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Mijanuddin,,Md.,Jana,,Atish,Dipankar,Drew,,Michael,G.B.,Hong,,Chang,Seop,Chattopadhyay,,Basab,Mukherjee,,Monika,Nandi,,Mahasweta,Bhaumik,,Asim,Helliwell,,Madeline,Mostafa,,Golam,Ali,,Mahammad Elsevier 2009 Polyhedron Vol.28 No.4
<P><B>Graphical abstract</B></P><P>Two concomitant polymorphic coordination complexes (<B>I</B> and <B>II</B>) have been characterized crystallographically. Complex <B>I</B> shows the presence of a strong antiferromagnetic interaction and good catalytic efficiency in the liquid phase partial oxidation of olefins when immobilized on 2D-hexagonal mesoporous silica.</P><ce:figure></ce:figure> <P><B>Abstract</B></P><P>Two concomitant polymorphic coordination complexes (dark blue – <B>I</B> and black – <B>II</B>) with the formula (Cu<SUB>2</SUB>C<SUB>44</SUB>H<SUB>60</SUB>N<SUB>4</SUB>O<SUB>4</SUB>) have been synthesized and characterized crystallographically. Magnetic measurements show the presence of a strong antiferromagnetic interaction and the 2<I>J</I> value corresponds extremely well to the theoretically calculated one, indicating the fact that it follows nicely the magneto-structural relationship. Immobilization of the copper(II) complex <B>1</B> on a 2D-hexagonal mesoporous silica showed good catalytic efficiency in the liquid phase partial oxidation of olefins in the presence of TBHP as an oxidant.</P>
Nd-Fe-B계 소결자석의 특성을 향상시키기 위해서는 Nd-Fe-B계 합금의 조성 및 제조공정을 조절하여 자성분말의 입도 및 입도분포, 강자성상인 Nd₂Fe₁₄B상의 분율, 자성분말의 배향도, 산소 함량, grain size 등과 같은 factor들을 최적화 하여야 한다. 본 연구에서는 실험실 규모로 Nd-Fe-B계 합금 조성 및 공정 조절을 통하여 Nd-Fe-B계 소결자석을 제조하는 연구를 수행하였으며, 분쇄매체, 분쇄시간 및 ball size에 따른 Nd-Fe-B계 소결자석의 자기적특성을 분석하여 최적의 분쇄조건을 조사하였다. 또한 분쇄공정 중 FeGa합금을 첨가하여 잔류자속밀도의 감소없이 Nd-Fe-B계 소결자석의 보자력을 향상시킬 수 있었다. 이와 같은 분쇄 조건의 연구, FeGa 합금에 의한 보자력 향상, 건식분쇄 방법 및 powder blending 공정을 적용하여 잔류자속밀도(Br) : 14.4 kG, 보자력(iHc) : 9.4 kOe, 최대자기에너지적((BH)max.) : 47 MGOe의 자기적 특성을 갖는 Nd-Fe-B계 소결자석을 제조하였다. In order to increase the magnetic properties of a Nd-Fe-B sintered magnet, the general factors including particle size and its distribution, volume fraction of Nd₂Fe₁₄B phase, degree of alignment of Nd₂Fe₁₄B grain, oxygen content and grain size etc. should be optimized by controlling the composition of Nd-Fe-B alloy as well as the manufacturing process. In this study, fabrication of the Nd-Fe-B sintered magnet was carried out in a laboratory scale by controlling the composition of Nd-Fe-B alloy and the manufacturing process. The optimum milling condition was found by investigating the milling media, milling time and ball size. The addition of FeGa was effective to increase the coercivity of the Nd-Fe-B sintered magnet. A remanence of 14.4 kG, a coercivity of 9.4 kOe and a maximum energy product of 47 MGOe were obtained from the sintered magnet.
<P><B>Abstract</B></P><P><B>BACKGROUND</B></P><P><B>Hybrid materials are being developed with improved separation properties as pervaporation (PV) membranes. Mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) containing surface‐functionalized fumed silica (SiO<SUB>2</SUB>) nanoparticles in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) were investigated for PV recovery of 1‐butanol. The MMMs were characterized through water contact angle, pure 1‐butanol sorption, degree of swelling and 1‐butanol partition coefficients</B>.</P><P><B>Results</B></P><P><B>Most MMMs outperformed pure PDMS for the PV of 1.5% (w/v) 1‐butanol at ≤40°C. Functionalized SiO<SUB>2</SUB> fillers enhanced the affinity of 1‐butanol to the MMMs (K<SUB>BuOH</SUB><SUP>G</SUP>) which consequently improved 1‐butanol permeability more than that of water. Thus the MMMs exhibited better separation efficiencies, but those with octyl‐functionalized (Si‐DMOS) and phenyl‐functionalized SiO<SUB>2</SUB> (Si‐DMPS) exhibited the best PV performance. Filler loading of 10 wt% Si‐DMOS and Si‐DMPS were found optimal for the PV performance of both MMMs. With temperature, component fluxes of both MMMs increased whereas permeability decreased. Based on PV separation index, both MMMs performed better than PDMS at ≤60°C, Si‐DMPS/PDMS MMM outperformed PDMS even at 70 °C</B>.</P><P><B>CONCLUSION</B></P><P><B>Improved performance of PV membranes was achieved when nonporous functionalized SiO<SUB>2</SUB> nanoparticles, especially when Si‐DMPS is used as the filler. The MMMs developed may also be useful for organic compounds recovery from dilute aqueous solutions. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry</B></P>
<P><B>Background:</B></P><P>The underlying mechanisms involved in the activation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) in gastric cancer remain unclear. As nuclear factor-<I>κ</I>B (NF-<I>κ</I>B) as well as HIF-1 have been implicated in angiogenesis of various cancers, we investigated their relationship in gastric cancer.</P><P><B>Methods:</B></P><P>Nuclear expressions of HIF-1<I>α</I> and NF-<I>κ</I>B/RelA were assessed in 251 human gastric carcinoma specimens by immunohistochemical tissue array analysis. Stable human gastric cancer cells, infected with a retroviral vector containing super-suppressive mutant form of I<I>κ</I>B<I>α</I> (I<I>κ</I>B<I>α</I>M), were used for animal studies as well as cell culture experiments. Xenografted tumours were measured and I<I>κ</I>B<I>α</I>M effects on angiogenesis and HIF-1<I>α</I> activation were assessed by immunohistochemistry, western blotting, luciferase reporter assay, and semiquantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. In addition, NF-<I>κ</I>B effects on the HIF-1<I>α</I> degradation and synthesis were examined.</P><P><B>Results:</B></P><P>Hypoxia-inducible factor-1<I>α</I> activation positively correlated with RelA activation in clinical gastric cancer samples (<I>P</I><0.001). The I<I>κ</I>B<I>α</I>M overexpression suppressed tumour growth, microvessel density, and HIF-1<I>α</I> activation in xenografted tumours. Cell culture experiments showed that hypoxia-induced HIF-1<I>α</I> expression was reduced by NF-<I>κ</I>B inhibition under hypoxic conditions at the translational level.</P><P><B>Conclusion:</B></P><P>The hypoxia-dependent activation of the NF-<I>κ</I>B/HIF-1<I>α</I>/VEGF pathway contributes, at least in part, to gastric cancer promotion via enhancement of angiogenesis.</P>
<B>Purpose</B> - The purpose of this paper is to develop a real-time simulation environment for the validation of controller for an autonomous small-scale helicopter. <B>Design/methodology/approach</B> - The real-time simulation platform is developed based on the nonlinear model of a series of small-scale helicopters. Dynamics of small-scale helicopter is analyzed through simulation. The controller is designed based on the extracted linear model. <B>Findings</B> - The model-based linear controller can be effectively designed and tested using real-time simulation platform. The hover controller is demonstrated to be robust against wind disturbance. <B>Research limitations/implications</B> - To use the real-time simulation environment to test and validate controllers for small-scale helicopters, basic helicopter parameters need to be measured, calculated or estimated. <B>Practical implications</B> - The real-time simulation environment can be used generically to test and validate controllers for small-scale helicopters. <B>Originality/value</B> - The paper presents the design and development of a low-cost hardware in the loop simulation environment using xPC target critical for validating controllers for small-scale helicopters.
<P><B>Background:</B></P><P>This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of adenosine triphosphate-based chemotherapy response assay (ATP-CRA)-guided neoadjuvant chemotherapy for increasing resectability in patients with unresectable colorectal liver metastasis.</P><P><B>Patients and methods:</B></P><P>Patients were randomised into two groups: Group A was treated by conventional chemotherapy regimen and Group B was treated by chemotherapy regimen according to the ATP-CRA. Three chemotherapeutic agents (5-fluorouracil, oxaliplatin and irinotecan) were tested by ATP-CRA and more sensitive agents were selected. Either FOLFOX or FOLFIRI was administered. Between Group A and B, treatment response and resectability were compared.</P><P><B>Results:</B></P><P>Between November 2008 and October 2010, a total 63 patients were randomised to Group A (<I>N</I>=32) or Group B (<I>N</I>=31). FOLFOX was more preferred in Group A than in Group B (26 out of 32 (81.3%) <I>vs</I> 20 out of 31 (64.5%)). Group B showed better treatment response than Group A (48.4% <I>vs</I> 21.9%, <I>P</I>=0.027). The resectability of hepatic lesion was higher in Group B (35.5% <I>vs</I> 12.5%, <I>P</I>=0.032). Mean duration from chemotherapy onset to the time of liver resection was 11 cycles (range 4–12) in Group A and 8 cycles (range 8–16) in Group B.</P><P><B>Conclusion:</B></P><P>This study showed that tailored-chemotherapy based on ATP-CRA could improve the treatment response and resectability in initially unresectable colorectal liver metastasis.</P>
Lei,,Jieping,Rudolph,,Anja,Moysich,,Kirsten,B,Rafiq,,Sajjad,Behrens,,Sabine,Goode,,Ellen,L,Pharoah,,Paul,PD,Seibold,,Petra,Fasching,,Peter,A,Andrulis,,Irene,L,Kristensen,,Vessela,N,Couch,,Fergus,J,Ham BioMed Central 2015 Breast cancer research Vol.17 No.-
<P><B>Introduction</B></P><P>Tumor lymphocyte infiltration is associated with clinical response to chemotherapy in estrogen receptor (ER) negative breast cancer. To identify variants in immunosuppressive pathway genes associated with prognosis after adjuvant chemotherapy for ER-negative patients, we studied stage I-III invasive breast cancer patients of European ancestry, including 9,334 ER-positive (3,151 treated with chemotherapy) and 2,334 ER-negative patients (1,499 treated with chemotherapy).</P><P><B>Methods</B></P><P>We pooled data from sixteen studies from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC), and employed two independent studies for replications. Overall 3,610 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 133 genes were genotyped as part of the Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study, in which phenotype and clinical data were collected and harmonized. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression was used to assess genetic associations with overall survival (OS) and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS). Heterogeneity according to chemotherapy or ER status was evaluated with the log-likelihood ratio test.</P><P><B>Results</B></P><P>Three independent SNPs in <I>TGFBR2</I> and <I>IL12B</I> were associated with OS (<I>P</I> <10<SUP>−3</SUP>) solely in ER-negative patients after chemotherapy (267 events). Poorer OS associated with <I>TGFBR2</I> rs1367610 (G > C) (per allele hazard ratio (HR) 1.54 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.22 to 1.95), <I>P</I> = 3.08 × 10<SUP>−4</SUP>) was not found in ER-negative patients without chemotherapy or ER-positive patients with chemotherapy (<I>P</I> for interaction <10<SUP>−3</SUP>). Two SNPs in <I>IL12B</I> (r<SUP>2</SUP> = 0.20) showed different associations with ER-negative disease after chemotherapy: rs2546892 (G > A) with poorer OS (HR 1.50 (95% CI 1.21 to 1.86), <I>P</I> = 1.81 × 10<SUP>−4</SUP>), and rs2853694 (A > C) with improved OS (HR 0.73 (95% CI 0.61 to 0.87), <I>P</I> = 3.67 × 10<SUP>−4</SUP>). Similar associations were observed with BCSS. Association with <I>TGFBR2</I> rs1367610 but not <I>IL12B</I> variants replicated using BCAC Asian samples and the independent Prospective Study of Outcomes in Sporadic versus Hereditary Breast Cancer Study and yielded a combined HR of 1.57 ((95% CI 1.28 to 1.94), <I>P</I> = 2.05 × 10<SUP>−5</SUP>) without study heterogeneity.</P><P><B>Conclusions</B></P><P><I>TGFBR2</I> variants may have prognostic and predictive value in ER-negative breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Our findings provide further insights into the development of immunotherapeutic targets for ER-negative breast cancer.</P><P><B>Electronic supplementary material</B></P><P>The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13058-015-0522-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.</P>
<P><B>Objective:</B></P><P>To investigate whether simple and non-invasive measurement of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and/or C-reactive protein (CRP) can predict perioperative major cardiovascular event (PMCE).</P><P><B>Design:</B></P><P>Prospective, single-centre, cohort study.</P><P><B>Setting:</B></P><P>A 1900-bed tertiary-care university hospital in Seoul, Korea</P><P><B>Design and patients:</B></P><P>The predictive power of NT-proBNP, CRP and Revised Cardiac Risk Index (RCRI) for the risk of PMCE (myocardial infarction, pulmonary oedema or cardiovascular death) were evaluated from a prospective cohort of 2054 elective major non-cardiac surgery patients. Optimal cut-off values were derived from receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis.</P><P><B>Main outcome measurement:</B></P><P>PMCE (myocardial infarction, pulmonary oedema or cardiovascular death) within postoperative 30 days.</P><P><B>Results:</B></P><P>PMCE developed in a total of 290 patients (14.1%). Each increasing quartile of NT-proBNP or CRP level was associated with a greater risk of PMCE after adjustment for traditional clinical risk factors. The relative risk (RR) of highest versus lowest quartile was 5.2 for NT-proBNP (p<0.001) and 3.7 for CRP (p<0.001). Both NT-proBNP (cut-off = 301 ng/l) and CRP (cut-off = 3.4 mg/l) predicted PMCE better than RCRI (cut-off = 2) by ROC analysis (p<0.001). Moreover, the predictive power of RCRI (adjusted RR = 1.5) could be improved significantly by addition of CRP and NT-proBNP to RCRI (adjusted RR 4.6) (p<0.001).</P><P><B>Conclusions:</B></P><P>High preoperative NT-proBNP or CRP is a strong and independent predictor of perioperative major cardiovascular event in non-cardiac surgery. The predictive power of current clinical risk evaluation system would be strengthened by these biomarkers.</P>
<P><B>Abstract</B></P> <P><B>Background</B></P> <P>The evaluation of durable immune responses is important in HIV vaccine research and development. The efficiency of such evaluation could be increased by incorporating predictors of the responses in the statistical analysis. In this paper, we investigated whether and how baseline demographic variables and immune responses measured two weeks after vaccination predicted durable immune responses measured six months later.</P> <P><B>Methods</B></P> <P>We included data from seven preventive HIV vaccine regimens evaluated in three clinical trials: a Phase 1 study of four DNA, NYVAC and/or AIDSVAX vaccine regimens (HVTN096), a Phase 2 study of two DNA and/or MVA vaccine regimens (HVTN205), and a Phase 3 study of a single ALVAC/AIDSVAX regimen (RV144). Regularized random forests and linear regression models were used to identify and evaluate predictors of the positivity and magnitude of durable immune responses.</P> <P><B>Results</B></P> <P>We analyzed 201 vaccine recipients with data from 10 to 127 immune response biomarkers, and 3–5 demographic variables. The best prediction of participants’ durable response positivity based on two-week responses rendered up to close-to-perfect accuracy; the best prediction of participants’ durable response magnitude rendered correlation coefficients between the observed and predicted responses ranging up to 0.91. Though prediction performances differed among biomarkers, durable immune responses were best predicted by the two-week response level of the same biomarker. Adding demographic information and two-week response levels of different biomarkers provided little or no improvement in the predictions.</P> <P><B>Conclusions</B></P> <P>For some biomarkers and for the vaccines we studied, two-week post-vaccination responses can well predict durable responses six months later. Therefore, if immune response durability is only assessed in a sub-sample of vaccine recipients, statistical analyses of durable responses will have increased efficiency by incorporating two-week response data. Further research is needed to generalize the findings to other vaccine regimens and biomarkers.</P> <P>Clinicaltrials.gov identifiers: NCT01799954, NCT00820846, NCT00223080.</P> <P><B>Highlights</B></P> <P> <UL> <LI> HIV vaccine-induced immune responses at 2weeks predict those 6months later. </LI> <LI> The former responses can increase evaluation efficiency of vaccine durability. </LI> <LI> The former responses of the same biomarker best predict the latter. </LI> <LI> Demographics and responses of other biomarkers add little for prediction. </LI> </UL> </P> <P><B>Graphical abstract</B></P> <P>[DISPLAY OMISSION]</P>
<P><B>Background:</B></P><P>Characterisation of EWS-Oct-4 translocation fusion product in bone and soft-tissue tumours revealed a chimeric gene resulting from an in-frame fusion between <I>EWS (Ewing's sarcoma gene)</I> exons 1–6 and <I>Oct-4</I> exons 1–4. Recently, an alternative form of the fusion protein between the <I>EWS</I> and <I>Oct-4</I> genes, named EWS-Oct-4B, was reported in two types of epithelial tumours, a hidradenoma of the skin and a mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary glands. As the N-terminal and POU domains of the EWS-Oct-4 and EWS-Oct-4B proteins are not structurally identical, we decided to investigate the functional consequences of the EWS-Oct-4B fusion.</P><P><B>Methods:</B></P><P>In this report, we have characterised the EWS-Oct-4B fusion protein. To investigate how the EWS-Oct-4B protein contributes to tumourigenesis in human cancers, we analysed its DNA-binding activity, subcellular localisation, transcriptional activation behaviour, and oncogenic properties.</P><P><B>Results:</B></P><P>We found that this new chimeric gene encodes a nuclear protein that binds DNA with the same sequence specificity as the parental Oct-4 protein or the fusion EWS-Oct-4 protein. We show that the nuclear localisation signal of EWS-Oct-4B is dependent on the POU DNA-binding domain, and we identified a cluster of basic amino acids, <SUP>269</SUP>RKRKR<SUP>273</SUP>, in the POU domain that specifically mediates the nuclear localisation of EWS-Oct-4B. Comparison of the properties of EWS-Oct-4B and EWS-Oct-4 indicated that EWS-Oct-4B is a less-potent transcriptional activator of a reporter construct carrying the Oct-4-binding sites. Deletion analysis of the functional domains of EWS-Oct-4B revealed that the EWS N-terminal domain (NTD)<SUP>B</SUP>, POU, and C-terminal domain (CTD) are necessary for its full transactivation potential. Despite its reduced activity as a transcriptional activator, EWS-Oct-4B regulated the expression of <I>fgf-4</I> (fibroblast growth factor-4) and <I>nanog</I>, which are potent mitogens, as well as of Oct-4 downstream target genes, the promoters of which contain potential Oct-4-binding sites. Finally, ectopic expression of <I>EWS-Oct-4B</I> in Oct-4-null ZHBTc4 ES cells resulted in increased tumourigenic growth potential in nude mice.</P><P><B>Conclusion:</B></P><P>These results suggest that the oncogenic effect of the t(6;22) translocation is due to the EWS-Oct-4B chimeric protein, and that alternative fusion of the EWS amino terminal domain to the Oct-4 DNA-binding domain produces another transforming chimeric product in human epithelial tumours.</P>