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In the article an exploratory analysis is made about the evaluation made by the World Economic Forum to the institutions and their impact on the competitiveness to do business in Mexico. The main theoretical approaches of the institutions and their conceptual importance to give certainty in society with the policies, rules and laws were reviewed. It was found that in Mexico institutions in 2009 were in position 97 and by 2018 they had fallen to place 123, impacting confidence and competitiveness to do business in Mexico due to the growth of corruption, crime and theft.
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There are two principal routes for the Asia-North america containerized cargo, that of Asia-West Coast and Asia-East Coast. On the West Coast, the Asia-Los Angeles, dominate the commerce, whereas on the Asia-East Coast it's the Panama Canal. Each of these routes has different characteristics. All are similar in that each is the door to the commerce of containerized cargo originating in Asia; each combines maritime and overland transportation; each has important intermodal connections and is able to distribute cargo throughout the West and East Coasts of the United States. Each route also has its port of preference that has the necessary infrastructure, equipment and intermodal connections. For example, in the case of the Port of Los Angeles, in spite of some of its advantages, it has several serious problems due to the interminable containerized cargo traffic that must be solved rapidly and satisfactorily in order to progress. In this paper, we would like to show the problems of two main routes.
Angel, Laura Iztacihuatl Serrano,Segura, Daniel,Jimenez, Jeiry Toribio,Barrera, Miguel Angel Rodriguez,Pineda, Carlos Ortuno,Ramirez, Yanet Romero The Korean Society for Microbiology and Biotechnol 2020 한국미생물·생명공학회지 Vol.48 No.2
The global carbon storage regulator (Csr) system is conserved in bacteria and functions as a regulator in the exponential and stationary phases of growth in batch culture. The Csr system plays a role in the central carbon metabolism, virulence, motility, resistance to oxidative stress, and biofilm formation. Although the Csr was extensively studied in Gram negative bacteria, it has been reported only in the control of motility in Bacillus subtilis among Gram positive bacteria. The goal of this study was to explore the role of the csrA gene of Bacillus licheniformis M2-7 on motility and the bacterial ability to use hydrocarbons as carbon source. We deleted the csrA gene of B. licheniformis M2-7 using the plasmid pCsr-L, harboring the spectinomycin cassette obtained from the plasmid pHP45-omega2. Mutants were grown on culture medium supplemented with 2% glucose or 0.1% gasoline and motility was assessed by electron microscopy. We observed that CsrA negatively regulates motility by controlling the expression of the hag gene and the synthesis of flagellin. Notably, we showed the ability of B. licheniformis to use gasoline as a unique carbon source. Our results demonstrated that CsrA is an indispensable regulator for the growth of B. licheniformis M2-7 on gasoline.
<P><B>Abstract</B></P> <P>The estimation of the internal model of a robotic system results from the interaction of its morphology, sensors and actuators, with a particular environment. Model learning techniques, based on supervised machine learning, are widespread for determining the internal model. An important limitation of such approaches is that once a model has been learnt, it does not behave properly when the robot morphology is changed. From this it follows that there must exist a relationship between them. We propose a model for this correlation between the morphology and the internal model parameters, so that a new internal model can be predicted when the morphological parameters are modified. Different neural network architectures are proposed to address this high dimensional regression problem. A case study is analyzed in detail to illustrate and evaluate the performance of the approach, namely, a pan–tilt robot head executing saccadic movements. The best results are obtained for an architecture with parallel neural networks. Our results can be instrumental in state-of-the-art trends such as self-reconfigurable robots, reproducible research, cyber–physical robotic systems or cloud robotics, in which internal models would available as shared knowledge, so that robots with different morphologies can readily exhibit a particular behavior in a given environment.</P> <P><B>Highlights</B></P> <P> <UL> <LI> A model to correlate the morphology and internal model parameters for a robotic system is presented. </LI> <LI> Different neural network architectures are proposed to solve this regression problem. </LI> <LI> A case study is used to illustrate and evaluate the neural network proposed. </LI> <LI> Due to the properties of the maximum likelihood estimator, the best performance is reached with parallel neural network architectures. </LI> </UL> </P>
This research work focuses on the design of a robust-adaptive control algorithm for a 4DOF Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (UUV). The proposed strategy is based in a Non-Singular Terminal Sliding Mode Control (NTSMC) with adaptive gains, where the proposed adaptation mechanism ensures that the gains remain bounded. In this control strategy a non-singular terminal sliding surface is proposed to obtain a faster convergence of the tracking errors. The NTSMC ensures Practical Finite-Time Stability for the closed-loop system as well as exhibits a chattering reduction. In order to demonstrate the satisfactory performance of the proposed controller, a set of experiments was performed with a Non-singular Terminal Sliding Mode Controller and an Adaptive Non-Singular Terminal Sliding Mode Control (ANTSMC) in real time for trajectory tracking in the X-Y plane, the graphs showed that the ANTSMC converges faster to a smaller region and reduces oscillations.
( Salas Marina Miguel Angel ),( Miguel Angel Silva Flores ),( Mayte Guadalupe Cervantes Badillo ),( Maria Teresa Rosales Saavedra ),( Maria Auxiliadora Islas Osuna ),( Sergio Casas Flores ) 한국미생물 · 생명공학회 2011 Journal of microbiology and biotechnology Vol.21 No.7
To deal with pathogens, plants have evolved sophisticated mechanisms including constitutive and induced defense mechanisms. Phytohormones play important roles in plant growth and development, as well as in the systemic response induced by beneficial and pathogen microorganisms. In this work, we identified an Aspergillus ustus isolate that promotes growth and induces developmental changes in Solanum tuberosum and Arabidopsis thaliana. A. ustus inoculation on A. thaliana and S. tuberosum roots induced an increase in shoot and root growth, and lateral root and root hair numbers. Assays performed on Arabidopsis lines to measure reporter gene expression of auxin-induced/ repressed or cell cycle controlled genes (DR5 and CycB1, respectively) showed enhanced GUS activity, when compared with mock-inoculated seedlings. To determine the contribution of phytohormone signaling pathways in the effect elicited by A. ustus, we evaluated the response of a collection of hormone mutants of Arabidopsis defective in auxin, ethylene, cytokinin, or abscisic acid signaling to the inoculation with this fungus. All mutant lines inoculated with A. ustus showed increased biomass production, suggesting that these genes are not required to respond to this fungus. Moreover, we demonstrated that A. ustus synthesizes auxins and gibberellins in liquid cultures. In addition, A. ustus induced systemic resistance against the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea and the hemibiotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae DC3000, probably through the induction of the expression of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid/ethylene, and camalexin defense-related genes in Arabidopsis.
This paper presents a control strategy to face time-varying delays induced in a Networked Control System (NCS). The delay is divided into two parts: the largest one (an integer multiple of the bus cycle) is compensated by means of an adaptive multi-rate Smith predictor, and the smallest one (whose value is strictly smaller than the bus cycle) via a gain scheduling approach based on root locus contour and linearization techniques. The gains to be scheduled belong to a multi-rate PID controller. Control system stability is studied by means of Lyapunov theory. Simulation results and the implementation on a test-bed Profibus-DP environment illustrate that this control structure can maintain NCS performance and stability, despite the considered delays.
Angel Chao,Yi-Hao Lin,Lan-Yan Yang,Ren-Chin Wu,Wei-Yang Chang,Pi-Yueh Chang,Shih-Cheng Chang,Chiao-Yun Lin,Huei-Jean Huang,Cheng-Tao Lin,Hung-Hsueh Chou,Kuan-Gen Huang,Wen-Ling Kuo,Ting-Chang Chang,Ch 대한부인종양학회 2020 Journal of Gynecologic Oncology Vol.31 No.3
Objective: The characteristics of patients with metachronous breast and ovarian malignancies and the pathogenic role of BRCA1/2 mutations remain poorly understood. We investigated these issues through a review of hospital records and nationwide Taiwanese registry data, followed by BRCA1/2 mutation analysis in hospital-based cases. Methods: We retrospectively retrieved consecutive clinical records of Taiwanese patients who presented with these malignancies to our hospital between 2001 and 2017. We also collected information from the Data Science Center of the Taiwan Cancer Registry (TCR) between 2007 and 2015. Next-generation sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification were used to identify BRCA1/2 mutations and large genomic rearrangements, respectively. When BRCA1/2 mutations were identified in index cases, pedigrees were reconstructed and genetic testing was offered to family members. Results: A total of 12,769 patients with breast cancer and 1,537 with ovarian cancer were retrieved from our hospital records. Of them, 28 had metachronous breast and ovarian malignancies. We also identified 113 cases from the TCR dataset. Eighteen hospital-based cases underwent BRCA1/2 sequencing and germline pathogenic mutations were detected in 7 patients (38.9%, 5 in BRCA1 and 2 in BRCA2). All BRCA1/2 mutation carriers had ovarian high-grade serous carcinomas. Of the 12 patients who were alive at the time of analysis, 5 were BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. All of them had family members with BRCA1/2-associated malignancies. Conclusions: Our results provide pilot evidence that BRCA1/2 mutations are common in Taiwanese patients with metachronous breast and ovarian malignancies, supporting the clinical utility of genetic counseling.