흥청의 주요 기능 중 하나로 남아 있다. 이 논문은 대표적인 6개 선진 원조공여국의 농촌지도를 비교·연구하였다. 농촌지도는 거의 4천년 동안 진화되어 왔지만, 현대적 농촌지도는 1874년 아일랜드에서 탄생했다. 지도(extension)이라는 용어도 영국에서 처음 사용되었다. 이렇게 탄생한 농촌지도는 제2차 세계대전, 즉 1950년대 이전에 전 세계로 확산된 농촌개발 모델이다. 제2차 세계대전 전에는 영국, 프랑스 등의 유럽의 각국들이 제국주의 하에서 아프리카, 아시아 및 라틴아메리카의 여러 나라들을 강점하여 농촌지도사업을 실시한 경우이다. 제2차 세계대전 이후에는 UN, 미국 등을 통하여 전 세계로 확산되었다. 따라서 일반적으로 제3세계의 근대적 농촌지도사업의 역사를 논할 때는 제2차 세계대전을 기점으로 삼아 그 이전과 이후로 나누고 있다. 그러나 농촌지도는 농촌개발모델이지 농촌개발 이론은 아니다. 농촌개발 이론은 제2차 세계대전 이후 1950년대부터 등장하기 시작했다. Rural extension has a long history and exists in man donor countries and recipient countries. Rural extension is an important government organization for international development cooperation. This papers is a comparative study of representative 6 donor countries. Modern rural extension was born in Ireland in 1874. Rural extension is rural development model which spread all over the world before World War Ⅱ, or 1950. Before World War Ⅱ, European countries, such as Britain, france, and other countries conducted rural extension in colonies in Africa, Asia and Latin America under imperialism. After World War Ⅱ, rural extension spread all over the world through the United States and United Nations(UN).

      • KCI등재

        Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α Directly Induces the Expression of Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-κB Ligand in MLO-Y4 Osteocytes

        Kyunghwa,Baek,Hyun-Jung,Park,Jeong-Hwa,Baek 대한구강생물학회 2015 International Journal of Oral Biology Vol.40 No.1

        Osteocytes may function as mechanotransducers by regulating local osteoclastogenesis. Reduced availability of oxygen, i.e. hypoxia, could occur during disuse, bone development, and fracture. Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) is an osteoblast/stromal cell derived essential factor for osteoclastogenesis. The hypoxia induced osteoclastogenesis via increased RANKL expression in osteoblasts was demonstrated. Hypoxic regulation of gene expression generally involves activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) transcription pathway. In the present study, we investigated whether hypoxia regulates RANKL expression in murine osteocytes and HIF-1α mediates hypoxia-induced RANKL expression by transactivating RANKL promoter, to elucidate the role of osteocyte in osteoclastogenesis in the context of hypoxic condition. The expression levels of RANKL mRNA and protein, as well as hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) protein, were significantly increased in hypoxic condition in MLO-Y4s. Constitutively active HIF-1α alone significantly increased the levels of RANKL expression in MLO-Y4s under normoxic conditions, whereas dominant negative HIF-1α blocked hypoxia-induced RANKL expression. To further explore to find if HIF-1α directly regulates RANKL transcription, a luciferase reporter assay was conducted. Hypoxia significantly increased RANKL promoter activity, whereas mutations of putative HIF-1α binding elements in RANKL promoter prevented this hypoxia-induced RANKL promoter activity in MLO-Y4s. These results suggest that HIF-1α mediates hypoxia-induced up-regulation of RANKL expression, and that in osteocytes of mechanically unloaded bone, hypoxia enhances osteoclastogenesis, at least in part, via an increased RANKL expression in osteocytes.

      • Development of salt-tolerant transgenic rice using OsCBF4 cDNA

        So-Hyeon,Baek,Eun-Mi,Lee,Man-Kee,Baek,Woo-Jae,Kim,Jong-Ho,Park,Ki-Yong,Ha,Hyun-Soon,Kim,Young-Chan,Cho,Jeom-Ho,Lee 한국육종학회 2014 한국육종학회 심포지엄 Vol.2014 No.07

        This study was conducted to isolate a salt tolerant gene and to develop salt tolerant rice for reclaimed-saline areas through genetic transformation. A rice c/DRE binding factor 4(OsCBF4) cDNA was isolated from rice using RT-PCR. The full-length cDNA of the CBF4 gene consists of 1,429 nucleotides and 274 amino acid residues. In order to develop salt tolerant rice, transgenic rice plants containing the OsCBF4 gene were obtained via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The stable incorporation of the OsCBF4 gene into rice genome was confirmed by PCR and Southern analysis. The stable expression of introduced gene was also validated by RT-PCR analysis in T2 plants. Biological assay of T3 progeny of the transgenic plants in Yoshida solution containing 120mM Nacl for 2weeks, confirmed that the OsCBF4 confers salt tolerance to transgenic rice plants. OsCBF4 transgene in the transgenic line CBF4-10 was markedly expressed up to over three-fold in the leaf by 120 mM NaCl treatment. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that the levels of the transgene expression were markedly increased under salt treatment. The transgenic line CBF4-10 which showed highest ability to recover from the saline stress could be used as a potential source for salt tolerance in rice breeding programs

      • KCI등재후보
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