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• A septic B-spline finite element method for solving the nonlinear Schrödinger equation

The septic B-spline collocation algorithm is set up to nd the numerical solution of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The e¤ect of use of the higher degree B-spline in the collocation method is searched for getting the numerical solution of the Schrödinger equation. The three test problems are studied to show the robustness of the suggested method.

• Estimates for a Certain Subclass of Holomorphic Functions

In this paper, a version of the boundary Schwarz Lemma for the holomorphic function belonging to N(α) is investigated. For the function f(z) = z + c2z2 + c3z3 + ... which is deﬁned in the unit disc where f(z) ∈ N(α), we estimate the modulus of the angular derivative of the function f(z) at the boundary point b with f(b) = 1 b b ∫ 0 f(t)dt. The sharpness of these inequalities is also proved.

• Inequalities for the angular derivatives of certain classes of holomorphic functions in the unit disc

In this paper, a boundary version of the Schwarz lemma is investigated. We take into consideration a function $f(z)=z+c_{p+1}z^{p+1}+c_{p+2}z^{p+2}+\cdots$ holomorphic in the unit disc and $\left\vert \frac{f(z)}{\lambda f(z)+(1-\lambda )z}-\alpha \right\vert <\alpha$ for $\left\vert z\right\vert <1$, where $\frac{1}{2}<\alpha \leq \frac{1}{1+\lambda }$, $0\leq$ $\lambda <1$. If we know the second and the third coefficient in the expansion of the function $f(z)=z+c_{p+1}z^{p+1}+c_{p+2}z^{p+2}+\cdots$, then we can obtain more general results on the angular derivatives of certain holomorphic function on the unit disc at boundary by taking into account $c_{p+1}$, $c_{p+2}$ and zeros of $f(z)-z$. We obtain a sharp lower bound of $\left\vert f^{\prime }(b)\right\vert$ at the point $b$, where $\left\vert b\right\vert =1$.

• Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oil and Hexane Extract of Florence Fennel [Foeniculum vulgare var. azoricum (Mill.) Thell.] Against Foodborne Microorganisms

The objective of this study was to determine the chemical compositions of the essential oil and hexane extract isolated from the inflorescence, leaf stems, and aerial parts of Florence fennel and the antimicrobial activities of the essential oil, hexane extract, and their major component, anethole, against a large variety of foodborne microorganisms. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that the essential oils obtained from inflorescence, leaf stems, and whole aerial parts contained (E)-anethole (59.28–71.69%), limonene (8.30–10.73%), apiole (trace to 9.23%), β-fenchyl acetate (3.02–4.80%), and perillene (2.16–3.29%) as the main components. Likewise, the hexane extract of the plant sample exhibited a similar chemical composition, and it contained (E)-anethole (53.00%), limonene (27.16%), γ-terpinene (4.09%), and perillene (3.78%). However, the hexane extract also contained less volatile components such as n-hexadecanoic acid (1.62%), methyl palmitate (1.17%), and linoleic acid (1.15%). The in vitro antimicrobial assays showed that the essential oil, anethole, and hexane extract were effective against most of the foodborne pathogenic, saprophytic, probiotic, and mycotoxigenic microorganisms tested. The results of the present study revealed that (E)-anethole, the main component of Florence fennel essential oil, is responsible for the antimicrobial activity and that the essential oils as well as the hexane extract can be used as a food preservative. This study is the first report showing the antimicrobial activities of essential oil and hexane extract of Florence fennel against probiotic bacteria.

• A METHODOLOGICAL REVIEW OF SURVEY-BASED RESEARCH IN THE FIELD OF GLOBAL AND CROSS-CULTURAL FASHION MARKETING

Reviewing survey research published in the Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management during the years 2010 – 2014, we highlight two areas where theory testing in global and cross-cultural fashion marketing would benefit from improvement. In particular, cross-sectional, single-source research designs and alternative explanations threaten the internal validity of the literature. Our aim is to discuss how a series of well-established survey preparation techniques and post hoc tests can overcome these threats and strengthen the findings stemming from global and cross-cultural fashion marketing research. At the core of our recommendations are recent advances in common method variance testing and covariate analysis. We discuss how these prescriptions can be used to advance theories related to large-scale global and cross-cultural fashion marketing research efforts.

• Augmentation cystoplasty in neurogenic bladder

The aim of this review is to update the indications, contraindications, technique, complications, and the tissue engineering approaches of augmentation cystoplasty (AC) in patients with neurogenic bladder. PubMed/MEDLINE was searched for the keywords "augmentation cystoplasty," "neurogenic bladder," and "bladder augmentation." Additional relevant literature was determined by examining the reference lists of articles identified through the search. The update review of of the indications, contraindications, technique, outcome, complications, and tissue engineering approaches of AC in patients with neurogenic bladder is presented. Although some important progress has been made in tissue engineering AC, conventional AC still has an important role in the surgical treatment of refractory neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction.

• Rationale for the Use of Anticholinergic Agents in Overactive Bladder With Regard to Central Nervous System and Cardiovascular System Side Effects

Purpose: Central nervous system (CNS) and cardiovascular system (CVS) side effects of anticholinergic agents used to treat overactive bladder (OAB) are underreported. Hence, this review aimed to focus on the mechanisms of CNS and CVS side effects of anticholinergic drugs used in OAB treatment, which may help urologists in planning the rationale for OAB treatment. Materials and Methods: PubMed/MEDLINE was searched for the key words “OAB,” “anticholinergics,” “muscarinic receptor selectivity,” “blood-brain barrier,” “CNS,” and “CVS side effects.” Additional relevant literature was determined by examining the reference lists of articles identified through the search. Results: CNS and CVS side effects, pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, the metabolism of these drugs, and the clinical implications for their use in OAB are presented and discussed in this review. Conclusions: Trospium, 5-hydroxymethyl tolterodine, darifenacin, and solifenacin seem to have favorable pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties with regard to CNS side effects, whereas the pharmacodynamic features of darifenacin, solifenacin, and oxybutynin appear to have an advantage over the other anticholinergic agents (tolterodine, fesoterodine, propiverine, and trospium) with regard to CVS side effects. To determine the real-life situation, head-to-head studies focusing especially on CNS and CVS side effects of OAB anticholinergic agents are urgently needed.

• Management of Complications After Tension-Free Midurethral Slings

Since their introduction in 1996, tension-free midurethral slings (MUS) have been proven to have long-term efficacy and safety. They are considered the gold standard treatment of female stress urinary incontinence, especially in cases that are associated with urethral hypermobility. However, they are not free of complications and, although rare, some of these complications can be challenging for both patients and physicians. Some complications occur intraoperatively, whereas others appear in the early or late postoperative period. There is less controversy in the diagnosis and treatment of complications such as vaginal extrusion or urinary system erosion, whereas de novo voiding problems are at best not completely understood. Voiding dysfunction after MUS placement may vary in a wide range from urinary frequency or urgency to retention and is usually attributed to the obstructive or irritative effect of the sling. However, present urodynamic criteria for the diagnosis of female infravesical obstruction are not satisfactory, and the best management policy for de novo voiding dysfunction remains controversial. In the majority of cases, the diagnosis of obstruction leading to a urethral release surgery depends on a combination of several clinical findings. The timing of urethral release surgery varies depending on the preferences of the surgeon, and the outcome of this surgery is not always predictable. The purpose of this review was to assess the diagnosis and management of the immediate, short-term, and long-term complications of MUS in light of the current literature in an attempt to determine the best management policy.

• The Impact of Land Use/Land Cover (LULC) Changes on Land Surface Temperature in Sivas City Center and Its Surroundings and Assessment of Urban Heat Island

Determination of LULC (land use/land cover) changes in urban planning studies is very important. However, LST (land surface temperature) and UHI (urban heat island) directly associated with LU changes are the parameters that should be considered in similar studies. Therefore, Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are commonly used for obtaining this kind of information. In this study, the relationship between LULC, NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and LST in Sivas city center and its surroundings was studied by using Landsat satellite images from 1989 to 2015 and UHI intensity was also demonstrated. The results clearly show that the urban built-up areas and agricultural lands increased while barren land decreased over the study period. The changes in LSTcan be monitored depending on the construction materials such as the presence of green areas, the city's unique geographical location and topography. Urban built-up and bare lands have the highest LST and the urban built-up surface temperature showed a fluctuating trend while the rural area temperature showed a tendency to decrease. The urban built-up areas increased, a positive UHI intensity was observed and also an urban heat island formation was determined.

• Properties and Corrosion Resistance of AISI H13 Hot-Work Tool Steel with Borided B4C Powders

In this study, the surface of AISI H13 steel was borided with powder blends of B4Cand NaBF4using the powder-pack methodat 800, 900 and 1000 °C for 2, 4 and 6 h. The structural and mechanical characteristics of the boride layers formed on thesurface were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, 2Dsurface profilometry, microhardness and electrochemical corrosion (3.5 wt% NaCl) tests. The boride layer exhibited a singlephase structure (Fe2B) in samples coated at 800 °C and a dual-phase structure (FeB + Fe2B) at higher boriding temperatures(900 and 1000 °C). The boride layers were compact and crack-free in all boriding conditions. Depending on boridingparameters, the thickness, hardness and average surface roughness (Ra) of the coatings were found to range between 5.81and 102.46 μm, 1635–1915 HV and 0.315–0.650 μm, respectively. The borided AISI H13 steel displayed up to 33.5 timesand 2.4 times higher corrosion resistance than untreated AISI H13 steel and martensitic AISI 431 steel, respectively. Thissuggests potential use of borided AISI H13 steel in the steam turbines and marine applications as an alternative to the morecostly martensitic and duplex stainless steel grades. The corrosion resistance depended on the phase structure (single- ordual-layer), density, thickness and surface roughness of the boride coatings.