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        Application of time series based damage detection algorithms to the benchmark experiment at the National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering (NCREE) in Taipei, Taiwan

        Noh, Hae Young,Nair, Krishnan K.,Kiremidjian, Anne S.,Loh, C.H. Techno-Press 2009 Smart Structures and Systems, An International Jou Vol.5 No.1

        In this paper, the time series based damage detection algorithms developed by Nair, et al. (2006) and Nair and Kiremidjian (2007) are applied to the benchmark experimental data from the National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering (NCREE) in Taipei, Taiwan. Both acceleration and strain data are analyzed. The data are modeled as autoregressive (AR) processes, and damage sensitive features (DSF) and feature vectors are defined in terms of the first three AR coefficients. In the first algorithm developed by Nair, et al. (2006), hypothesis tests using the t-statistic are applied to evaluate the damaged state. A damage measure (DM) is defined to measure the damage extent. The results show that the DSF's from the acceleration data can detect damage while the DSF from the strain data can be used to localize the damage. The DM can be used for damage quantification. In the second algorithm developed by Nair and Kiremidjian (2007) a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) is used to model the feature vector, and the Mahalanobis distance is defined to measure damage extent. Additional distance measures are defined and applied in this paper to quantify damage. The results show that damage measures can be used to detect, quantify, and localize the damage for the high intensity and the bidirectional loading cases.

      • KCI등재후보

        Application of time series based damage detection algorithms to the benchmark experiment at the National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering (NCREE) in Taipei, Taiwan

        Hae Young Noh,Krishnan Nair,Anne S. Kiremidjian,C-H. Loh 국제구조공학회 2009 Smart Structures and Systems, An International Jou Vol.5 No.1

        In this paper, the time series based damage detection algorithms developed by Nair, et al. (2006) and Nair and Kiremidjian (2007) are applied to the benchmark experimental data from the National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering (NCREE) in Taipei, Taiwan. Both acceleration and strain data are analyzed. The data are modeled as autoregressive (AR) processes, and damage sensitive features (DSF) and feature vectors are defined in terms of the first three AR coefficients. In the first algorithm developed by Nair, et al. (2006), hypothesis tests using the t-statistic are applied to evaluate the damaged state. A damage measure (DM) is defined to measure the damage extent. The results show that the DSF’s from the acceleration data can detect damage while the DSF from the strain data can be used to localize the damage. The DM can be used for damage quantification. In the second algorithm developed by Nair and Kiremidjian (2007) a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) is used to model the feature vector, and the Mahalanobis distance is defined to measure damage extent. Additional distance measures are defined and applied in this paper to quantify damage. The results show that damage measures can be used to detect, quantify, and localize the damage for the high intensity and the bidirectional loading cases.

      • SCIESCOPUS

        Design and performance validation of a wireless sensing unit for structural monitoring applications

        Lynch, Jerome Peter,Law, Kincho H.,Kiremidjian, Anne S.,Carryer, Ed,Farrar, Charles R.,Sohn, Hoon,Allen, David W.,Nadler, Brett,Wait, Jeannette R. Techno-Press 2004 Structural Engineering and Mechanics, An Int'l Jou Vol.17 No.3

        There exists a clear need to monitor the performance of civil structures over their operational lives. Current commercial monitoring systems suffer from various technological and economic limitations that prevent their widespread adoption. The wires used to route measurements from system sensors to the centralized data server represent one of the greatest limitations since they are physically vulnerable and expensive from an installation and maintenance standpoint. In lieu of cables, the introduction of low-cost wireless communications is proposed. The result is the design of a prototype wireless sensing unit that can serve as the fundamental building block of wireless modular monitoring systems (WiMMS). An additional feature of the wireless sensing unit is the incorporation of computational power in the form of state-of-art microcontrollers. The prototype unit is validated with a series of laboratory and field tests. The Alamosa Canyon Bridge is employed to serve as a full-scale benchmark structure to validate the performance of the wireless sensing unit in the field. A traditional cable-based monitoring system is installed in parallel with the wireless sensing units for performance comparison.

      • KCI등재후보

        Implementation of a bio-inspired two-mode structural health monitoring system

        Tzu-Kang Lin,Li-Chen Yu,Kuo-Chun Chang,Anne Kiremidjian,Chang-Hung Ku 국제구조공학회 2011 Smart Structures and Systems, An International Jou Vol.8 No.1

        A bio-inspired two-mode structural health monitoring (SHM) system based on the Naïve Bayes (NB) classification method is discussed in this paper. To implement the molecular biology based Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) array concept in structural health monitoring, which has been demonstrated to be superior in disease detection, two types of array expression data have been proposed for the development of the SHM algorithm. For the micro-vibration mode, a two-tier auto-regression with exogenous (AR-ARX)process is used to extract the expression array from the recorded structural time history while an ARX process is applied for the analysis of the earthquake mode. The health condition of the structure is then determined using the NB classification method. In addition, the union concept in probability is used to improve the accuracy of the system. To verify the performance and reliability of the SHM algorithm, a downscaled eight-storey steel building located at the shaking table of the National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering (NCREE) was used as the benchmark structure. The structural response from different damage levels and locations was collected and incorporated in the database to aid the structural health monitoring process. Preliminary verification has demonstrated that the structure health condition can be precisely detected by the proposed algorithm. To implement the developed SHM system in a practical application, a SHM prototype consisting of the input sensing module, the transmission module, and the SHM platform was developed. The vibration data were first measured by the deployed sensor, and subsequently the SHM mode corresponding to the desired excitation is chosen automatically to quickly evaluate the health condition of the structure. Test results from the ambient vibration and shaking table test showed that the condition and location of the benchmark structure damage can be successfully detected by the proposed SHM prototype system, and the information is instantaneously transmitted to a remote server to facilitate real-time monitoring. Implementing the bio-inspired two-mode SHM practically has been successfully demonstrated.

      • SCIESCOPUS

        Embedment of structural monitoring algorithms in a wireless sensing unit

        Lynch, Jerome Peter,Sundararajan, Arvind,Law, Kincho H.,Kiremidjian, Anne S.,Kenny, Thomas,Carryer, Ed Techno-Press 2003 Structural Engineering and Mechanics, An Int'l Jou Vol.15 No.3

        Complementing recent advances made in the field of structural health monitoring and damage detection, the concept of a wireless sensing network with distributed computational power is proposed. The fundamental building block of the proposed sensing network is a wireless sensing unit capable of acquiring measurement data, interrogating the data and transmitting the data in real time. The computational core of a prototype wireless sensing unit can potentially be utilized for execution of embedded engineering analyses such as damage detection and system identification. To illustrate the computational capabilities of the proposed wireless sensing unit, the fast Fourier transform and auto-regressive time-series modeling are locally executed by the unit. Fast Fourier transforms and auto-regressive models are two important techniques that have been previously used for the identification of damage in structural systems. Their embedment illustrates the computational capabilities of the prototype wireless sensing unit and suggests strong potential for unit installation in automated structural health monitoring systems.

      • SCIESCOPUS

        Implementation of a bio-inspired two-mode structural health monitoring system

        Lin, Tzu-Kang,Yu, Li-Chen,Ku, Chang-Hung,Chang, Kuo-Chun,Kiremidjian, Anne Techno-Press 2011 Smart Structures and Systems, An International Jou Vol.8 No.1

        A bio-inspired two-mode structural health monitoring (SHM) system based on the Na$\ddot{i}$ve Bayes (NB) classification method is discussed in this paper. To implement the molecular biology based Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) array concept in structural health monitoring, which has been demonstrated to be superior in disease detection, two types of array expression data have been proposed for the development of the SHM algorithm. For the micro-vibration mode, a two-tier auto-regression with exogenous (AR-ARX) process is used to extract the expression array from the recorded structural time history while an ARX process is applied for the analysis of the earthquake mode. The health condition of the structure is then determined using the NB classification method. In addition, the union concept in probability is used to improve the accuracy of the system. To verify the performance and reliability of the SHM algorithm, a downscaled eight-storey steel building located at the shaking table of the National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering (NCREE) was used as the benchmark structure. The structural response from different damage levels and locations was collected and incorporated in the database to aid the structural health monitoring process. Preliminary verification has demonstrated that the structure health condition can be precisely detected by the proposed algorithm. To implement the developed SHM system in a practical application, a SHM prototype consisting of the input sensing module, the transmission module, and the SHM platform was developed. The vibration data were first measured by the deployed sensor, and subsequently the SHM mode corresponding to the desired excitation is chosen automatically to quickly evaluate the health condition of the structure. Test results from the ambient vibration and shaking table test showed that the condition and location of the benchmark structure damage can be successfully detected by the proposed SHM prototype system, and the information is instantaneously transmitted to a remote server to facilitate real-time monitoring. Implementing the bio-inspired two-mode SHM practically has been successfully demonstrated.

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