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      • KCI등재후보

        미국 텔레비전 시트콤 여배우들의 성격과 헤어스타일의 연관성 - Sex & the City를 중심으로 -

        윤아람 ( A-ram Yun ), 이영미 ( Young-mi Lee ) 한국미용예술경영학회 2009 미용예술경영연구 Vol.3 No.1

        < Sex & the City > which tells about the love, career, and life of women in their 20s and 30s has 4 main female characters. These 4 characters have had an influence not only on the hair and fashion styles of Korean women in their 20s and 30s but also the way they think. It seems that the desire of Korean women to accept the Western culture after the Korean War is similar to their wanting to imitate the hair styles and thought of characters in the American TV dramas or sitcoms. In this regard, this paper examines the relations between the images of women and the images that different hair styles give. The correlations between the characters and hair styles of the 4 main figures in < Sex & the City > are turned out to be as follows: First, Carrie Bradshaw, a sex columnist has a liberal and expressive character. She has her own styling so unique as to relieve stress by buying luxury shoes. And her chic fashion styles are added to her image. Accordingly, her hair style is not tied up to a certain one but shows a wide range of styles from straight to curly and diverse updos. Carrie shows the best styling fit to T.P.O(Time, Place, Occasion) and hair styles of extrovert women which are not stereotyped. Second, Samantha Jones is a brand PR director who has much self-respect. With daring fashion styles which reveal her body line and big accessories, she expresses her confidence. She sticks to medium―length hair but shows diverse hairdos from curly to straight depending on styles. Using the straight style of cold look and the curly style of mild look, she shows the extreme looks. Third, Miranda Hobbes is a lawyer of a strong image. She enjoys suits and short hair which go well with an image of a lawyer. Having the least diverse hair styles of the 4 figures, she shows changes in hair style when wearing a makeup and when doing nothing. Although she demonstrates the increased rights of women, by showing unkempt looks quite often she shows the negative side of increased women's rights. Fourth, Charlotte York is a gallery curator of an introvert image. Having the romantic look blended with elegant elements, she sticks to the medium-length, non-layered brunette. The most glamorous look she has shown is the big curly hair. She expresses her styles using a hair band or having updos. Her non-layered hair reflects her conservative character as she is; comparing to the liberal styles of Carrie or Samantha, the neat pony-tail style Charlotte enjoys shows her character as well.

      • KCI등재SCOPUS

        On the edge -to -vertex detour number of a graph

        A.P.,Santhakumaran 장전수학회 2014 Advanced Studies in Contemporary Mathematics Vol.24 No.3

        For two vertices u and v in a graph G=(V,E), The detour distance D(u,v) s the length of a longest, u-v path in G. A u-v path of length D(u,v) is called a u-v detour. For subsets A and B of V, the detour distance D(A,B) is defined as D(A,B)=(formula). A u-v path of length D(A,B) is called an A-B detour joining the sets A, B⊆V where u∈B. A vertex x is said to lie on an A-B detour is a vertex of A-B detour. A set S⊆E is called an detour joining a pair of edges of S. The edge-to-vertex detour number dn2(G) OF G is the minimum order of its edge-to-vertex detour sets and any edge-to-vertex detour set of order dn2(G) is an edge-to-vertex detour basis of G. Graphs G of size q for which dn2(G) = q or dn2(G) = q-1 or dn2(G) = q-2 are characterized.

      • A Comparative Study on Everyday Life of South Koreans and North Korean Defectors

        Chung,Jin-A 건국대학교 인문학연구원 2016 통일인문학 Vol.2 No.1

        This article is a research that surveyed and compared everyday customs, such as food, clothing and shelter, rites and seasonal rituals, and awareness of daily issues, such as views on family values, marriage, education and career, of South Koreans with that of North Korean defectors, in order to better understand the characteristics of living culture of South Koreans and North Korean defectors and to search for ways for the two groups to communicate better and culturally integrate. The results of the research show that, in relation to everyday customs such as clothing, food and shelter, rites and seasonal rituals, both South Koreans and North Korean defectors had transformed the traditional living culture to befit the lifestyles of the modern era. It seems that everyday customs of South Koreans had become more westernized while North Korean defectors maintained more traditional customs, but such difference decreased as defectors spent longer time in South Korea. One commonality in everyday customs found between the two was that customs acted as a mechanism maintaining a sense of community among South Koreans and among North Korean defectors, who had lived for a long time in different systems. Due to inter-Korea tensions, and differing experience and habits formed under the different systems of capitalism and socialism, a large gap between the two groups was found in the area of day to day awareness and values. Differences were most pronounced in views on marriage and career. First of all, South Koreans were more negative toward marriage with a North Korean defector than with a Korean of another country whereas the defectors were more negative toward marriage with an overseas Korean and positive toward marriage with a South Korean. Secondly, for South Koreans, the higher the income, the stronger the pride they had over their jobs. However, for North Korean, those with lower income tended to be more proud of their jobs. South Koreans preferred becoming civil servants and professionals. North Korean defectors also added to the list, workers, as a job that made them proud. Thirdly, in choosing their jobs, South Koreans felt the thoughts and advice of their parents to be important while North Korean defectors were more reliant on state policy. The results of this study gives us important insight into how we can promote cultural integration of South Koreans and North Korean defectors. First of all, the negative perspective South Koreans have of North Korean defectors has to be fundamentally revisited. It is essential that the prejudice of equating ordinary North Koreans with the government be overcome and that North Korean defectors be seen with a sense of national solidarity. Secondly, South Koreans and North Koreans defectors need to share the advantages of individualism and collectivism that the two sides had acquired as a result of living under different systems, and be able to use those advantages as a driver of social development. Third, cultural integration between South Koreans and North Korean defectors must be a process of attaining diversity in national everyday customs while respecting the customs of the other, and also of heading toward further expanding and developing national everyday customs.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        A Spectrum Sharing Model for Compatibility between IMT-Advanced and Digital Broadcasting

        Hassan,,Walid,A.,Rahman,,Tharek,Abd Korean Society for Internet Information 2012 KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Syst Vol.6 No.9

        Recently, the International Telecommunication Union allocated the 470-862 MHz band to the digital broadcasting (DB) service. Moreover, the 790-862 MHz sub-band will be allocated to the next-generation mobile system, known as the International Mobile Telecommunication - Advanced (IMT-A), and to the DB on a co-primary basis in the year 2015. Currently, two candidate technologies are available to represent the IMT-A system; the Mobile WiMAX and Long Term Evolution - Advanced (LTE-A). One of the main criteria of the IMT-A candidate is to not cause additional interference to the primary service (i.e., DB). In this paper, we address the spectrum sharing issue between the IMT-A candidates and the DB service. More precisely, we investigate the interference effect between the DB service and the mobile network, which could be either LTE-A or WiMAX. Our study proposes a spectrum sharing model to take into account the impact of interference and evaluates the spectrum sharing requirements such as frequency separation and separation distance. This model considers three spectrum sharing scenarios: co-channel, zero guard band, and adjacent channel. A statistical analysis is performed, by considering the interferer spectrum emission mask and victim receiver blocking techniques. The interference-to-noise ratio is used as an essential spectrum sharing criterion between the systems. The model considers the random distribution of the users, antenna heights, and the bandwidth effect as well as the deployment environment in order to achieve spectrum sharing. The results show that LTE-A is preferable to WiMAX in terms of having less interference impact on DB; this can eventually allow the operation of both services without performance degradation and thus will lead to efficient utilization of the radio spectrum.

      • KCI등재SCOPUS

        Genetic Variation of SCN5A in Korean Patients with Sick Sinus Syndrome

        Young-Soo,Lee,Michael,A,Olaopa,정병천,이상희,신동구,박형섭,조용근,한상미,이명훈,김윤년 대한심장학회 2016 Korean Circulation Journal Vol.46 No.1

        Background and Objectives: Due to recent studies that have shown an association between the genetic variation of SCN5A and sick sinus syndrome (SSS), we sought to determine if a similar correlation existed in Korean patients with SSS. Subjects and Methods: We enrolled 30 patients with SSS who showed a sinus pause (longer than 3.0 s) in Holter monitoring, in addition to 80 controls. All exons including the putative splicing sites of the SCN5A gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced either directly or following subcloning. Wild-type and single nucleotide polymorphisms were expressed in human embryonic kidney cells, and the peak sodium current (INa) was analyzed using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Results: A total of 9 genetic variations were identified: 7 variations (G87A-A29A, IVS9-3C>A, A1673G-H558R, G3823A-D1275N, T5457C-D1819D, T5963G-L1988R, and C5129T-S1710L) had been previously reported, and 2 variants (A3075T-E1025D and T4847A-F1616Y) were novel; the potential structural effects of F1616Y were analyzed in a three-dimensional model of the SCN5A domain. Patch-clamp studies at room temperature demonstrated that the peak INa was significantly increased by 140% in HEK cells transfected with F1616Y comparedwith wild-type (-335.13 pA/pF±24.04, n=8 vs. -139.95 pA/pF±23.76, n=7, respectively). Furthermore, the voltage dependency of theactivation and steady-state inactivation of F1616Y were leftward-shifted compared with wild-type (Vh activation=-55.36 mv±0.22, n=8 vs. Vh activation=-44.21 mV±0.17, n=7; respectively; Vh inactivation=-104.47 mV±0.21, n=7 vs. Vh inactivation=-84.89 mV±0.09, n=12, respectively). Conclusion: F1616Y may be associated with SSS.

      • KCI등재

        관광업과 제조업의 재무비율 차이 연구

        조아진(A-Jin Jo), 김현준(Hyun-Jun Kim), 설훈구(Hoon-Ku Sul) 대한경영학회 2015 大韓經營學會誌 Vol.28 No.12

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        본 연구는 관광업과 제조업간에 재무비율을 통해 재무적 차이를 분석하기 위한 연구이다. 관광 사업은 호텔업, 외식업, 여행업을 대상으로 연구를 진행하였는데 이 세 개 업계는 관광업을 대표하는 산업이기 때문이다. 본 연구를 위해서 관광업에서 198개 업체를 선정하여 분석에 사용하였다. 제조업은 금속, 자동차 장비, 전기장비관련 업체를 선정하였는데 본 업체들은 제조업을 대표하는 업체로 알려져 있다. 본 제조업체의 표본은 1012개 업체를 대상으로 연구를 진행하였다. 선택된 표본은 KIS-VALUE 데이터베이스의 2009년부터 2013년까지 5년간의 자료를 기반으로 분석이 이루어 졌다. T-test와 일원분산분석(ANOVA)으로 연구 변수들을 분석 하였다. 재무비율 중 대표 재무비율은 안정성비율 (solvency ratio), 수익성비율(profitability ratio), 활동성비율(activity ratio)과 성장성비율(growth ratio)로 나눌수 있다. 안정성 비율은 부채비율(debt-equity ratio), 자기자본비율(equity-debt ratio)로 분석하였다. 수익성비율은 순이익율(profit margin)과 영업이익률(operating profit margin)로 측정하였다. 활동성 비율은 자기자본회전률(equity turnover ratio)로 측정하였다. 성장성 비율은 자산 성장률(asset growth ratio)로 측정하였다. 분석 결과는 자기자본회전율에서 차이가 있음을 알 수 있다. 이는 관광사업체들 보다 제조업종에서 대규모의 고정자산 즉 부동산과 같은 자산에 투자가 이루어졌으나 매출을 통해 자기자본의 확충했음을 알 수 있다. 제조업에서 대규모 고정 자산의 확보를 위해 많은 부채를 사용하며 매출을 통해 자기자본의 비중이 커지는 점이 큰 차이라는 것을 알 수 있다. Bonferroni test를 통해 구체적인 차이 분석을 실시하였다. 특히 식음료업체와 전자장비 제조업체 사이에 자본 부채 비율(equity-debt ratio)에서 가장 큰 차이를 보여 주고 있다. 또한 전기장비관련 업체, 호텔과 식음료 사업체에서 자본회전률에서 통계적으로 가장 큰 차이를 보여주고 있다. 이는 대량 생산을 하고 있는 제조업의 자산적, 자본적 효율은 서비스 상품을 판매 하는 관광 산업을 능가하고 있음을 알 수 있으며 관광기업들은 이러한 노하우를 이용하려는 노력이 필요하다. We questioned how different both tourism and manufacturing industry were. Tourism industry has focused on relatively less skilled and labor intensive production to produce service products. On the other hand, manufacturing industry practiced a large volume of production with skilled labor and equipment. This study focused on the difference analysis between tourism businesses and manufacturing businesses in the usefulness of financial ratios. We examined financial ratios for two different industry classes, among which tourism industry practiced service characteristics and manufacturing industry produced a large volume of products in automated processes Financial ratios are commonly used for different purposes by investors, managers, and creditors. Investors and potential investors use ratios to evaluate the performance of a operation as they consider their investment options. Financial ratios help managers monitor the performance of their operations and evaluate their efforts to meet a variety of goals. Creditors use ratio analysis to evaluate the solvency of operations and to assess the riskiness of future loans. Ratios are used to communicate financial performance. Different ratios communicate different results. The purpose of this study was to find any differences in financial ratios between manufacturing industry group and a tourism industry group. This study could help them to have some opportunities to learn each other. We utilized proxy samples representing these two different industry groups in order to examine any differences in financial ratios. According to Jun and Hong (2011), and Kang and Sul (2013), representing proxy sample could be selected in hotel, foodservice, and travel agencies industry in tourism industry. According to Jo and Lee (2006), metal, transportation equipment, and electronic equipment manufacturing businesses could be representing the manufacturing industry. Selected businesses were 198 in hotel, foodservice, and travel agencies, and 1012 in metal, transportation equipment, and electronic equipment manufacturing businesses. Selected samples have been listed for five years from 2009 to 2013. These were extracted from KIS-VALUE database. T-test and ANOVA using SPSS 12.0 were employed to test this study. Variables could be organized in solvency, profitability, activity, growth ratios. Solvency ratios were debt-equity ratio, equity-debt ratio. Profitability ratio was profit margin and operating profit margin. Activity ratio was equity turnover ratio. Growth ratios was asset growth ratio. The analysis showed that there are no differences between a tourism business group and a manufacturing business group in debt-equity ratio, equity-debt ratio, profit margin, operating profit margin, and asset growth ratio. However, there were differences found between a tourism business group and a manufacturing business group in equity turnover ratio. Bonferroni test indicated that foodservice and electronic equipment manufacturing had a significant differences in equity-debt ratio among these six different industry groups. Equity turnover ratio was found in statistical differences among electronic equipment manufacturing, hotel and foodservice businesses. The equity turnover ratio was one of activity ratios which made these two industry groups different in financial ratios. The equity turnover ratio in a manufacturing industry group was higher than that in a tourism industry group. The study results have been in consistence with Jung's (1990) study which indicated that turnover ratio was the single indicator differentiating among industry groups. Researchers could carefully expand the interpretation in that a manufacturing industry group proved efficient in asset and equity usage, as compared with a tourism industry group. This study results may contribute to the idea that a tourism industry needs to consider the know-how to turnover asset and equity in a manufacturing industry group.

      • KCI등재SCOPUS

        Lebesgue's criterion for the Riemann integration with respect to a state on a separable unital C*- algebra

        A.,I.,Shtern 장전수학회 2016 Advanced Studies in Contemporary Mathematics Vol.26 No.2

        In the paper “Semicontinuous envelopes, Riemann integral, and uniform distribution in C*-algebras” (Funct. Anal. Appl. 29 (4), 268– 275 (1995)(1996)), the author had constructed the Riemann integral with respect to a state on a separable unital C*-algebra A. In particular, the semicontinuous hulls of elements of the enveloping von Neumann algebra A of A were introduced and studied and, for a given state ! on A, a class of selfadjoint elements of the algebra A that are Riemann integrable with respect to the state ω were introduced. It was also proved that this class is the self-adjoint part of a C*-algebra, and relations to the uniform distribution of states of the C*-algebra A with respect to the state ω were indicated. In the present note, we supplement these results by a version of Lebesgue's criterion for the Riemann integrability of self-adjoint elements of A.

      • KCI등재SCOPUS

        Upper edge-to-vertex detour monophonic number of a graph

        A.,P.,Santhakumaran,P.,Titus,K.,Ganesamoorthy 장전수학회 2016 Advanced Studies in Contemporary Mathematics Vol.26 No.2

        For a connected graph G = (V,E) of order at least three, the monophonic distance dm(u, v) is the length of a longest u−v monophonic path in G. A u − v path of length dm(u, v) is called a u − v detour monophonic. For subsets A and B of V , the monophonic distance dm(A,B) is defined as dm(A,B) = min{dm(x, y) : x ∈ A, y ∈ B}. A u−v path of length dm(A, B) is called an A−B detour monophonic path joining the sets A,B ⊆ V, where u ∈ A and v ∈ B. A set S ⊆ E is called an edge-to-vertex detour monophonic set of G if every vertex of G is incident with an edge of S or lies on a detour monophonic path joining a pair of edges of S. The edge-to-vertex detour monophonic number dmev(G) of G is the minimum cardinality of its edge-to-vertex detour monophonic sets and any edge-to-vertex detour monophonic set of car- dinality dmev(G) is an edge-to-vertex detour monophonic basis of G. An edge-to-vertex detour monophonic set S in a connected graph G is called a minimal edge-to-vertex detour monophonic set of G if no proper subset of S is an edge-to-vertex detour monophonic set of G. The upper edge-to-vertex detour monophonic number dm+ ev(G) of G is the maxi- mum cardinality of a minimal edge-to-vertex detour monophonic set of G. We determine bounds for it and certain general properties of these concepts are studied. It is shown that for every pair a, b of integers with 2 ≤ a ≤ b, there exists a connected graph G with dmev(G) = a and dm+ ev(G) = b.

      • CONSUMERS' CONFIDENCE IN COMPETITIVE POSITIONS OF PRODUCTS: ANTECEDENTS AND EFFECTS ON PURCHASE INTENTION

        Anne-Maree,O'Rourke,Francois,A.,Carrillat 글로벌지식마케팅경영학회 2016 Global Marketing Conference Vol.2016 No.7

        A product's competitive position (CP) identifies the segment the product is targeting and the value proposition it offers that differentiates it from its competitors (Hooley & Greenley, 2005). Having a clear, strong competitive position for products in the mind of the consumer, known as the perceived position, is considered to be absolutely imperative for products to compete in today's market. In order to get to this evaluation or judgment on the product's position, consumers need to sift through the ever-growing availability of organization and market-derived information. Consumer behavior literature dictates that such a judgment would have a level of confidence attached to it, specifically known as belief-confidence. Extensive literature has empirically linked belief-confidence to purchase intention (Bennell & Harrell, 1975; Howard & Steth, 1969; Laroche, Kim, & Zhou, 1995; Russo, Medvec, & Melov, 1996), however the construct has not been examined relative to the strategic concept of competitive product positioning. This research proposes a framework that suggests when the consumer's perceived position for a product matches their purchase goal, [for example a consumer is seeking a ‘top of the range' personal laptop and after evaluating laptop alternatives in the market judges product X as the ‘top of the range' offering] the consumer's confidence in their positioning judgment acts as a moderator, magnifying its ultimate effect on purchase intention. Given that judgment confidence is context specific (Chandrashekaran, Rotte & Grewal, 2005), this research suggests three antecedents to consumers' confidence in competitive positions of products (1) position clarity (2) position consistency (3) alignment between the initial and post (information search) perceived positions. Support for these antecedents stems from various fields of literature including positioning implementation; consumer perception; judgment revision; information distortion and brand equity signaling (Erdem & Swait, 1998; Muthukrishnam, 2002; Russo, Medvec, & Melov, 1996; Crawford, 1985). Two between-subjects factorial experiments entailing a mock information search designed to manipulate (1) and (2) of the proposed antecedents will be administered online, whereby total n=540. Measures taken pre and post the experiment will enable validation of the remaining variables in the conceptual model. This research aims to show that adding a confidence measure to positioning measurement such as perceptual mapping, is a better predictor of purchase intention (when coupled with purchase goal), than positioning measurement alone. It ultimately gives managers an insight into what drives consumers' confidence in deciphering what a product stands for amongst its competitors.

      • 인도철학에서 자아의 정체성에 대한 사유의 변환 -불교발생 전후의 사상사적 고찰-

        최경아 ( Choi Gyeong-a ) 위덕대학교 밀교문화연구원 2017 密敎學報 Vol.18 No.-

        나에 대한 탐구는 인도철학의 핵심 주제이다. 이 문제에 대한 불교이전 베다와 우빠니샤드시대의 논의는 다분히 형이상학적인 범주에 속하는 것이었다. 반면, 슈라마나 전통의 불교는 현상세계의 고에 더 주목했고, 현실적이고 실천적인 인 해법에 보다 힘을 기울였다. 교세가 확장되면서 브라흐만 사제들도 교단에 유입되어 불제가가 되었다. 그들이 가지고 있던 기존의 가치관과 철학이 수정되는 경우도 많았겠지만 불교사상과 접목되거나 수용되었을 개연성 또한 높다 할 것이다. 이 가운데 베다의 뿌루샤찬가에서 비롯된 인간을 보는 뿌리 깊은 사유방식인 不可知 또는 不可說의 입장은 붓다의 입멸 이후 부파불교의 철학적 가속화에 지대한 영향을 미쳤다. 과거·현재·미래의 시간적 존재인 뿌루샤는 일부만 현상세계에 전개되고 나머지는 우리가 알 수 없는 영역에 있다는 베다의 찬가로부터 시작해 우빠니샤드를 통해 아뜨만과 교차적인 의미로 전승된다. 초기불교에서 보이는 무상, 고, 무아의 세가지 존재의 특성은 뿌루샤찬가의 뿌루샤에서 전개된 브라흐마니즘의 자아관에 대한 불교적 관점이라고 볼 수 있다. 현상세계에 전개된 뿌루샤의 사분의 일은 유위세계의 특징인 생주이멸의 제약과 변이에 놓여 있지만, 그 나머지는 무위에 속한다. 인간은 시간적 삶을 영위하는 유위적 존재이지만 동시에 무위로 나아가는 가능태이기도 하다. 따라서 그들의 상태는 불가설이라고 할 수 밖에 없다. 이러한 이해는 초기불교에서 수행을 고취시키는 동력인이 되기도 했고, 부파불교에 이르러 이에 대한 철학적 논의도 심화된다. The quest for ‘self' is a key theme in Indian philosophy. The discussion on this matter during pre-Buddhist Veda and Upaniṣad era was largely of a metaphysical category. Buddhism belonging to the Śramaṇic tradition, however, paid more attention to the ‘suffering' of the phenomenal world putting more emphasis on practical solution. As the congregation expanded, the Brahman priests also entered the Buddhist order. Consequently their previous values and philosophies had to be modified, but it is also likely that they have been combined with or accepted in Buddhism. ‘Ineffability' or ‘unknowableness' is peculiar aspect of a human being deeply rooted since the Puruṣa Sūkta of Ṛgveda. This point gave profound effect to philosophization of sectarian Buddhism after the parinirvāṇa of the Buddha. According to the Puruṣa Sūkta, only a portion of Puruṣa, as a temporal being of past, present and future, is spread out in phenomenal world while the remaining is beyond our cognition. Thereafter, in the Upaniṣads, Puruṣa is transmitted as an exchangeable name for Ātman. The three characteristics of existence i.e. impermanence, suffering and selflessness, can be viewed as an Buddhist perspective on self in connection with the idea of Puruṣa of the Puruṣa Sūkta in Brahmanism. One fourth of the Puruṣa abides in this conditioned (saṃskṛta) world characterized of arising, abiding, changing and ceasing; the rest belongs to the unconditioned (asaṃskṛta). Human beings are conditioned beings that lead the temporal life, but at the same time they are in potential status to move on to the unconditioned, the status that can be described as ineffable. This understanding has become a driving force for enhancing ‘practice' in early Buddhism, and philosophical debate on this matter has deepened further in sectarian Buddhism.

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