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This paper presents finite element analyses, experimental measurements and finite element model updating of an arch type steel laboratory bridge model using semi-rigid connections. The laboratory bridge model is a single span and fixed base structure with a length of 6.1 m and width of 1.1m. The height of the bridge column is 0.85 m and the maximum arch height is 0.95 m. Firstly, a finite element model of the bridge is created in SAP2000 program and analytical dynamic characteristics such as natural frequencies and mode shapes are determined. Then, experimental measurements using ambient vibration tests are performed and dynamic characteristics (natural frequencies, mode shapes and damping ratios) are obtained. Ambient vibration tests are performed under natural excitations such as wind and small impact effects. The Enhanced Frequency Domain Decomposition method in the frequency domain and the Stochastic Subspace Identification method in the time domain are used to extract the dynamic characteristics. Then the finite element model of the bridge is updated using linear elastic rotational springs in the supports and structural element connections to minimize the differences between analytically and experimentally estimated dynamic characteristics. At the end of the study, maximum differences in the natural frequencies are reduced on average from 47% to 2.6%. It is seen that there is a good agreement between analytical and experimental results after finite element model updating. Also, connection percentages of the all structural elements to joints are determined depending on the rotational spring stiffness
In this paper, it is aimed to determine the seismic behaviour of highway bridges by nondestructive testing using ambient vibration measurements. Eynel Highway Bridge which has arch type structural system with a total length of 216 m and located in the Ayvaclk county of Samsun, Turkey is selected as an application. The bridge connects the villages which are separated with Suat U urlu Dam Lake. A three dimensional finite element model is first established for a highway bridge using project drawings and an analytical modal analysis is then performed to generate natural frequencies and mode shapes in the three orthogonal directions. The ambient vibration measurements are carried out on the bridge deck under natural excitation such as traffic, human walking and wind loads using Operational Modal Analysis. Sensitive seismic accelerometers are used to collect signals obtained from the experimental tests. To obtain experimental dynamic characteristics, two output-only system identification techniques are employed namely, Enhanced Frequency Domain Decomposition technique in the frequency domain and Stochastic Subspace Identification technique in time domain. Analytical and experimental dynamic characteristic are compared with each other and finite element model of the bridge is updated by changing of boundary conditions to reduce the differences between the results. It is demonstrated that the ambient vibration measurements are enough to identify the most significant modes of highway bridges. After finite element model updating, maximum differences between the natural frequencies are reduced averagely from 23% to 3%. The updated finite element model reflects the dynamic characteristics of the bridge better, and it can be used to predict the dynamic response under complex external forces. It is also helpful for further damage identification and health condition monitoring. Analytical model of the bridge before and after model updating is analyzed using 1992 Erzincan earthquake record to determine the seismic behaviour. It can be seen from the analysis results that displacements increase by the height of bridge columns and along to middle point of the deck and main arches. Bending moments have an increasing trend along to first and last 50 m and have a decreasing trend long to the middle of the main arches.