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Agarwal, D C,Chauhan, R S,Avasthi, D K,Sulania, I,Kabiraj, D,Thakur, P,Chae, K H,Chawla, Amit,Chandra, R,Ogale, S B,Pellegrini, G,Mazzoldi, P Institute of Physics [etc.] 2009 Journal of Physics. D, Applied Physics Vol.42 No.3
<P>We present a new approach to produce ZnO nanorods in a reproducible manner at a temperature lower than other physical vapour deposition techniques, such as the vapour–liquid–solid mechanism. Arrays of well-aligned ZnO nanorods of uniform diameter have been synthesized on the Si substrate precoated with Au, using a simple electron beam evaporation method without the flow of any carrier gas. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy characterizations show that as-grown nanorods are well aligned and uniform in diameter. X-ray diffraction measurements and clear lattice fringes in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy image show the growth of good quality polycrystalline hexagonal ZnO nanorods and a 〈0 0 2〉 growth direction. The polarization-dependent studies of near edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) are performed to investigate the electronic structure of the zinc and oxygen ions. The analysis of NEXAFS spectra at different angles of incidence of photon flux indicates the formation of ZnO nanorods having anisotropic behaviour of O and Zn states. The photoluminescence spectrum exhibits strong ultraviolet emission at 385 nm and the UV–visible spectrum also shows a band-gap transition around 390 nm indicating the good quality of nanorods. The catalytic growth mechanism of the ZnO nanorods is discussed on the basis of experimental results in this work.</P>
Herein, we report on an inferior migration of an intervertebral disc C6–7 to the cervicothoracic junction manifesting as acute paraplegia. The patient showed a remarkable recovery after the surgery. The diagnostic dilemma and management difficulties of such an entity are briefly discussed.
Background and Purpose: To adequately evaluate the extent of neurocognitive impairment in patient living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV), a battery of neuropsychological tests is typically administered which are neither cost effective nor time efficient in the outpatient clinical setting. The aim of the study was to assess neurocognitive status and functional ability of people living with HIV and find a brief screening tool to identify those who would benefit from a full diagnostic evaluation. Methods: The study enrolled 160 PLHIV (80 pre-antiretroviral therapy [ART] and 80 on ART) fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Neurocognitive assessment and an assessment of Functional ability was done by using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Lawton and Brody Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale scale, respectively. Results: The study population consisted of 75.6% males and 24.4% females with mean age of 44±10 years. The overall prevalence of HIV associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) in the study subjects was 52.5%. Of these, 47.5% had asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment and 5% had minor neurocognitive disorder. In MoCA, the most frequently affected domains were Language (97.6%), visuospatial ability (92.9%) and memory (71.4%). Conclusions: The prevalence of HAND in both groups were similar suggesting that neurocognitive impairment starts early in HIV infection. Memory and Visuospatial function impairment had the most predictive potential for detecting the presence of HAND. HAND screening is recommended in all PLHIV at enrolment into care. Simple tools like MoCA can be used in busy outpatient settings by healthcare workers to screen for HAND.
Many studies have reported that the contents of cigarette smoke negatively affect sperm parameters, seminal plasma, and various other fertility factors. Nevertheless, the actual effect of smoking on male fertility is not clear. The effect of smoking on semen parameters is based on the well-established biological finding that smoking increases the presence of reactive oxygen species, thereby resulting in oxidative stress (OS). OS has devastating effects on sperm parameters, such as viability and morphology, and impairs sperm function, hence reducing male fertility. However, not all studies have come to the same conclusions. This review sheds light upon the arguable association between smoking and male fertility and also assesses the impact of non-smoking routes of tobacco consumption on male infertility. It also highlights the evidence that links smoking with male infertility, including newly emerging genetic and epigenetic data, and discusses the clinical implications thereof.
본 연구에서는 강황 유래의 curcuminoids가 없는 다당체를 이용하여 급성 및 만성 염증 모델에서의 항염증 효과를 검증하고자 하였다. 급성염증에 대한 효과를 알아보기 위하여 carrageenan에 의한 족부종 유발과 xylene에 의한 귀부종 유발을 일으킨 모델을 이용하여 수행하였다. Carrageenan 에 의한 족부종 유발 실험에서 강황추출물과 관절염 치료제로 알려진 diclofenac sodium을 처리하였을 때는 부종의 증가도가 낮은 것으로 나타났다(P≤0.05). 또한 다른 급성염증 모델인 xylene application 마우스 모델에서도 대조군에 비하여 diclofenac sodium과 강황추출물(31.5, 63, 126 mg/kg)을 농도별로 경구투여 하였을 때 염증 억제율이 각각 78.13%, 68.75%, 62.50% 및 59.38%로 나타나 염증 억제율이 높은 것으로 나타났다(P≤0.05). 만성염증에 대한 효과를 알아보기 위한 cotton pellet 육아종 실험에서는 대조군과 비교하여 삼출물과 염증 육아종이 적게 발생된 것으로 나타났다(P≤0.05). 따라서 강황 유래의 다당체를 경구투여하였을 때 만성 및 급성 염증에 대한 저해활성이 있는 것으로 나타나 항염증 소재로서 개발 가능성이 있음을 제시하였다. Anti-inflammatory effects of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) rich in polysaccharides, as well as free of curcuminoids and turmerones were investigated in acute and chronic inflammatory models. Activity against the acute phase of inflammation was evaluated in carrageenan-induced paw edema and xylene-induced ear edema models. The results showed that turmeric extract significantly decreased paw edema volume in the first and third hours after carrageenan injection (P≤0.05). Turmeric extract at all dose levels also significantly inhibited xylene-induced ear edema formation (P≤0.05). Activity against chronic inflammation was also evaluated in cotton pellet-induced granuloma model. Turmeric extract significantly (P≤0.05) decreased the weight of granuloma tissue on cotton pellets in a dose-dependent manner when compared to the vehicle control. Thus, the findings of the study suggest that turmeric extract in effective against both acute and chronic inflammation.
Mental disturbances due to vitamin B12 deficiency have been reported previously as chief or sole symptoms, occasionally even preceding decrease of cobalamin in serum. Frank psychosis related to vitamin B12 defi ciency is considered very rare and has received little attention. We report a 28 yrs young female presenting with acute psychosis due to cyanocobalamine deficiency which reversed with treatment. Presentation was irrelevant talking, picking of clothes, inability to recognize people for 3 days. No fever, headache, vomiting, weakness, head trauma, drug intake, stressor or addiction. No past major illness, psychiatric illness or memory loss. Pt. had weaknes easy fatigability since 2 years was on vegetarian diet. Bladder bowel habits were regular. Hb 2. 9 gm/dl, thrombocytopenia 1 lakh/cumm, normal leucocytes, MCV-142. 7 fi , smear showed dimorphic picture, pencil cells, tear drop cells, anisopoikilocytosis, hypersegmented neutrophils. Diagnosis of megaloblastic anemia was made. CSF, CT head, electrolytes were normal. B12 level 77. 12 pmol/l (N200-800 pmol/l). Endoscopy- atrophic gastritis. Histology-atrophic gastriris. Antiparietal cell antibody-negative. Patient recovered fully within 3 days therapy with Inj. cyanacobalamin 1000 microgm i. m. with no need of antipsychotics at discharge. Biermer`s disease, also called acquired pernicious anemia, disorder of vitamin B12 absorption characterized by megaloblastic anemia, gastrointestinal symptoms, can lead to neurological abnormalities. Frequent in elderly, less in adults(15%), extremely rare inchildren, adolescents. It is asymptomatic for years, non-specifi c symptoms of anemia, atrophic gastritis. Possible mechanism for psychotic behaviour suggested by Hutto, reported cobalamin and folate participate in synthesis of monoamine neurotransmitters in brain by increasing BH4(tetrahydrobiopterin) synthesis. Treatment:Oral administration of high-dose vitamin B(12) (1-2 mg daily) as effective as intramuscular administration in correcting defi ciency. We recommend consideration be given to B-12 defi ciency as an etiological possibility in some cases of depression, organic psychosis, certain childhood-disorders and dementia.