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        • SCOPUSKCI등재

          Assessment of Tobacco Habits, Attitudes, and Education Among Medical Students in the United States and Italy: A Cross-sectional Survey

          Armstrong,,Grayson,W.,Veronese,,Giacomo,George,,Paul,F.,Montroni,,Isacco,Ugolini,,Giampaolo The Korean Society for Preventive Medicine 2017 Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health Vol.50 No.3

          Objectives: Medical students represent a primary target for tobacco cessation training. This study assessed the prevalence of medical students' tobacco use, attitudes, clinical skills, and tobacco-related curricula in two countries, the US and Italy, with known baseline disparities in hopes of identifying potential corrective interventions. Methods: From September to December 2013, medical students enrolled at the University of Bologna and at Brown University were recruited via email to answer survey questions assessing the prevalence of medical students' tobacco use, attitudes and clinical skills related to patients' smoking, and elements of medical school curricula related to tobacco use. Results: Of the 449 medical students enrolled at Brown and the 1426 enrolled at Bologna, 174 Brown students (38.7%) and 527 Bologna students (36.9%) participated in this study. Italian students were more likely to smoke (29.5% vs. 6.1%; p<0.001) and less likely to receive smoking cessation training (9.4% vs. 80.3%; p<0.001) than their American counterparts, even though the majority of students in both countries desired smoking cessation training (98.6% at Brown, 85.4% at Bologna; p<0.001). Additionally, negative beliefs regarding tobacco usage, the absence of formal training in smoking cessation counseling, and a negative interest in receiving specific training on smoking cessation were associated with a higher risk of not investigating a patient's smoking status during a routine history and not offering tobacco cessation treatment to patients. Conclusions: Medical curricula on tobacco-related health hazards and on smoking cessation should be mandatory in order to reduce smoking among medical students, physicians, and patients, thereby improving tobacco-related global health.

        • SCOPUSKCI등재

          Bioprecipitation of calcium carbonate mediated by ureolysis: A review

          Armstrong,I.,Omoregie,Enzo,A.,Palombo,Peter,M.,Nissom 대한환경공학회 2021 Environmental Engineering Research Vol.26 No.6

          Ureolysis-driven microbially induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) is a naturally occurring process facilitated through microbial activities and biogeochemical reactions to produce calcium carbonate (CaCO₃) mineral. MICP serves as an alternative ground improvement binder method to conventional technologies which is sustainable, requires low energy for its treatment process, results in a minimal carbon footprint and could offer economic benefits. In the last two decades, MICP has drawn great interest from the scientific community because of its practicality to stabilize granular soils, repair concrete cracks and remediate heavy metals. To obtain successful MICP application, it is vital to understand the conditions that favor its process. This paper, therefore, provides an overview of literature on CaCO₃ precipitation mediated by ureolysis-driven MICP and its mechanism. The review includes a discussion on sources of urease enzyme from microorganisms used to induce CaCO₃ crystal formation required for implementation of MCIP for ground improvement. Moreover, the key factors that influence the outcome of MICP and bio-engineering testing methods typically used to evaluate MICP performance are also highlighted. Finally, this review also provides insight on the current drawbacks (i.e. ammonium production, scale-up bioprocess and treatment cost) affecting MICP technology and recommendations for future consideration.

        • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

          Effect of Copper Source (Cupric Citrate vs Cupric Sulfate) and Level on Growth Performance and Copper Metabolism in Pigs

          Armstrong,,T.A.,Spears,,J.W.,van,Heugten,,E.,Engle,,T.E.,Wright,,C.L. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2000 Animal Bioscience Vol.13 No.8

          Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of cupric citrate (Cu-citrate) relative to cupric sulfate $(CuSO_4)$ as a Cu source for weanling and grow-finish pigs. In addition, the use of liver and bile Cu concentrations as indices of the bioavailability of Cu sources was investigated. Experiment one consisted of a nursery phase (35 d; initial BW=6.4 kg, final BW=21.4 kg) followed by a grow-finish phase (103 d; initial BW=21.5 kg, final BW=111.7 kg). Experiment two only consisted of a nursery phase (35 d; initial BW=6.3 kg, final BW=18.6 kg). Dietary treatments were identical for both experiments and consisted of: control (10 ppm $CuSO_4$); control+66 or 225 ppm $CuSO_4$; control+33, 66, or 100 ppm Cu-citrate. An antibiotic was included in diets for Exp. 1 but not Exp. 2. In both experiments, growth performance variables were similar for pigs receiving Cu-citrate and $CuSO_4$; however, growth performance was not improved by high concentrations of $CuSO_4$. Liver and bile Cu were increased (p<0.05) by 225 ppm $CuSO_4$; however, lower dietary concentrations of Cu from either $CuSO_4$ or Cu-citrate did not affect the Cu concentration of liver or bile relative to that observed in the control pigs. Irrespective of Cu source, there was no linear (p>0.10) increase in plasma Cu with increasing Cu concentrations in the diet for both experiments. However, the plasma Cu concentrations were highest (p<0.10) in pigs receiving diets supplemented with 225 ppm $CuSO_4$. Sixteen randomly chosen pigs per treatment in Exp. 1 were continued through the grow-finish phase. Body weight gain and feed intake were improved (p<0.10) by 66 ppm $CuSO_4$, but other dietary Cu treatments did not alter pig performance compared to the control diet. Plasma Cu concentrations were increased (p<0.10) by 225 ppm $CuSO_4$ in the growing phase and by 225 ppm $CuSO_4$ and 100 ppm Cu-citrate in the finishing phase. These data reveal no consistent effect of $CuSO_4$ on performance; therefore, it is difficult to assess the efficacy of these two Cu sources. In addition, these studies demonstrate that liver and bile Cu are not good indicators of Cu bioavailability in pigs fed adequate to pharmacological concentrations of Cu.

        • KCI등재후보
        • SCOPUSKCI등재
        • BEYOND THE METRICS: EXPLORING THE IMPACT OF SOCIAL MEDIA INFLUENCERS IN THE FASHION SECTOR

          Kate,Armstrong,Eva,Schwarz,Marta,Blazquez,Matteo,Montecchi 글로벌지식마케팅경영학회 2015 Global Fashion Management Conference Vol.2015 No.06

          Anna Dello Russo has worked with H&M, the Sartorialist's Scott Schuman has written his second book and home-grown Susie Bubble has consulted for Gap, Armani and Selfridges to name a few. There is no doubt that these figures are key influencers in the world of fashion and they are turning their efforts and knowledge into fiscal benefits. Fashion blogs have become not only a form of user-generated content, a medium for communicating to the masses without any prior training or knowledge, but have also evolved to become a new marketing communications channel in their own right. Fashion writers are not only dictating content to esteemed fashion titles that were once only contributed to by the fashion journalist elite, but they are engaged as brand consultants with the aim of shaping the future direction of brands in terms of content, style and scope. When did all this power and influence happen and how can we measure it? This is the central question inherent to this study's focus. The dynamic nature of digital, online and social media activities means that most research is out of date or getting closer to ‘expiry' even as the ink dries on the page. To exemplify: research dated just three years ago still includes MySpace in a comprehensive list of online networks and social media sites (e.g. Mir and Zaheer, 2012) and ‘second life' as an innovation [albeit this has been experiencing somewhat of a renaissance within certain consumer sectors in recent times]. This aside, the point is thus: academic scholarship cannot keep up with the rapid rate of digital change in the landscape, but it continues to try, as does this humble study. A volume of research has recently contributed to the understanding of the influence of social media in the fashion sphere, predominately from an electronic word-of-mouth (e-wom) perspective, for example (Bronner and Hoog, 2013; Fang, 2014; Hennig-Thurau, 2004; Kulmala et al., 2013; Liu, 2006; Trusov et al., 2009) engagement with social media (e.g. Campbell et al, 2012; Dhaoui, 2014). This body of literature has supplied a solid foundation for understanding why user-generated content may be shared and under what circumstances and to whom. However, a limitation of these significant contributions are reasons for propensity to influence, that is, once it has been shared, distributed and circulated, how do we measure the impact of this influence? Yes we can use analytics to quickly demonstrate quantitative and numerical impact in terms of followers, traffic, interaction, sales and (not so quickly) the wider reach of blogs on PR for brands, brand-metrics and customer engagement. But what about the wider influential impact of key social media writers and opinion leaders, or those that follow and listen to them: how can we evaluate this impact of influence? How does it work? Why does it work with some over others? We seek to find answers around this notion of social influence and ask: why do people listen to bloggers? Do consumers of this information distinguish between platforms: do they prefer blogs? Twitter? Picture-content through Instagram or Pinterest? Is there a gender difference? Considering also the rise in ‘erasable' social media in the form of SnapChat, which lasts ten seconds before ‘self destructing': what impact are these having in terms of influence in particular sectors like fashion, how can brands harness this power and use it to build equity, target new consumers, increase sales and revenue? In other geographical domains, such as China, where social media constraints and censorship are notable, emerging applications like WeChat are increasing in popularity, first with consumers, but retail and fashion brands are also beginning to endorse them to facilitate a meaningful conversation with their customers through these innovations. We also aim to explore the current state of play regarding terminology for social media contributors – are they still bloggers even though they create content across-platform? (It would be unusual for example, for a popular and credible blogger to only have a blog and no twitter or Instagram activity). Is the term blogger naturally all-encompassing or is it a misnomer that we need to create new terminology to explain these phenomena? Cullen (2014) the fashion magazine editor of Elle Australia created a blogger award ceremony to honour the contribution of these fashion influencers and comments that: “We picked the ones that we felt have the most traction with our readers. It is very clear we are in a blogger boom right now and everyone wants to jump on the bandwagon and [the nominees] gave fashion this new relevance. They took fashion and democratized it, so rather than have to see what the designer wanted you to see [on the catwalk], they took the runway fashion and put it together in their own ways. They made it wearable, as they mixed it with other labels and all those things that make an outfit work for real life.” This quote serves to illuminate an example of the commercial impact of fashion bloggers in the fashion sector and the relevance that influential opinion leaders believe they can have on their readership. Thus, we seek, through our research, to interrogate existing literature on social media, marketing, consumption and consumer psychological theories in the context of fashion influence with the aim of contributing to understanding in this fast-evolving transformative sector. Social media has been defined as: ‘A group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, and that allow the creation and exchange of User Generated Content. (Kaplan and Haenlein, 2010, .61). Within this context, social media applications exist to facilitate user interaction, and include blogs, content communities, discussion boards and chat rooms, product and/or service review sites, virtual worlds, and social networking sites (Kaplan and Haenlein, 2010; Mangold and Faulds, 2009). In this paper we focus on social networking, which refers to applications, such as Facebook and Twitter, Instagram/Pinterest and more disposable aps like Snapchat. Essentially, we take an all-embracing approach to understanding social media, as this is simply how it is used by consumers, in the virtual landscape (for example, users do not distinguish between platforms, they simply use the most appropriate means to communicate their content at that time). We aim to contribute a perspective that is original by investigating existing literature in two territories: social media influence and Social Impact Theory, which we will use as a theoretical perspective to explore the influence of social media on fashion. A Theoretical Lens: Social Influence Theory (SIT) After dismissing other theoretical frameworks for our study's focus including: Uses and Gratifications theory; Involvement and Motivation, the choice to focus on Social Impact Theory (SIT) (Latane, 1981) was rationalized by the centrality of influence as a construct, to the characteristics of the theory. SIT (Latane, 1981) maintains, “as the number of people increases the impact on the target individual's attitude and behavior enhances”. As influence is inherent to our aim, this theory, albeit being created almost two decades before the concept of social media, may have transferable qualities that may aid comprehension of understanding into the complexities associated with understanding the influence of social media in the fashion sector. This seemingly large leap from a traditional application of the theory to the virtual world is made more plausible by at least one previous study, that has started to also recognize the value of this framework for understanding online activity for example, Mir and Zaheer (2012) who use SIT in the contexts of social media and banking. The theory has not however, been used thus far in the realm of fashion and social media, thus, a study of this kind aims to contribute to knowledge in this field. Social impact has been defined by the founding father of the theory as: ‘Any of the great variety of changes in physiological states and subjective feelings, motives and emotions, cognitions and beliefs, values and behavior, that occur in an individual, human, or animal, as a result of the real, implied or imagined presence or actions of other individuals'. (Latané, 1981, p. 343) Latané (1981) created social impact theory to validate his hypothesis about how influence works, which led to the identification of three factors that make up social impact theory: 1) Strength: How important is the influencing group to the target of the influence; 2) Immediacy: How close in proximity and in time is the influencing group to the target of the influence; 3) Number: How many people are in the influencing group. Taking each one of these in turn, the leverage of these variables to a social media context seems obvious. Social media by its very nature encourages a ‘pull' approach to groups or communities (hence the ‘strength' variable); the ‘immediacy' of social media in the sense that messages can be communicated and responded to in real time, have been facilitated by social media capabilities. Finally, the third variable of SIT is ‘number'; in a virtual world, there is a real sense that there is no limit to the amount of people you can communicate with. To exemplify, we refer to Facebook with its 9 Billion plus users as an example of this reach, or Lady GaGa with her 44 Million plus followers on Twitter. This succinct insight into SIT theory provides a short rationale as to its applicability to a social media context, specifically the fashion sector. A more in-depth analysis of its use and application to this study will be developed for the final paper following data collection.

        • KCI등재

          Extracellular Vesicles and the Promise of Continuous Liquid Biopsies

          Don,Armstrong,Derek,E.,Wildman 대한병리학회 2018 Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine Vol.52 No.1

          The rapid and accurate diagnosis of patients with minimally invasive procedures was once only found in science fiction. However, the discovery of extracellular vesicles (EVs) and their near ubiquity in body fluids, coupled with the advent of inexpensive next generation sequencing techniques and EV purification protocols, promises to make science fiction a reality. Purifying and sequencing the RNA content of EV from routine blood draws and urine samples are likely to enable pathologists and physicians to diagnose and track the progress of diseases in many inaccessible tissues in the near future. Here we present the evolutionary background of EV, summarize the biology of EV formation and cargo selection, and discuss the current barriers to making continuous liquid biopsies through the use of EV a science reality.

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