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Ahn Hoi-nam born in South Korea, was engaged in the Left Wing(右翼) before he crossed over into North Korea. However, His consciousness right after the Liberation did not deviated much from that of the Right Wing(右翼) writers including the Centrist(中間派). This paper analyzes Ahn's novels right after the Liberation to show that his consciousness was not different much from that before the Liberation. In particular, it pays attention to the ways in which he thought of farmers. Though he brought 'farmers' as the representation of the nation, the writer's consciousness with which he thought of them did not show great difference from his earlier (before the Liberation) consciousness. Ahn's thought about farmers were revealed in the following three ways. First, and 'goodness and simplicity' can be designated. Ahn identified the qualities and fates of farmers with those of 'cows' in his works. While farmers' passive folk consciousness showed the characteristics of the ruled, who did not face or resist against the power, the goodness and simplicity stood for by 'cows' represented the nature of simple and naive farmers, who did not understand but emotionally coped with the natures of problems at hand. Second, the 'succession of the history and lineage of the past' can be indicated. In April, 1947, Ahn presented The History of the Strom, which emphasized the struggling spirit of farmers. in this work, he called 'farmers' 'people', and understood the October Resistance in 1946 in line with the 3 · 1 Movement in 1919. However, in this work, which was roughly created without revealing the partisan spirit, the discourse of the lineage succession between father and son derived the nationalist ideology that emphasized the significance of people as successors of the identical lineage rather than of the past history. Third, the 'passive folk consciousness' can be pointed out. The farmers in Ahn's novels had the complying disposition that folks in a dynasty could have. As cultivating settlers, they possessed the naive instinct to survive, with which they complied with nature and the ruling power. At the sam time, as Ahn placed farmers in the position of the spokesmen for and successors to the tradition, their passiveness, hidden in the shade of the tradition they missed, made them lose the function of criticism. We can find out the following, from Ahn's ways of thinking of farmers in his novels right after the Liberation. First, Ahn's Hoi-nam crystallized the national tradition through the figuration of farmers as the national representation, and well showed the significance of farmers as successors of the tradition. Second, he was not able to read out the shift of history and to be certain about novel ideologies, but did only ruthlessly reveal antipathy against Japan as well as the Right Wing(右翼) pro-Japan bureaucrats. As a result, the code of farmers from his novels right after the Liberation suggests the nature of his crossing over into North Korea as well as his consciousness as a writer after the Liberation. After the Liberation, Ahn did not internalize his ideology but did try to explore an active life different from the one in the past as a writer.
최근 원자력 발전소의 안전성을 획기적으로 향상시키기 위한 연구가 활발하게 진행되고 있으며 특히 피동냉각계통의 연구개발이 아주 중요하게 부각되고 있다. 피동냉각계통의 열전달 방식으로는 응축열전달 양식이 주로 채택되고 있다. 이와 같은 맥락에서 부산대학교 Ahn & Yun (Ahn 등, 2014)은 새로운 수평관내부 응축 모델을 제시한바 있다. 본 연구에서는 먼저 Ahn & Yun 이 제시한 수평관 응축 모델을 MARS 코드에 삽입하고 PASCAL 실험데이터를 이용하여 평가하였다. 이 평가결과를 통해 Ahn & Yun 모델의 코드적용에 있어 문제점을 규명하고 새로운 적용방법론을 적용하여 다양한 실험데이터로 다시 평가함으로써 MARS 코드의 향상된 응축 열전달 해석능력을 확인하였다. Extensive researches have been carried out for enhancing the safety of nuclear power plants and, especially, the development of passive cooling systems, such as passive containment cooling system (PCCS) and passive residual heat removal system, is increasingly important, where condensation is a crucial heat transfer mechanism. Recently, Ahn & Yun et al. developed a horizontal in-tube condensation heat transfer model as one of the activities for the PCCS development. In this work, we implemented the Ahn & Yun 's condensation heat transfer model into the MARS code and assessed it using the PASCAL experimental data. Based on the results of the assessment, we identified the limitations of the Ahn & Yun's model and suggested a modified Ahn & Yun 's model, and assessed the model using various experimental data.
Minjung theology emerged in the 1970s from the experience of Korean Christians in the struggle for the restoration of the rights of the minjung. It is firmly rooted in Korea`s socio-economic and political situation, and growing out of the struggles of Christians who treasure not only the universal message of emancipation of the Bible but also their own life. It espoused the repressed and exploited life of the people at the hand of the Yushin regime, and made an effort to listen to the lamentation of the oppressed people as if to the lamentation of God. It is therefore the contextual theology of Korea`s socio-economic and political situation during the 1970s. The purpose of this study is to investigate Byung-Mu Ahn`s minjung theology and to provide the basic outline of the main ideas. It begins with Byung-Mu Ahn who is considered the pioneer of minjung theology. He understood `minjung`(oχλο□,) in the communist sense of the poor and regarded them as the people who are scorned by the powerful dictatorship. He systematized this viewpoint in an academic sense. He therefore placed emphasis on the rights of `minjung`(oχλο□) and propagated emancipation and salvation of the people on the basis of his theological belief. In June 1975, when the president of Jeong-Hee Park`s regime(the Yushin dictatorship) became more tyrannical, he got booted from Hansin University for his socio-political tendencies. In March 1976, he was arrested for his participation in the political statement, `the March First Declaration`. He was put in jail for one year during which time he decided to devote the rest of his life to helping the poor. In addition, he provided the theological views and opinions for the progressive theology and for the democratization movement. Although he died without attaining the object of his theology, his progressive thoughts and spirit of freedom-loving are still alive among many non-Christians as well as many Christians. But in the negative, Byung-Mu Ahn`s minjung theology have many theological arguments which are difficult to be accepted in the aspects of conservative theology because he developed his argument logically without the true Christian gospel such as the atonement, the resurrection, the second advent, the last judgment, the eternal kingdom of God and so on. The true Christian gospel is the basis upon which all Christianity stands. As a result of his negative aspects in theology, many conservative church leaders strictly prohibited his ideas to be spread. And many theologians whose theological standard is so conservative could not tolerate his thoughts. The main messages Byung-Mu Ahn left behind us on the basis of his minjung theology could be summarized as follows: ① new ideas for ochlos(oχλο□) ② emphasis on theology of praxis ③ theology on the basis of life of ochlos(oχλο□) ④ encouragement of democratization movement ⑤ the purpose of the restoration of human rights ⑥ fight for socio-economic and political justice ⑦ attempt to improve indigenity of Korean theology ⑧ sensitive arguments between progressives and conservatives And Jesus was going about in all Galilee, teaching in their synagogues, and proclaiming the gospel of the kingdom, and healing every kind of disease and every kind of sickness among the people. And the news about Him went out into all Syria; and they brought to Him all who were ill, taken with various diseases and pains, demoniacs, epileptics; and Jerusalem and Judea and from beyond the Jordan.(Matthew 4:23-24)
지난 20년 동안 해양구조물과 선박 등에 예상치 못한 피해를 주는 freak waves에 대한 연구자들의 관심이 증가하고 있다. 다양한 연구결과에도 불구하고 아직 freak waves의 발생원인, 발생 메커니즘, 발생확률 등에 대한 상반된 결과로 인해 합의된 결과가 도출되지 못하고 있다. 본 논문에서는 동해항 전면 해상에서 측정된 파랑자료를 분석하여 freak waves에 대한 발생확률을 추정하였다. 유의파고 2.5 m 보다 크고 Hm/Hs≥2인 freak waves 3개를 발견하였다. Freak waves의 발생확률은 극치파고분포함수를 사용하여 추정하기 적절하며, Mori, Rayleigh, 그리고 Ahn의 극치파고분포함수는 freak wave의 발생확률을 각각 약 O(10<SUP>-1</SUP>), O(10<SUP>-2</SUP>), 그리고 O(10<SUP>-3</SUP><SUP></SUP>) 정도로 추정하였다. 본 논문에서 분석된 파랑자료의 freak waves의 발생확률은 O(10<SUP>-2</SUP>)와 O(10<SUP>-3</SUP>) 사이에 위치하였다. 즉, Rayleigh와 Ahn의 극치파고분포함수에 의해 예측된 발생확률의 중간에 위치하였다. 현재 Rayleigh와 Ahn의 극치파고분포함수 중에 어떤 분포함수가 정확한지에 대한 판단은 좀 더 다양한 해역에서의 freak waves의 발생확률에 대한 분석이 필요하다고 판단된다. Over the last 20 years, freak waves have attracted many researchers because of their unexpected behaviors and damages on offshore structures and vessels in the ocean and coastal waters. Despite many researches on the causes, mechanisms and occurrence of freak waves, we have not reached consensus on the results of the researches. This paper presents the occurrence probability of freak waves based on the analysis of wave records measured at coastal waters of Donghae harbor in the East Sea. Three freak waves were found which satisfied conditions of Hs≥2.5m and Hm/Hs≥2. The occurrence probabilities of freak waves were estimated from extreme distributions by Mori, Rayleigh and Ahn, and found to be on the orders of O(10<SUP>-1</SUP>), O(10<SUP>-2</SUP>), and O(10<SUP>-3</SUP>), respectively. The occurrence probabilities of freak waves measured from waves records were estimated between O(10<SUP>-2</SUP>) and O(10<SUP>-3</SUP>), which were located between predictions by Rayleigh and Ahn's extreme probability distributions. However, we need more analysis of wave records obtained from diverse field conditions in order to verify the accuracy of the estimation of occurrence probability of freak waves.
While the direct measurement of body surface area (BSA) is impractical, there is an urgent need for the accurate BSA estimation in neonates considering increasing of high-risk infants. Particularly, it would be feasible to have a BSA equation using only weight of neonate, considering the body posture and inconvenience of measuring height of neonates. A research was conducted to develop BSA equation using weight of 5014 neonates including very-low-birth weight infants. BSA of subjects was calculated using existing BSA equations, from which Mean-BSA was arithmetically derived as a true BSA. Multiple-regression was performed to generate the equation for Mean-BSA with the best goodness-of-fitness of weight and height using Excel and SPSS 16.0. Then the final BSA equation with weight of neonates (Ahn-BSA) was formulated using the relationship between weight and height. Ahn-BSA equation was as follows: Ahn-BSA = 10.8 ×W<SUP>0.6539</SUP>. The validity of Neo-BSA was examined using 3-D scanning of neonate-simulator and paired t-test between Mean-BSA and Ahn-BSA. Ahn-BSA, using only body weight, could provide an accurate measurement of BSA in neonates from very low birth weight to normal weight. It would accelerate understanding the body of knowledge and serve as a base for accurate application of various interventions in BSA practice for neonates.
In the course of searching potential antitumor agents from the plant or animal drugs, it was found that the root preparation of Scutellaria baicalensis showed a good cytotoxic activity against L1210 cell. Bioassy-combined column chromatographic fractionation resulted in isolation of the pure cytotoxic substances, which proved to be 5,2'-dihydroxy-6,7,8,6'-tetra-methoxyflavone(ED 50=1.7 ㎍/㎖, skullcapflavone II) and 5,6,7-trihydroxy-flavone(ED 50=15.0 ㎍/㎖, baicalein)(1). The activity of skullcapflavone II was confirmed through synthesis. At the same time we have synthesized a series of the analog flavones and tested their cytotoxicities against the cell(2). Of the flavone synthesized 5,2',6'-trihydroxy-6,7,8-trimethoxy-(ED 50=4.5 ㎍/㎖) and 5-hydroxy-6,7,8-trimethoxy-2'-benzyloxyflavones(ED50=15.4 ㎍/㎖) are active. The ratio(logmm/logmm) of the UV-absorbancies of band I to band II of the flavones were corelated to the activities of the flavones. Only the flavones showing the ratio range of 1.073-1.109 were cytotoxic, what means that a certain conformation between the ring C and B of the flavones is required for the cytotoxic activity. To find an essential structural part for the activity we have modified the structure of baicalein. The 6,7-dimethylated baicalein was hydroxylated per the modified Elb's persulfate oxidation to obtain 5,8-dihydroxy-6,7-dimethoxyflavone(ED 50=7.5 ㎍/㎖) which was the only active substance among the modified structures. Under the flavones studied, no structure-activity-relation was observable. However, the presence of the peroxygenated A-ring seems to be necessary for the activity. In an early work(3) we have found that 7-geranylcoumarin was cytotoxic against L1210 cell. The cytotoxic part of the structure was proven to be geraniol. In order to observe the possible enhancement of the activity, the twin compounds between the cytotoxic flavones and geraniol were synthesized and their cytotoxicities tested(4). The introduction of the geranyl group to the analogs of skullcapflavone II or to wogonin reduced the activity(ED 50=4.5 ㎍/㎖ of 5,2',6'-trihydroxy-6,7,8-trimethoxyflavone → ED 50=8.5 ㎍/㎖ of 5,2'-dihydroxy-6,7,8-trimethoxy-6'-geranyloxyflavone) or kept it unchanged(ED 50=17.0 ㎍/㎖ of 5,2'-dihydroxy-6,7,8-trimethoxy-6'-benzyloxyflavone → ED 50=14.0 ㎍/㎖ of 5-hydroxy-6,7,8-trimethoxy-2'-benzyloxy-6' -geranyloxyflavone, ED 50=15.0 ㎍/㎖ of 5,7-dihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone → ED 50=20.0 ㎍/㎖ of 5 -hydroxy-7-geranlyoxy-8-rnethoxyflavone. In the contrast, the geranylation of the haicalein series enhances the activity(ED 50=15.0 ㎍/㎖ of 5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone → ED 50=2.3 ㎍/㎖ of 5,6-dihydroxy-7-geranyloxyflavone). Skullcapflavone II was administered intraperitoneally to the S-180 inoculated ICR and L1210 cell inoculated BDFl mice and the prolongation of their life span observed. The same was carried out for baicalein and 7-geranylbaicalein. Intraperitoneal injection of 40 ㎎/㎏ of skullcapflavone II has prolonged the life span of S-180 inoculated ICR mice by 66% and of the L1210 inoculated BDFl mice by 22%, respecively. 10 ㎎/㎏ administration of baicalein and 7-geranylbaicalein has prolonged the life span of S-180 inoculated ICR mice by 26 and 44%, respectively. The ICR mice were inoculated with 1 × 10 S-180 cells at the left groin. 24hr after the tumor inoculation skullcapflavone II were injected around the inoculation point once a day for successive 7 days. 40 ㎎/㎏ administration have inhibitted the growth of the S-180 solid tumor by 71%. Of 16 mice treated six animals carried no tumor. (1) S.H. Ryu, B.Z. Ahn and M.Y. Pack, Planta Medica 1985, 355. (2) S.H. Ryu, B.T. Yoo, B.Z. Ahn and M.Y. Pack, Archiv der Pharmazie(Weinheim) 318. 659(1985). (3) K.S. Kang, S.H. Ryu and B.Z. Ahn, Arch. Pharm. Res., 8, 187(1985). (4) K.U. Baik and B.Z. Ahn, Arch. Pharm(Weinheim) 1987 in press.
<P><B>Abstract</B></P> <P> <I>Diaulota hokkaidona</I> Ahn and Ôhara, sp. n. and <I>Diaulota oharai</I> Ahn and Yoo, sp. n. are described from coastal Hokkaido, Japan. <I>Diaulota hokkaidona</I> Ahn and Ôhara, sp. n. is very similar to <I>D. aokii</I> Sawada and cannot be distinguished by the external morphological characters but they are separated by the structures of median lobe of aedeagus and molecular characters (<I>COI</I>). They can be regarded as cryptic species. The minimum interspecific difference between <I>Diaulota aokii</I> and <I>Diaulota hokkaidona</I> Ahn and Ôhara, sp. n. (6.7%) was much higher than the maximum intraspecific difference of <I>Diaulota hokkaidona</I> Ahn and Ôhara, sp. n. (0.7%) and they contained 17 and 13 molecular diagnostic characters, respectively. The molecular analyses support the validity of two new species based on morphological characters. A revised key is provided for separation of the known species of <I>Diaulota</I> Casey, and descriptions with illustrations of diagnostic features of two new species are presented.</P> <P><B>Highlights</B></P> <P> <UL> <LI> Two new <I>Diaulota</I> species were discovered from coastal Hokkaido, Japan. </LI> <LI> The molecular analyses support the validity of two new species based on morphology. </LI> <LI> Descriptions with illustrations of diagnostic features of new species are presented. </LI> <LI> A revised key of the known <I>Diaulota</I> species is provided. </LI> </UL> </P> <P><B>Graphical abstract</B></P> <P>[DISPLAY OMISSION]</P>
후기 플라이스토세 이후의 화산활동에 대한 수치연대는 종종 적절한 연대분석법의 부재로 양질의 자료를 얻지 못한다. 제주도 화산암류의 경우도 이러한 어려움이 대두되고 있다. 제주도에는 화산암류뿐만 아니라 화산활동 휴지기 동안에 쌓인 퇴적층들이 용암층들 사이에 협재되어 곳곳에 분포한다. Ahn et al. (2018)은 용암층 사이에 협재하는 교래교퇴적층을 대상으로 자기학적 방법을 이용하여 상부 용암에 의해 가열되어 도달한 온도를 정량 복원하여 퇴적층의 석영을 이용한 광여기 루미네선스(OSL) 연대가 퇴적시기가 아닌 열에 의해 OSL신호가 리셋되고 난 후의 경과시간, 즉 상부 용암의 정치 연대를 지시할 가능성을 제시하였다. 이로부터 상부 용암 추정연대는 14.8 ± 0.8 ka로 제시되었다. 본 연구는 용암 시료에 대해 전암 석기의 단계가열 <SUP>40</SUP>Ar/<SUP>39</SUP>Ar 연대분석을 통해 15 ± 5 ka로 Ahn et al. (2018)이 제시한 상부 용암의 연대와 잘 일치하는 결과를 얻어 퇴적층 OSL연대분석을 통한 수치연대 도출법의 적용 가능성을 입증하였다. 향후 제주도의 최후기 화산활동사와 관련해 퇴적층 OSL 연대분석 및 피열온도 정량 복원이 후기 플라이스토세-홀로세 동안의 용암류의 수치연대를 새롭게 제시하는데 크게 기여할 수 있을 것이다. Precisely dating volcanic events since the Late Pleistocene is often difficult due to the lack of appropriate chronology. Such difficulty is encountered in the Jeju volcanics. In Jeju Island there are sedimentary deposits that are intercalated with volcanic units, as well as primary volcanic products. For the Kyorekyo Sediments that are sandwiched between two lava beds in the island, Ahn et al. (2018) estimated quantitatively paleotemperatures reached by heat of the upper lava emplacement by applying magnetic methods and explained that there were lava-heated sediments in which the OSL signal could be zeroed by the lava heat; thus, the estimated OSL ages indicate not the sedimentation age but the age of the lava emplacement resulting in 14.8 ± 0.8 ka. In this study the whole-rock-groundmass step-heating <SUP>40</SUP>Ar/<SUP>39</SUP>Ar dating assigns a plateau age of 15 ± 5 ka to the upper lava, which shows relatively large uncertainty but is in good agreement with the lava-heated sediment OSL estimates thereby confirming the feasibility of the Ahn et al. (2018) dating approach. Future works by such lava-heated sediment OSL chronology with paleotemperature estimation have a potential to improve dating the Late Pleistocene- Holocene lavas related to the last volcanic history in Jeju Island.
A taxonomic study of Korean species of the geostibine genus Aloconota is presented. The genus is represented in Korea by seven species including five new species, A. brunnea Lee & Ahn, sp. n., A. hydrosmectoides Lee & Ahn, sp. n., A. impressa Lee & Ahn, sp. n., A. parviocularis Lee & Ahn, sp. n. and A. tuberculata Lee & Ahn, sp. n. A key to the Korean species and illustrations of diagnostic characters are provided.
The observation of the new biotite isograd (chlorite+chloritoid=andalusite+biotite) in the Mungyong coal field requires the modification of Harte and Hudson's (1979) metapelite grid which eliminates the stability field of staurolite+ cordierite assemblages. The newly proposed metapelite grid by Ahn and Nakamura (2000) can define more properly the isograd reaction observed from nature. We discuss first topological interrelations between synthetic system (FASHO-, KFASHO-, KFMASH system) on an isobaric section at 2kbar, where phase relations are well constrained. The following discussion is concentrated on the topological relations between stable reactions. At the last, we discuss the petrogenetic significance of the Ahn's petrogenetic grid compared with theoretically computed grids. Ahn's petrogenetic grid is consistent with synthetic and natural system, and is one of the excellent example of KFMASH approximation in metapelite.