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<P>New allele B*4617 showed one nucleotide difference with B*460101 at codon 167 (TGG→TCG).</P>
Sohn, W.M.,Yong, T.S.,Eom, K.S.,Min, D.Y.,Lee, D.,Jung, B.K.,Banouvong, V.,Insisiengmay, B.,Phommasack, B.,Rim, H.J.,Chai, J.Y. Verlag für Recht und Gesellschaft ; Elsevier 2014 Acta tropica Vol.136 No.-
This study confirmed the prevalence of the intestinal fluke Haplorchis taichui (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) among people and fish in Luang Prabang Province, Lao PDR. Fecal specimens were collected from 559 riparian people (229 males and 330 females), residing in 4 Districts (Luang Prabang, Xieng Ngeun, Pak Ou, and Nam Bak) and were examined by the Kato-Katz fecal smear technique. The overall helminth egg positive rate was 64.9%. The positive rate for small trematode eggs (STE), which may include H. taichui and other heterophyids, Opisthorchis viverrini, and lecithodendriids, was 15.2%. For recovery of adult helminths, 10 STE-positive people were treated with 40mg/kg praziquantel and 15mg/kg pyrantel pamoate, and then purged. Mixed infections with 3 Haplorchis species (H. taichui, H. pumilio, and H. yokogawai), a species of cestode (Taenia saginata), and several species of nematodes including Enterobius vermicularis and hookworms were found. The worm load for trematodes was exclusively high for H. taichui with an average of 7691 specimens per infected person, followed by H. yokogawai (8.3 specimens) and H. pumilio (4.1 specimens). Out of 207 freshwater fish (17 species) purchased in a market in Luang Prabang District, 138 (67%) harboured H. taichui metacercariae (metacercarial burden per fish; 520). Lower prevalence of fish and lower metacercarial density were observed for H. yokogawai (52% and 50 per fish, respectively) and H. pumilio (18% and 3 per fish, respectively). STE found in the surveyed population of Luang Prabang Province were verified to be those of intestinal fukes, particularly H. taichui.
Clonorchis sinensis is a carcinogenic human liver fluke. Its infection promotes persistent oxidative stress and chronic inflammation environments in the bile duct and surrounding liver tissues owing to direct contact with worms and their excretory-secretory products (ESPs), provoking epithelial hyperplasia, periductal fibrosis, and cholangiocarcinogenesis. We examined the reciprocal regulation of two ESP-induced redox-active proteins, NF-κB and peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6), during C. sinensis infection. Prdx6 overexpression suppressed intracellular free-radical generation by inhibiting NADPH oxidase2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase activation in the ESP-treated cholangiocarcinoma cells, substantially attenuating NF-κB-mediated inflammation. NF-κB overexpression decreased Prdx6 transcription levels by binding to two κB sites within the promoter. This transcriptional repression was compensated for by other ESP-induced redox-active transcription factors, including erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF1α), and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ). Distribution of immunoreactive Prdx6 and NF-κB was distinct in the early stages of infection in mouse livers but shared concomitant localization in the later stages. The intensity and extent of their immunoreactive staining in infected mouse livers are proportional to lesion severity and infection duration. The constitutive elevations of Prdx6 and NF-κB during C. sinensis infection may be associated with more severe persistent hepatobiliary abnormalities mediated by clonorchiasis.
Shin, J.,Jung, Y.H.,Cho, D.H.,Park, M.,Lee, K.E.,Yang, Y.,Jeong, C.,Sung, B.H.,Sohn, J.H.,Park, J.B.,Kweon, D.H. IPC Science and Technology Press ; Elsevier Scienc 2015 Enzyme and microbial technology Vol.79 No.-
Caveolae are membrane-budding structures that exist in many vertebrate cells. One of the important functions of caveolae is to form membrane curvature and endocytic vesicles. Recently, it was shown that caveolae-like structures were formed in Escherichia coli through the expression of caveolin-1. This interesting structure seems to be versatile for a variety of biotechnological applications. Targeting of heterologous proteins in the caveolae-like structure should be the first question to be addressed for this purpose. Here we show that membrane proteins co-expressed with caveolin-1 are embedded into the heterologous caveolae (h-caveolae), the cavaolae-like structures formed inside the cell. Two transmembrane SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) proteins, Syntaxin 1a and vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP2), were displayed on the h-caveolae surface. The size of the h-caveolae harboring the transmembrane proteins was ~100nm in diameter. The proteins were functional and faced outward on the h-caveolae. Multi-spanning transmembrane proteins FtsH and FeoB could be included in the h-caveolae, too. Furthermore, the recombinant E. coli cells were shown to endocytose substrate supplemented in the medium. These results provide a basis for exploiting the h-caveolae formed inside E. coli cells for future biotechnological applications.
Oncolytic adenoviral vectors are currently being developed as biologic anticancer agents. Coupling the lytic function of an oncolytic adenovirus (Ad) with its ability as a transgene delivery system represents a powerful extension of this methodology. A clear advantage is the amplification of a therapeutic gene, as replicating vectors would be able to infect and deliver the gene of interest to neighboring cells. Granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is one of the most potent stimulators of a specific and long-lasting antitumor immunity and its important role in the maturation of antigen-presenting cells to induce T-cell activation has been well documented. Similarly, the B7 family has also been shown to play an integral role in mediating an antitumor response. Most tumor cells, however, lack the expression of these costimulatory molecules on their surface, thus escaping immune system recognition. To increase the antitumor effect of an oncolytic Ad, we have generated an E1B 55 kDa-deleted oncolytic adenoviral vector, YKL-GB, that expresses both GM-CSF and B7-1. The therapeutic efficacy of YKL-GB Ad was evaluated in immunocompetent mice bearing murine melanoma B16-F10 tumors. Significant inhibition of tumor growth was seen in mice treated with YKL-GB compared to those treated with the analogous vector, YKL-1. Moreover, YKL-GB oncolytic Ad demonstrated enhanced antitumor activity and higher incidences of tumor regression compared to a replication-incompetent Ad, dl-GB, which coexpresses GM-CSF and B7-1. Localized GM-CSF and B7-1 gene transfer also conferred long-lasting immunity against a tumor re-challenge. To establish that the observed antitumor effect is associated with the generation of a tumor-specific immune response, we carried out interferon-γ enzyme-linked immune spot assay. We observed that YKL-GB induced significantly higher immune cell activation than YKL-1. Furthermore, immunohistochemical studies demonstrated robust dendritic cells and CD4<SUP>+</SUP>/CD8<SUP>+</SUP> T-cell infiltration in these mice compared to the YKL-1-treated groups. In agreement with these results, splenocytes from tumor-bearing mice treated with YKL-GB expressed high levels of the costimulatory and activation molecules. These findings demonstrate the effectiveness of enhancing the immune response against tumors with an oncolytic Ad expressing both GM-CSF and B7-1 and provide a potential therapeutic strategy for the management of neoplasia.Gene Therapy (2006) 13, 1010–1020. doi:10.1038/sj.gt.3302759; published online 9 March 2006
Co-Fe-Ni-B-Si-Cr based amorphous strips containing nitrogen were manufactured via melt spinning, and then devitrified by crystallization treatment at the various annealing temperatures of for up to 30 minutes in an inert gas atmosphere. The microstructures were examined by using XRD and TEM and the magnetic properties were measured by using VSM and B-H meter. Among the alloys, the amorphous ribbons of containing 121 ppm of nitrogen showed relatively high saturation magnetization. The alloy ribbons crystallized at showed that the grain size of alloy containing 121 ppm of nitrogen was about f nm, which exhibited paramagnetic behavior. The formation of nano-grain structure was attributed to the finely dispersed Fe4N particles and the solid-solutionized nitrogen atoms in the matrix. Accordingly, it can be concluded that the nano-grain structure of 5nm in size could reduce the core loss within the normally applied magnetic field of 300A/m at 10kHz.
The selective chemical etching of Si_(1)-_(x)Ge_(x). heteroepitaxial layer grown by rapid thermal CVD (RTCVD) method has been studied with respect to Ge content ( 0.15 ≤ x ≤ 0.30 ). The properties of HF : H_(2)O_(2) : CH_(3)COOH (1:2:3) chemical etchant is highly selective in the Si_(1)-_(x)Ge_(x) / Si heteroepitaxial structure. The selectivity is presented better than 100 for Ge content (x≥0.20) and increased with Ge content in Si_(1)-_(x)Ge_(x) heteroepitaxial layer.
A ISFET-based glucose sensor has inherent problems such as low sensitivity, drift effect and long response time. For that reason, a amperometric actuation technique was introduce to make a highly sensitivity- of the ISFET glucose sensor with a Pt actuator, which electrolysis HBO=, one of the by a by-products of the oxidation reaction of glucose. Moreover, a potential-step measurement method detecting response by only the electrolysis of H₂O₂ was developed for eliminating a drift problem. The operation characteristics of ISFET-based glucose sensor was improved by using the amperometric actuation and a measurement techniques. The fabricated ISFET glucose sensor is shown good operation such as characteristics(30mM PBS, about 26mV/decade) and linearity. A portable glucose meter with a highly resolution by using the fabricated ISFET-based glucose sensor with Pt actuation was developed and its characteristics investigated.
Electrolyte analyzer is one of widely used instrument in the hospitals and laboratories. In this paper, a desktop electrolyte analyzer which can detect and display both ion concentrations of hydrogen and sodium in the solution using ISFET is developed. We designed hardware of the system including signal-processing circuit for multiple sensor and flow system consist of a sample chamber unit and 12 actuators. For the efficient control of the system, 2-point calibration, measurement and washing algorithms are also developed. We compare the pH, pNa values measured by the developed system with those measured by reference system and verified the performance.
<P>Proper understanding of spin dynamics in the magnetic multilayer system is a necessary step for the fabrication of practical magnetic devices. In the present study, spin dynamics in the [Co/Ni](N)/Ti multi-layers at various Co and Ni layer thicknesses were obtained by optical method with the aim to identify the structural effects on the Gilbert damping constant of the multilayer system. It was found that the change of crystallinity and magnetocrystalline anisotropy depending on the relative thicknesses ratio of Co and Ni layers work as the main factor to determine the Gilbert damping behavior. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</P>