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      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        Paricalcitol attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation and apoptosis in proximal tubular cells through the prostaglandin E<sub>2</sub> receptor EP4

        ( Yu Ah Hong ),( Keum Jin Yang ),( So Young Jung ),( Yoon Kyung Chang ),( Cheol Whee Park ),( Chul Woo Yang ),( Suk Young Kim ),( Hyeon Seok Hwang ) 대한신장학회 2017 Kidney Research and Clinical Practice Vol.36 No.2

        Background: Vitamin D is considered to exert a protective effect on various renal diseases but its underlying molecular mechanism remains poorly understood. This study aimed to determine whether paricalcitol attenuates inflammation and apoptosis during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced renal proximal tubular cell injury through the prostaglandin E<sub>2</sub> (PGE<sub>2</sub>) receptor EP4. Methods: Human renal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells were pretreated with paricalcitol (2 ng/mL) for 1 hour and exposed to LPS (1 μg/mL). The effects of paricalcitol pretreatment in relation to an EP4 blockade using AH-23848 or EP4 small interfering RNA (siRNA) were investigated. Results: The expression of cyclooxygenase-2, PGE<sub>2</sub>, and EP4 were significantly increased in LPS-exposed HK-2 cells treated with paricalcitol compared with cells exposed to LPS only. Paricalcitol prevented cell death induced by LPS exposure, and the cotreatment of AH-23848 or EP4 siRNA offset these cell-protective effects. The phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of p65 nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) were decreased and the phosphorylation of Akt was increased in LPS-exposed cells with paricalcitol treatment. AH-23848 or EP4 siRNA inhibited the suppressive effects of paricalcitol on p65 NF-κB nuclear translocation and the activation of Akt. The production of proinflammatory cytokines and the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling-positive cells were attenuated by paricalcitol in LPS exposed HK-2 cells. The cotreatment with an EP4 antagonist abolished these anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects. Conclusion: EP4 plays a pivotal role in anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects through Akt and NF-κB signaling after paricalcitol pretreatment in LPS-induced renal proximal tubule cell injury.

      • KCI등재

        In vivo study for the hemostatic efficacy and foreign body reaction of a new powder-type polysaccharide hemostatic agent

        Yoonhyeong Byun,Eun Jin Kim,Areum Lee,Young-Ah Suh,Hee Ju Sohn,Jung Min Lee,Jae Seung Kang,Yoo Jin Choi,Youngmin Han,Hongbeom Kim,Wooil Kwon,Jin-Young Jang 대한외과학회 2022 Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research Vol.102 No.2

        Purpose: Various hemostatic agents have been introduced in therapy as postoperative bleeding is a poor prognostic factor for postoperative outcomes. These products can be divided into those that directly promote the hemostatic cascade and those that physically form a barrier by absorbing blood. The latter, powder-type hemostatic agents have the advantages of being inexpensive and more absorbable with less foreign body reactions (FBRs) and are applicable to a relatively wide area. This study was conducted to verify the safety and efficacy of a newly invented polysaccharide product (OOZFIX, Theracion Biomedical), which improves blood absorption and hemostatic effects. Methods: Two separate animal experiments were performed. The first evaluated FBRs histologically at 3 days, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks, after implantation of OOZFIX in rats, and the second compared hemostatic performance of OOZFIX and Arista AH (Bard) in the porcine liver punch biopsy model. Results: We found minimal FBRs in the 3-day group and no reactions in both the 2-week and 4-week groups after implantation of hemostatic agents. The time to hemostasis of OOZFIX was not significantly different from that of Arista AH (median [interquartile range]: 9 [6–10] minutes vs. 8 [6–10] minutes, respectively; P = 0.522). When comparing the serial bleeding grade tendency, there was no statistical difference between OOZFIX and Arista AH (P = 0.656). Conclusion: OOZFIX caused a minimal FBR that disappeared within 2 weeks in vivo, and its hemostatic performance was comparable with that of an existing agent, Arista AH. Further clinical studies are required in the future.

      • KCI등재

        Chinese speakers perceptibility of the Korean voiceless obstruents

        Ah-Lum Kwon 한국언어연구학회 2014 언어학연구 Vol.19 No.3

        Kwon, Ah-Lum. 2014. Chinese speakers perceptibility of the Korean voiceless obstruents. Journal of Linguistic Studies 19(3), 233-253. One characteristic of Korean consonants is that there are three distinctive voiceless sounds in the stop category. Since Chinese has two-way contrast stop consonants while Korean has three-way contrast stop consonants, it was anticipated that the Chinese group selected for the experiment would demonstrate particular difficulties in learning a foreign language with a different system of contrast consonants. This paper suggests factors in two aspects as major factors in distinguishing the three-way contrast in the Korean voiceless obstruents. The first aspect is speech production, including VOT (Voice Onset Time) and F0 (fundamental frequency). The second aspect is speech perception, including the factor of the pronunciation of Korean learners. Generalizing from the results of Perception Test 1 and 2, adult learners of a foreign language seem to exhibit a correlation between articulation and auditory perception. Perception Test 3 shows how both Korean and Chinese participants can use F0 and VOT values as the major factors in distinguishing three-way contrast stop consonants in Korean. (Kyungpook National University)

      • KCI등재

        코넬노트 및 팀토의를 활용한 플립러닝 설계전략 방안 연구

        송승아(Song, Seung-Ah) 한국경영교육학회 2020 경영교육연구 Vol.35 No.1

        [연구목적] 빠르게 변화하는 경영환경에 능동적으로 대처하고 문제해결능력을 함양한 인재를 양성하는데 적합한 교수법인 플립러닝을 적용하여 강의를 개발하고 강의 운영전략을 새로이 수립하고 운영함에 있어서 팀 토론과 예습노트를 작성하는 것이 학습효과를 향상시킬 수 있는지에 대해 설문조사하였으며 실제 교과목 적용사례를 공유하고자 한다. [연구방법] 온라인 강의를 청취할 때 예습노트를 작성하고 준비된 코넬노트 양식의 예습노트를 가지고 오프라인 토론 시간에 참여함으로써 학습효과가 증가되었다고 인식하는지를 학기말에 설문하는 방식으로 연구를 진행하였으며, 수업 설계측면에서는 오프라인 수업 운영 방안에 대해 가이드라인을 제공한다. [연구결과] 설문결과 예습노트는 팀토의에 적극적으로 참여할 수 있도록 학생들을 준비시키는 보조 장치로 작용하였으며, 플립러닝 수업에 예습노트와 팀 토론양식을 적용한 것이 긍정적 학습효과를 가져왔다는 것을 확인할 수 있었다. [연구의 시사점] 예습노트와 팀 토론 양식을 동시에 플립러닝에 적용하고 그 학습효과에 대한 학생들의 인식을 조사함으로써 이론적, 실무적 시사점을 제공하였다. [Purpose] It takes time and effort for the instructor to change the teaching style, create new video lectures, and develop new teaching strategies. Even if you are ready, you may encounter many unexpected difficulties in the actual operation process, so this study aim to share a case study on a flip-learning application using cornell note and team discussion form that can help instructors who want to apply flip learning to business administration. [Methodology] At the end of the semester, the study was conducted by surveying whether the student perceived that the learning effect was increased by participating in the offline discussion with a cornell-note format based preliminary note prepared while listening to the online lecture and also in terms of class design, the study provides guidelines on how to operate offline classes. [Findings] This study found that preparation of preliminary note was used as an aid to prepare students to actively participate in the team discussion and applying the cornell notes and the team discussion form to the flip learning class showed a positive learning effect. [Implications] This study applies cornell notes and team discussion form to flip learning and students’ perceptions of the learning effects were examined to provide theoretical and practical implications.

      • KCI등재

        재직자를 위한 4년제 대학 비즈니스컨설팅학과 교육과정 개발: 서울소재 H대학 사례를 중심으로

        황영아(Hwang, Young-Ah),임욱빈(Leem, Wook-Bin) 한국경영교육학회 2020 경영교육연구 Vol.35 No.4

        [연구목적] 본 연구는 재직자를 대상으로 하는 4년제 대학 비즈니스컨설팅학과의 교육과정 개발을 위해 수행되었다. [연구방법] 본 연구는 재직자 대상 직업교육과정 개발 모형에 관한 고찰을 통해 교육과정 개발 모형을 도출하고, 산업체 인사를 포함하는 교육과정개발위원회를 6차례 개최하여 환경 분석, 교육목표 선정 및 인재양성유형 설정, 직무모형 설정 및 직무 검증, 교과목 선정, 교육과정로드맵 도출 등의 절차에 따라 교육과정 개발을 실시하였다. [연구결과] 이상의 절차에 따라 학과의 주요 양성 인력 유형은 경영컨설턴트, 전략경영컨설턴트, 기술경영컨설턴트로 도출되었으며, 직무 설정 및 검증 절차를 통해 현장에서의 수행직무 20개와 과업 80개가 도출되었다. 이를 토대로 직무별 지식 · 기술 · 태도를 고려하여 30개의 교과목 선정을 완료하였으며, 컨설턴트로서 종합적 역량 배양을 위한 세미나 과목 2개를 포함하여 32개 교과목을 포함하는 비즈니스컨설팅학과의 교육과정 로드맵을 제시하였다. [연구의 시사점] 컨설턴트와 관련한 기존 연구들은 컨설턴트의 역량을 규명하거나 컨설턴트 역량이 성과에 미치는 영향력에 초점을 둔 연구가 주로 이루어졌으나 교육적 관점에서 이루어진 연구는 전무한 실정이다. 본 연구는 재직자 대상 직업교육과정 개발 모형에 기반하여 체계적인 절차에 따라 컨설턴트 양성을 위한 교육과정을 개발함으로써 컨설턴트 양성을 위한 교육훈련의 토대를 제공할 것으로 기대되어진다. [Purpose] This study was conducted to develop a curriculum of a four- year college business consulting department for employees. [Methodology] The curriculum development model of this study was derived through consideration of the vocational curriculum development model. And the curriculum development committee, which includes industry personnel, was held six times to develop curriculum according to procedure such as environmental analysis, setting educational goal, job model setting, job verification, subjects selection, drawn the curriculum roadmap. [Findings] Through the job setting and verification procedures, 20 job performances and 80 tasks in the field were drawn. Based on this, 30 subjects were selected considering the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of each job. Lastly, H University’s Business consulting department curriculums designed consists of a 32 subjects. Among subjects, two capstone design subjects were established to develop expert competencies. [Implications] This study provided the foundation for education and training for consultants by developing a curriculum according to a systematic procedure based on the vocational curriculum development model for incumbents.

      • KCI등재

        Energy and nutrient intake and food patterns among Turkish university students

        Rakıcıo?lu Nesli?ah,Akal Yıldız Emine 한국영양학회 2011 Nutrition Research and Practice Vol.5 No.2

        The goal of this study was to determine the nutritional value and nutrients provided by each meal and snack of consumed by university students. Subjects were randomly selected from volunteer students at five universities in Ankara. A sample of 400 students (167 female and 233 male) aged between 19 and 24 years participated in this study. A questionnaire designed to assess general characteristics, anthropometric measurements, and 24 hours dietary records was administered using face to face interviews. According to body mass index classifications, 69.5% of male students, and 77.7% of female students were found to be in the normal weight categories. Overweight categories were found to be 25.1% and 5.6% for males and females, respectively. Breakfast and lunch were the most frequently skipped meals, with a total of 47.7% of students skipping breakfast and 25.2% skipping lunch. The percentages of energy deficiency were found to be 78.4% in males, and 81.1% in females. Dinner was the main meal for consumption of energy and the other nutrients, except saturated fatty acids, for both genders. Also, dinner was the largest contributor of energy in both genders. Students ate more bread, cereals, and meat at dinner than during the other meals and snacks. Fruit was consumed more during snacks than at the other meals by all students. It was concluded that students need more nutritional information about healthy nutritional habits, adequate intake of nutrients, and ideal body weights.

      • KCI등재

        “浮休子(부휴자)”를 내세운 成俔(성현)의 말하기와 그 의미 -『浮休子傳(부휴자전)』『浮休子談論(부휴자담론)』을 중심으로-

        황아영 ( Young Ah Hwang ) 한국한문고전학회(구 성신한문학회) 2013 漢文古典硏究 Vol.27 No.1

        성현이 부휴자라는 가상의 인물을 내세워 말하고 있는 『浮休子傳』 과 『浮休子談論』을 중심으로 부휴자의 말하기와 그 의미를 살펴보고자 하였다. 성현은 자탁전의 형식을 가진 『부휴자전』 에서 부휴자의 성품과 즐거움을 이야기하며 자신이 추구하는 이상적 인간상을 그려내었다. 그리고 寓言의 형식을 갖춘 『부휴자담론』은 이야기 방식에 따라 『雅言』, 『寓言』, 『補言』가지 양식으로 나뉘어져 있는데 각 양식마다 부휴자와 허구 인물, 역사인물을 등장 시킴으로써 현실문제에 대한 직설적인 화법을 피하여 자신의 주장을 내세우 고 있다. 성현이 자신을 드러내어 직접 말하지 않고 부휴자라는 인물을 내세워 말하 고자 한 것이 무엇인지를 살펴보면, 첫째로, 임금에 대한 강한 勸戒와 諷刺임을 알 수 있다. 부휴자를 통해 이전의 훈구관각파가 주장한 ‘임금은 하늘이다’ 라는 의견을 따르는 듯하지만, 그 이면에는 ‘임금은 다만 백성을 위한 하늘의 대리자임’을 강조하고 있으며 이렇게 간접화법을 통해 말함으로써 자신을 드 말하는 데에 따르는 화를 면하고자 하였다. 그리고 성현은 표면적으로 ‘재주와 능력은 배워서 얻을 수 있는 것이다’라고 말하는 듯하지만 결국 ‘능력 과 재주는 타고나는 것이며 쉽게 변할 수 없는 것’이라고 주장하며 자신의 타 고난 재능과 능력을 더욱 강조하고 있다. 그러면서 훈구관각파와 도학 사림파 사이에서 어느 한쪽의 편도 아닌 중간자적 입장의 정치적 견해를 밝히고 있음을 볼 수 있다. 성현은 당시의 시대적 상황으로 인해 직접 말하기 어려운 자신의 정치적 견해와 강한 자긍심을 간접적으로라도 드러내기 위하여 부휴 자라는 인물을 통해 주장을 펼친 것이라 볼 수 있다. This article scopes out a fictional charater - Buhyuja`s speaking and means in The story of Buhyuja and Discussion of Buhyuja written by Sung Hyun (1439-1504). Sung Hyun described Buhyuja, an ideal type of human character, with Buhyuja`s personality and enjoyment in an autobiographical essay The story of Buhyuja. Meanwhile, Discussion of Buhyuja composed of three type of fascicles: ‘Graceful Words’, ‘Foolish Words’ and ‘Complementary Words’. In Discussion of Buhyuja, fictional characters had appeared in each section so that contemporary issues had been described with indirect narrations, which purposed to escape punishments derived from direct and straightforward speaking. In accordance with direct speaking from imaginary persona and bitter satire on society in The story of Buhyuja and Discussion of Buhyuja, Sung Hyun had sincere remonstrance and satire on a king. Sung Hyun seemed to conform demand - ‘The king is the Heaven’. However rather, Sung Hyun actually emphasized a king is a representative of the Heaven only for the public. In addition, Sung Hyun looked like to follow an assertion - ‘Personal talent and ability are obtainable with learning’, though Sung Hyun, in fact, highlighted one`s natural ability inborn characterized as well as scarcely changed. On the other hand, Sung Hyun had stated a middle coursed view of political opinions without single-side-on stance. Eventually, Sung Hyun applied various speaking on a fictional charater - Buhyuja. Then, Sung Hyun directly expressed meaning of his political opinions and self-esteem against contemporary social situations.

      • SCIESCOPUS

        Amino-Functionalized Mesoporous Silica Particles for Ocular Delivery of Brimonidine

        Kim, Se-Na,Ko, Song Ah,Park, Chun Gwon,Lee, Seung Ho,Huh, Beom Kang,Park, Yoh Han,Kim, Young Kook,Ha, Ahnul,Park, Ki Ho,Choy, Young Bin American Chemical Society 2018 MOLECULAR PHARMACEUTICS Vol.15 No.8

        <P>To treat glaucoma, conventional eye drops are often prescribed. However, the eye drops have limited effectiveness as a result of low drug bioavailability due to their rapid clearance from the preocular space. To resolve this, we proposed amino-functionalized mesoporous silica (AMS) particles as delivery carriers of the glaucoma drug, brimonidine. Because of the presence of mesopores, brimonidine (BMD) could be encapsulated in the AMS with a loading amount of 41.73 μg/mg (i.e., drug loading capacity of about 4.17%) to give the BMD-AMS, which could release the drug in a sustained manner over 8 h. BMD-AMS was also shown to be mucoadhesive due to the presence of both hydroxyl and amino groups in the surface, allowing for formation of hydrogen bonds and an ionic complex with the mucin, respectively. Therefore, when topically administered to rabbit eyes in vivo, BMD-AMS could reside in the preocular space for up to 12 h because of its adherence to the mucous layer. To assess in vivo efficacy, we examined the variance in intraocular pressure (IOP) and brimonidine concentration in the aqueous humor (AH) after applying BMD-AMS to the eye, which was compared with that induced by Alphagan P, the marketed brimonidine eye drops. For BMD-AMS, the duration in the decrease in IOP and the area under the drug concentration in the AH-time curve (AUC) were 12 h and 2.68 μg·h/mL, respectively, which were about twice as large as those obtained with Alphagan P; this finding indicated enhanced ocular bioavailability of brimonidine with BMD-AMS.</P> [FIG OMISSION]</BR>

      • 保護小年의 社會的 問題性에 對한 硏究

        田亞禮 慶北大學校 師範大學 1974 敎育硏究誌 Vol.16 No.-

        This study was undertaken to investigate some basic underlying facts and characteristic common sense features of juvenile delinquency for the intention of suggesting some remedies for the delinquents and the delinquent home. On meeting more than two hundred of the delinquent boys and studying their homes, the findings are as follows: Ⅰ. Characteristic Features of the Delinquent Boys 1) More than five out of ten of the boys are from urban areas, including Taegu, Pusan, and Seoul, and the rest of them are from small cities and towns and villages all over Kyongpuk and adjacent Provinces. 2) The age of the boys ranges from eleven to twenty-three, making its highest peak at sixteen and seventeen. The majority of the boys belong to the age group-of fourteen to nineteen. 3) Scholarship and School Achievement It was found that nearly half of the boys are without the advantage of the universal education in Korea, and have not finished the elementary school course of six years, and more than three out of every twenty in this group had even not entered primary school, more than half of the non-school group remained completely illiterate. Illiteracy was found even in the "drop-offs" group from elementary school at the earlier grades and even later. The main reasons for not entering school and/or dropping out elementary school are as follows; losing both parents due to death, abandonment of the boy, becoming lost himself, desertion of the children's home, truancy due to difficulty in learning or to join with other truant boys, his families moving to another place, and illness of the boy himself, and so on. Thus only over half of the boys have finished elementary school, only a little more than half of this group advancing to middle school and high school, only one out of five finished middle school and advanced to a high school course of three years. Of this group advancing to high school, only one out of eight bacame high school graduates, others all quitting with middle and highschool unfinished, because of the dfficulty of studying the school curriculum or to be the companion of a girl friend or from financial hardship. 4) The Intelligence Quotients of the boys The intelligence Quotients of the boys had the wide range of from below 60 to 140 with a smaller number of higher indexes as the index advances. For the majority of the boys the school achievement was below the mean of the class. Exellent and above average could be found only in very small numbers. 5) The Kinds of The Jobs of the Boys There is a variety of jobs among the boys. Most of the jobs require manual labor; Nearly one-third labor helping in agriculture and livestock raising, transporting and delivery, including shoe shining and garbage collection, carpentry and other technical labor. More than one-third work in various factories such as spinning-and weaving, iron working, battery-making and mother industrial work such as machine regulation and bicycle-making and repair. The remaining part of about one-third is occupied by various technical labor and service and commercial activities such as tailor apprentice, barber, radio and watch mending, press working, including boy-servant, salaried men and sales men, peddlers of merchandise, chauffeur and others. There is also a part, less than one-fifth, having no jobs. The time duration of job working was comparatively short (mainly from below six month to two or three years) chiefly because of low wage. 6) Home Environment Background of the Delinquent Boys. In reviewing the delinquent home, it was found that no fewer than five out of every ten of the delinquent homes had been broken due to abandonment, separation or divorce, bigamy or death. Thus only a little over half of the boys had the experience of being reared by both parents since childhood. The broken home is largely divided into four types of home according to its organic structure for the purpose of considering its influence on the boy. First. Home of separation, divorce or bigamy. Second. Home of remarried, due to death of either part of the parents including incidences of desertion of the home by the mother; that is home of stepmother and stepfather. Third. Home of either remaining parent without remarrying after death of either of the parents, that is fatherless home or motherless home. Fourth. Losing both of the parents due to death, being abandoned, becoming lost himself, and further divided into helpless orphan and parentless with some relatives (elder brother and sister or grand-parents) to take care of him. In this four types of broken home the third types of home is most likely to keep both the physical and affectionate relationship to the boy unbroken, and consequently exert the least damage and infliction to the boy in his general sense of security and family stability, provided a certain degree of financial abillity exists. 7) Home desertion By the Delinquent Boy. It is a characteristic feature that regardless of any type of home, nearly half of the delinquents deserted home and began living in the city. Seeing his job not satisfactory he dares to indulge himself in antisocial behavior including mainly stealing on picking pocket by himself or sometimes with cooperation of other delinquent boys, sometimes being compelled to steal by a bigger boy. The close relationships with other boys substitute for the frustrating family relationship in his home. Among the four types of home, the rate of home desertion by the boy is the highest in the home of separation or divorce and the stepfather home by one hundred percent, followed by the step mother home by over eighty percent and bigamy home five out of seven and relatives home by five out of ten. A relatively low rate of home desertion is found in decreasing order in the motherless home, home of both parents and fatherless home where it is a little over ene-third. It seems to be of significance that the remarried stepmother home outnumbered the stepfather's nome nearly six times over. On the ethar hand the unremarried motherless home is surpassed by the fatherless home. Therefore it would be concluded that the rate of remarriage is higher on the part of the father than mother. In the home of the stepmother, the relationship between stepmother and the boy almost resembles that between stepfather and the child in high rate of desertion. The boys said it was impossible to stay in the stepfather's home. On comparison of fatherless home with the motherless home the desertion rate is lower in the fatherless home, showing that the affectionate human relationship could remain unbroken. Even in the home of both parents desertion is brought forth. The main reasons for home desertion given by the boys are as follows; Aversion to hard labor in the factory or other workshop, tiredness and difficulty in studying school curriculum, in order to join with a girl friend, too monotonous a rural life, for self-dependence especially in stepmothers home, wanting some training on the job, to seek a job, and for want of spending money, on occasion of being told to go out because of his beating a younger brother, and in search of his abandoning father and so on. However, the fundamental underlying reasons for home desertion seemed to be the unsuccesful school achievement as well as the frustrating family relationship and dissatisfaction with home life due to economical insecurity and poverty. It is recognized that home desertion by the boy played an introductory role to delinquency for the boys. 8) The Time Duration of Home Desertion is a serious problem for the delinquent boys. Time duration of home desertion and staying under uncontrolled conditions ranges from below six months to more than ten years. It was concluded that the longer the time duration of home desetion and staying outside under uncontrolled conditions, the more persistent and the more deteriorate the delinquency becomes and correction or improvement becomes almost impossible. 9) Recreation for the Boys The boys are very fond of movies as well as cartoon pictures, and four-fifths of the boys were daily movie goers. The movie theater is the school of the boys. Less thar one-third of the delinquent boys both smoke and drink. 10) Saving Money of the Boys Almost all boys had no understanding of saving money. Money stolen is not to be saved. It's even foolish to save money in the time of great need of it. Therefore, the more money they get, the more they waste. Ⅱ. General Outline of the Delinquent Homes 1) The Age of the delinquent Parents For nearly half of the age group of both the delinquent's father and mother is from forty to forty-nine. On the other hand, on the part of mother, more than one-fourth are in the age group of thirty to thirty-nine and only one-fifth in the fifty to fifty-nine group. Consequently it is concluded that the age of mother is somewhat younger than the father. 2) Scholarship of Delinquent Parents The scholarship of the delinquent's father ranges from illiteracy to college graduate. On the other hand, on the part of mother, there is more than three times as much illiteracy as the father and there are no college graduates but there were college dropouts in the course of college. On the part of both the mother and father, the dominating scholarship is the elementary school. Graduates are more than one-third on the part of the father with considerably more on the part of the mother. The remaining part of the fathers is composed of one-fifth of middle school group, more than one-tenth of the high school group and only a small part (5%) of college graduates. Scholarship on the part of the mother is inferior to the father. 3) The Profession of the delinquent household The profession on the part of the father ranges also from manual laborer to a small proportion in the managing class. Engaging in agriculture occupies more than one-fourth, followed by commercial activity by a little less than one-fourth. Various kind of technical service and technical labor occupy less than two-fifths. The remaining parts are composed of a small proportion of salaried men, so-called white-collar and a far smaller proportion(about 2%) of managing class. 4) The amount of income had a great variety of from below five thousand to-more than three-hundred-thousand. However, half of the households fall into-the income group of from ten thousand to twenty thousand won, averaging: about fifteen thousand won (more than two thousand won per capita, corresponding a little over the school expense of a boy of the primary school in the city of Taegu). 5) The Family Size of the delinquent household The family size of the delinquent household varies from four to seventeen. However, in two-thirds of the households the number of family member is five to eight, averaging 6.5, 1.2 more than the average of 5.3 in the census in Taegu city. 6) The Number of Children in the household varies from one to nine. However, more than four-fifths of the households the number of children ranges from three to seven, averaging 4, 6 children. To conclude, the delinquent's household is rather large. The antecedant investigation pointed out that the size of family is the vital statistic in dealing with delinquency. It says that a large family produces a delinquenty boy. 7) The Birth Order of The Boys The birth order of the boys ranges from the firt-born to the eighth. However, it would be of significance that more than half of the boys are either the firstborn or the second among the children of the delinquent home. 8) Religion and Church Attendance of the Delinquent Home No religion nor church attendance was observed in less than half of the delinquent homes. Superstition substituted particularly among the homes of low socioeconomic status. Nearly one-third of the mother practiced Buddhism. Half of the boys had no religion nor church attendance, Among the religious part of the boys, Protestant predominated (over one-fourth) followed by Catholic and Buddhist in order and no Confucianism nor minor religion appeared. The rate of non-religion was higher on the part of the father than the mother. CONCLUCION 1) Emphasizing Importance of Home As the Place of Forming Character and Personality of the Child. On meeting a persistent delinquent boy, it is immediately noticed that the boy has an extreme aversion to working, especially manual labor, dishonesty in addition to the habit of extravagant wasting of money, disobedience to authority and resentment to precept and so on. He would not work not because his intelligence is below average but because his character and personality have defects. It is not the intelligence itself that determines the way of using his intelligence to get livelihood, but the character and personality. The socially required character and personality traits such as labor-loving or hard working, honesty and law abiding can be formed through home living with the family together during a long period of time. He emulates his father consciously or unconsiously as his ideal. This process formed in the parent-child relationship could hardly be expected except in family life and in no other place than the home. Therefore a welfare policy for homes of low socioeconomic status and individual family members to remove all kinds of poverty is demanded nationally and socially, as well as improvement of parent-child relationship in the home. A warm ties between the father and the son and between elder and younger brother is especially desirable, because in general the mother-child relationship is fairly good, as seen in this study. A sympathetic teacher-child relationship in the school especially in the lower grades of primary school to the mentally retarded child is desiraale. Betterment of employer-employee relationship in the society in general is also required especially by payment of reasonable wage to the working boys, as well as improvement of working conditions. 1) Welfare and Protection Policy For Homes and Boys In order to prevent disruption of the family especially due to death, free medical treatment everywhere for homes of extreme poverty is demanded besides legal regulation for devorce and separation by Home Law Court. 2) Juvenile Home As the Supplementary Institution. Elementary and supplementary education for the non-school and drop-offs in the course of primary school and the illiterates is needed, in the Juvenile Home. 3) Vocational Trainning School For the Boy to give the ability and patience to be a good job worker is called for. 4) Establishment of Children's Home By the National Budget is desirable Preferably a small unit children's home imitating the ordinary family size if possible and matching a life-long protecting mother volunteered from religious motives and giving supplementary education and training with a high esteem of affectionate ties between the mother and child should be established. 5) Special Guidance for the Home of Low Socioeconomic status a) Encouragement of self-education of the parents and giving the opportunity especially for the mother is needed. b) Enrollment of the child of school age and supervision and guidance for the child who has the learning difficulty in the earlier grades should be practiced. c) An agency supervising the boys who are without reason not in a course of study nor have jobs and early introduction of the boy to the Juvenile Home who misbehaves or wanders or deserts his home should be established. d) Enrollment of working Boys and encouragement of saving money. Socially acceptable wage to the laboring boys should be paid, and saving money should be encouraged. e) Wholesome and instructive films should be produced, and published for the boys

      • KCI등재

        여성의 정신구조에 대한 심리학적 고찰

        박아청 啓明大學校 社會科學硏究所 2002 한국사회과학연구 Vol.21 No.2

        In this article, those psychological aspects of ego in woman was examined as the purpose of this article was an investigation of female identity formation. Especially psychoanalytic approaches including Freud, Jung, Adler, Horney, Fromm and Erikson on the development of female ego which emphasized on sex differences were examined. It was found that those theories were wrong biases and had obvious weaknesses due to the biological basis for woman's inferior. From viewing the previous studies we can concluded that although women may view themselves as inadequate compared the man, they to so for societal reasons, not because they were born female. and if women feel unworthy, it is because they have been treated that way in male-dominated culture. It was suggested that the reasonal and desirable approach of female ego have to consider the social and cultural aspects of the feminine psyche.

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