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          Accidental Peccei–Quinn symmetry from discrete flavour symmetry and Pati–Salam

          Bjö,rkeroth, Fredrik,Chun, Eung Jin,King, Stephen F. North-Holland Pub. Co 2018 Physics letters. Section B Vol.777 No.-

          <P><B>Abstract</B></P> <P>We show how an accidental U ( 1 ) Peccei–Quinn (PQ) symmetry can arise from a discrete <SUB> A 4 </SUB> family symmetry combined with a discrete flavour symmetry <SUB> Z 3 </SUB> × Z 5 2 , in a realistic Pati–Salam unified theory of flavour. Imposing only these discrete flavour symmetries, the axion solution to the strong <I>CP</I> problem is protected from PQ-breaking operators to the required degree. A QCD axion arises from a linear combination of <SUB> A 4 </SUB> triplet flavons, which are also responsible for fermion flavour structures due to their vacuum alignments. We find that the requirement of an accidental PQ symmetry arising from a discrete flavour symmetry constrains the form of the Yukawa matrices, providing a link between flavour and the strong <I>CP</I> problem. Our model predicts specific flavour-violating couplings of the flavourful axion and thus puts a strong limit on the axion scale from kaon decays.</P>

        • KCI등재

          Rethinking Japan's China Policy: Japan as an Accomodator in the Rise of China, 1978-2011

          Björn Jerdén,Linus Hagström 동아시아연구원 2012 Journal of East Asian Studies Vol.12 No.2

          For the last four decades Sino-Japanese relations have been characterized by steadily growing economic and sociocultural interactions. Yet, greater interdependence has developed in tandem with bilateral tensions. Many analysts have attempted to explain the latter as a result of Japan trying to balance or contain the burgeoning growth of Chinese capabilities. In this article, we question and qualify this widespread understanding of Japan's response to China's rise by examining how Japan has handled China's rise between 1978 and 2011. More precisely, how has Japan dealt with China's long-term core strategic interests, which are embodied in the post-1978 Chinese “grand strategy” that is believed to have been instrumental to China's rise? Our main finding is that to a significant degree Japan has accommodated the rise of China rather than balanced against it.

        • Serious Play: Bibliodrama in the Context of Creative Incarnation

          Björn Krondorfer 한국사이코드라마.소시오드라마학회 2008 한국사이코드라마학회지 Vol.11 No.1

          Bibliodrama refers to the “drama of books” etymologically, and particularly refers to the dramatic enactment of biblical stories. In the Christian tradition, we have the notion of “incarnation” that can be interpreted to mean that we as humans can locate the divine in our bodies. This is why biblical stories work so well. Yet, the bibliodramatic method is not limited to the Bible. I have applied the technique to poetry and short stories; others have worked with select literary vignettes, Greek mythology, Mesopotamian myths, or even hagiographies. In view of bibliodrama in comparison with the theatrical performances, Bibliodrama is not a staged play for which actors rehearse a given role. Improvisation and spontaneity are essential elements. It is played only by and for the people who are actively participating in workshops with no spectators. As bibliodrama focuses on process and people, on improvisation and creative encounters a lot, one might think that it is akin to a therapeutic session or Bibliodrama must be like psychodrama with biblical protagonists. Surely, certain therapeutic elements are part of Bibliodrama. However it would be better to call it pre-therapeutic or proto-therapeutic. It does not diagnose or heal individual pathologies, but develops its healing power in the mediation between a given biblical narrative, creative spontaneous play, and the dynamics of individual participants engaged in a facilitated group setting. Bibliodrama is “serious play” that requires the active participation of adults willing to confront life in all its dimensions. Bibliodrama, Victor Turner said, “is not just ‘having fun’ [but] deals with the whole gamut of experience both contemporary and stored in culture”. As Bibliodramatists, we cannot underestimate the seriousness of play and we need to be prepared to evaluate the interpretive work accomplished in these encounters. And since it is always at risk of deteriorating to self referential, regressive or infantile play, we should perform the bibliodrama with consideration.

        • KCI등재후보
        • DOES BRAND ORIGIN MATTER? AN ANALYSIS OF LOW-INVOLVEMENT DEVELOPING MARKET BRANDS INTERNATIONALIZING INTO A DEVELOPED MARKET

          Albena Björck,Michelle Carvajal Ramirez 글로벌지식마케팅경영학회 2020 Global Marketing Conference Vol.2020 No.11

          Managers in an attempt to provide their companies a greater growth opportunities are taking their products and brands to an international level (Ghantous, Iii, 2008). When internationalizing, the product’s quality, reputation and other characteristics can be determined by its origins, as consumers tend to hold stereotyped images of products made in different countries. Hence, the country of origin (COO) constitutes an important extrinsic cue that consumers use to evaluate foreign products which they are not familiar with it (Okechuku, 1994; WTO, 2018). The COO impacts directly consumers’ evaluation process and indirectly consumers’ purchase process (Saran, Gupta, 2012). This phenomenon was first studied by Schooler (1965), and it is said to be "one of the widest research concepts in all the international business, consumer behavior, and marketing literature" combined (Pharr, 2005).

        • KCI등재

          Intrathecal Baclofen Dosage for Long-Term Treatment of Patients With Spasticity Due to Traumatic Spinal Cord Injuries or Multiple Sclerosis

          Bengt Skoog,Björn Hedman 대한재활의학회 2019 Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine Vol.43 No.5

          Objective To investigate dosage changes in intrathecal baclofen during long-term treatment of patients with severe leg spasticity. Methods We performed a retrospective chart review of 49 patients treated with an intrathecal baclofen pump (ITB) because of severe leg spasticity, for a minimum of 7 years. Eight patients were excluded due to catheter/pump failure or factors aggravating spasticity. Of the remaining 41 patients, 19 had spinal cord injury (SCI) and 22 were diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS). Among the SCI patients, 15 had cervical and 4 thoracic SCI, with 7 patients showing the American Spinal Injury Association impairment scale (AIS) A and 12 patients with AIS B–D. The dose was regulated by discussion among the patients and their physicians, usually 4–10 times annually, to reduce leg spasticity and also avoid leg/trunk weakness. Results After 1 year patients on ITB needed a median dose of 168 mg/24 hr (range, 30–725 mg) for an optimal effect. After 7 to 10 years the dosage needed to reduce leg spasticity in the MS patients was significantly increased compared with the initial dose (mean 157%, n=22 and mean 194%, n=18). In contrast, the SCI patients needed only a modest increase (mean 113% and 121%). The difference between MS and SCI patients was significant (t-test p=0.006 and p=0.004). Conclusion The increased dosage in MS patients compared with patients diagnosed with SCI probably reflects the progressive disease course. The need for a large dosage increase in patients with SCI suggests possible pump failure, triggering factors for spasticity or progressive spinal disease.

        • PRICE ASSESSMENT IN BUSINESS RELATIONSHIPS: AN ANALYSIS OF NET AND COMBINATORY EFFECTS OF RELATIONSHIP ATTRIBUTES

          Alexander Leischnig,Björn Ivens,Sabrina Thornton,Catherine Pardo 글로벌지식마케팅경영학회 2016 Global Marketing Conference Vol.2016 No.7

          In the business market, prices are typically subject to negotiation between exchange partners and buyers’ perceptions of the relationships with suppliers have a central role for supplier success and for establishing profitable prices (Hinterhuber & Liozu, 2015). Suppliers that seek to achieve price levels above the average market prices of offerings need to convince buyers of a favorable price/quality ratio (Töytäri, Rajala, & Alejandro, 2015). To date, however, research on absolute prices paid by buyers to suppliers, relative prices paid as compared to the average price level in a product category, or exchange partners’ perceptions of prices charged in business relationships remains limited. Extant work on buyer-supplier relationships has most commonly focused on costs rather than prices as economic outcomes of interest (e.g., Cannon & Homburg, 2001; Kalwani & Narayandas, 1995). The purpose of this research is to deepen the understanding of buyers’ price assessments in business relationships. Specifically, this research seeks to further illuminate how relationship inputs provided by suppliers influence buyers’ assessments of the price level charged and their satisfaction with the price/quality ratio provided by the suppliers. The relationship inputs examined include buyers’ perceptions of supplier relationship-specific investments, long-term orientation, and relationship planning. In addition, this research considers two relationship parameters, that is, buyers’ commitment to the supplier and dependence from the supplier. Based on a sample of executives of different buyer firms, this research examines net effects and combinatory effects of the relationship factors on buyers’ evaluations of economic outlay. While the study of net effects offers insights into the effects of single antecedents on the outcomes across a sample of cases, the analysis of combinatory effects delineates (configurations of) antecedents sufficient for bringing about the outcomes of interest (e.g., Leischnig, Henneberg, & Thornton, 2016). Knowledge of these effects helps assess what relationship inputs and what combinations thereof may act as potential remedies for buyers’ price-related resentment in business The findings of this research show alternative configurations of relationship inputs and relationship characteristics sufficient for the two outcomes of interest. In addition, this research shows that individual relationship inputs and characteristics can have opposite effects on the outcomes, depending on how they combine with other antecedent conditions. Moreover, the results of this research reveal that specific antecedent factors differ in terms of causal coreness for the two outcomes of interest. In summary, these findings add to the net effect analysis and provide a more detailed and nuanced understanding of how relationship attributes impact buyers’ price assessments in business relationships.

        • KCI등재후보

          Evaluation of ovarian cancer biomarkers HE4 and CA-125 in women presenting with a suspicious cystic ovarian mass

          Karolina Partheen,Björg Kristjansdottir,Karin Sundfeldt 대한부인종양학회 2011 Journal of Gynecologic Oncology Vol.22 No.4

          Objective: Women presenting with a large or complex ovarian cyst are referred to extensive surgical staging to ensure the correct diagnosis and treatment of a possible epithelial ovarian cancer. We hypothesized that measurement of the biomarkers HE4 and CA-125 preoperatively would improve the assignment of these patients to the correct level of care. Methods: Patients diagnosed with a cystic ovarian mass and scheduled for an operation at our center of excellence for ovarian cancer surgery from 2001 to 2010 were prospectively included (n=394) and plasma was collected consecutively. Cut-off for HE4 was calculated at 75% specificity (85 pM and 71.8 pM for post and premenopausal women). For CA-125, 35 U/mL cut-off was used. The study population included women with malignant (n=114), borderline (n=45), and benign (n=215) ovarian tumors. Results: Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC) in the benign versus malignant cohorts was 86.8% for CA-125 and 84.4% for HE4. Negative predictive value was 91.7% when at least one of the biomarkers was positive, with only early stage epithelial ovarian cancer showing false negative results. Sensitivity at set specificity (75%) was 87% for risk of ovarian malignancy algorithm (ROMA) in the postmenopausal cohort (cut-off point, 26.0%) and 81% in the premenopausal cohort (cut-off point, 17.3%). ROC AUC in the benign versus stage I epithelial ovarian cancer was only 72% for HE4 and 76% for CA-125. Conclusion: In our study, population HE4 did not outperform CA-125. Based on our data a prospective trial with patients already diagnosed with an ovarian cyst may be conducted. Objective: Women presenting with a large or complex ovarian cyst are referred to extensive surgical staging to ensure the correct diagnosis and treatment of a possible epithelial ovarian cancer. We hypothesized that measurement of the biomarkers HE4 and CA-125 preoperatively would improve the assignment of these patients to the correct level of care. Methods: Patients diagnosed with a cystic ovarian mass and scheduled for an operation at our center of excellence for ovarian cancer surgery from 2001 to 2010 were prospectively included (n=394) and plasma was collected consecutively. Cut-off for HE4 was calculated at 75% specificity (85 pM and 71.8 pM for post and premenopausal women). For CA-125, 35 U/mL cut-off was used. The study population included women with malignant (n=114), borderline (n=45), and benign (n=215) ovarian tumors. Results: Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC) in the benign versus malignant cohorts was 86.8% for CA-125 and 84.4% for HE4. Negative predictive value was 91.7% when at least one of the biomarkers was positive, with only early stage epithelial ovarian cancer showing false negative results. Sensitivity at set specificity (75%) was 87% for risk of ovarian malignancy algorithm (ROMA) in the postmenopausal cohort (cut-off point, 26.0%) and 81% in the premenopausal cohort (cut-off point, 17.3%). ROC AUC in the benign versus stage I epithelial ovarian cancer was only 72% for HE4 and 76% for CA-125. Conclusion: In our study, population HE4 did not outperform CA-125. Based on our data a prospective trial with patients already diagnosed with an ovarian cyst may be conducted.

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