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본 연구는 해외 부존자원의 개발을 위하여 동남아시아 4개국과 중국에서 수집한 시료의 일반성분과 아미노산 함량을 분석하여 원료가치를 판단하는 기초 자료를 제공하고자 실시되었다. 성분 분석 결과를 요약하면, 1. 대부분의 종실류와 유박류는 조지방 함량이 높아 에너지 수준이 높았다. 2. 중국산 채종박과 면실박은 조단백질 함량이 높았다. 3. 섬유질 공급 원료로 양초, OPF와 leucaena 잎등이 이용가능할 것으로 판단되었다. 4. 대부분의 원료사료는 아미노산 함량이 낮은 경향을 보였다. This study was conducted to evaluate nutritive values of non-conventional feed resources from South-Asian countries and China. Proximate and amino acid composition of feed samples were determined, and the results are as follows. 1. Gross energy of some oil seeds and oil seed meals was high because of their high oil contents. 2. Crude protein content was very high in rapeseed meal and cottonseed meal from China compared to other feedstuffs. 3. Chinese wild hay, oil palm fronds and leucaena leaf can be potential fiber sources. 4. Most of samples showed big variations in nutrients content by their origins. 5. Most of samples showed low amino acids composition compared with regularity used feedstuffs.
반추가축의 단백질원으로서 Lysine 발효부산물의 이용에 관한 연구 : 2 . Lysine 발효부산물의 첨가수준별 면양의 반추위내 발효특성 및 in vivo 영양소 소화율과 한우의 사양성적에 미치는 영향 2 . EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF LYSINE FERMENTATION BY - PRODUCT ON THE NUTRIENT DIGESTIBILITY AND RUMEN FERMENTATION IN SHEEP AND ON THE PERFORMANCE OF KOREAN NATIVE BULLS
Lysine 발효부산물을 0, 2, 4% 수준으로 첨가하여 면양에게 급여한 후 반추위내 발효 특성과 in vivo 영양소 소화율 및 질소 축적율에 미치는 효과를 규명하고자 평균체중 40㎏이며 반추위에 fistula를 부착한 재래숫면양 12두를 처리당 4반복, 반복당 1두를 완전임의배치하여 대사 실험을 실시하였으며, 한우의 사양성적과 경제성에 미치는 효과를 규명하기 위해서 평균체중 350㎏ 되는 한우수컷 24두를 공시하여 처리당 8반복, 반복당 1두씩 완전 임의배치하여 10주간의 사양시험을 실시하였으며, 그 결과는 다음과 같다. 1. 건물, 조단백질, 조섬유, 조회분 및 NFE의 소화율은 lysine 발효부산물을 2% 첨가했을 때에 높게 나타났으며 처리간에 유의성은 없었고, 조지방의 소화율은 4% 첨가구에서 가장 높았다 (P<.05). 2. 질소 축적율은 처리구간에 유의적인 차이가 없었다. 3. 반추위내 pH는 lysine 발효부산물의 첨가수준과 사료급여 후 시간 경과에 따라서 처리구간에 유의한 차이를 보이지 않았다. 4. 반추위내 암모니아태 질소의 농도는 Iysine 발효부산물의 첨가수준간에 유의성은 없었으나, 첨가수준이 증가할수록 증가하는 경향이었다. 반추위내 pretease 농도와 순단백질 함량은 2% 처리구에서 높았다 (P<.05). 5. 반추위내 총 휘발성지방산 생성량은 lysine 발효부산물의 첨가수준간에 유의적인 차이가 없었으며, acetic acid와 propionic acid의 농도도 일정한 경향이 없었다. 6. 한우의 사양시험에 있어 일당 증체량은 Iysine 발효부산물의 첨가수준이 0, 2 또는 4%일 때 각각 0.99, 1.04, 1.10㎏/일로서 첨가수준이 증가함에 따라서 증가하였다. 7. Lysine 발효부산물의 첨가수준이 증가함에 따라서 사료섭취량은 다소 감소하였으나 사료효율은 개선되는 경향을 나타내었다. 8. 경제성 분석에 있어서도 lysine 발효부산물 첨가구의 경제성이 높았다. 이상의 결과로 보아 lysine 발효 부산물은 반추동물의 단백질원으로서 효과적으로 이용될 수 있는 가능성을 보여준다고 하겠으며, 앞으로 이에 대한 보다 많은 연구가 필요할 것으로 생각된다. Two experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of different levels of lysine fermentation by-product on the nutrient digestibility and rumen fermentation in sheep and on the performance of Korean native bulls. In experiment I, twelve sheep(average body weight 40㎏) fistulated in the rumen were grouped and randomly assigned to three rations for this study. Lysine fermentation by-product was added at the rate of 0, 2, 4% to each concentrate portion of diet including raw straw as a roughage source. Rumen protease and protein soluble concentration were the highest at the rate of 2% of lysine fermentation by-product (P< .05). Rumen VFA and ammonia N concentration were not affected by lysine fermentation by-product levels. Addition of lysine fermentation by-product has a tendency to increase digestibilites of DM and increased crude fat digestibility (P< .05). Nitrogen retention was not affected by the addition of lysine fermentation by-product. In experiment 2, twenty four heads of Korean native bulls, weighed about 350㎏, were randomly assinged to 3 treatments (0, 2, 4% lysine fermentation by-product supplementation to concentrate) with 8 heads per treatment and one replicate. After 2 weeks of preliminary period, bulls were subjected to 10 weeks of collection period. Average daily gain of steers tended to increase with increasing lysine fermentation by-product levels. Dry matter intake and feed/gain had a tendency to increase with increasing lysine fermentation by-product levels. Economic evaluation indicates that adding lysine fermentation by-products was more economical than for the control group.
반추가축의 단백질원으로서 Lysine 발효부산물의 이용에 관한 연구 : 1 . Lysine 발효부산물의 화학조성 , 반추위액내 발효특성 , in vitro 건물 소화율과 젖소의 생산성에 미치는 영향 1 . CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF LYSINE FERMENTATION BY - PRODUCT ON IN VITRO NUTRIENT DIGESTIBILITY AND RUMEN
본 실험은 lysine 제조과정에서 다량으로 발생되는 발효부산물의 화학적 특성을 규명하고, 이들 발효부산물을 0, 1, 2, 4, 6% 수준으로 농후사료와 조사료에 첨가하여 이들 발효부산물의 첨가수준에 따른 반추위액의 성상과 건물소화율에 미치는 효과를 평가하고자 in vitro 소화시험을 실시하였으며, 또한 젖소에게 lysine 발효부산물을 0, 3% 첨가하여 단백질과 에너지의 수준을 동일하게 설계한 시험사료를 급여하여 젖소의 사료섭취량, 산유량 및 유성분의 변화와 사료적 가치를 규명하기 위해서 Hostein 착유우 18두 (평균체중 593㎏, 평균 산차수 2.4, 평균 비유일수 185일)를 선발하여 처리구마다 9두씩의 젖소를 완전 임의배치법에 의해 할당하여 2주간의 예비시험과 7주간의 본 시험을 실시하였다. 그 결과는 다음과 같다. 1. Lysine 발효부산물은 건물 함량 70.0%, 조단백질 함량 45.0%, 조회분 3.0%이고, 조지방과 조섬유는 거의 존재하지 않았으며, 아미노산의 조성은 glutamic acid 1.90%와 lysine 1.3%로서 가장 높았다. 2. Lysine 발효부산물의 첨가수준 (0, 1, 2, 4, 6%)에 따라서 반추위액내 pH는 영향받지 않았다. NH₃생성량은 lysine 발효부산물의 첨가수준이 높을수록 증가하는 경향을 보였으나 유의성은 없었다. 3. 총 VFA 생성량은 lysine 발효부산물의 첨가수준에 따라서 유의성이 없었으나 조사료를 기질로 사용한 4% 첨가구에서는 propionic acid의 생성량이 높았다 (P$lt;.05). 4. Lysine 발효부산물의 첨가수준에 따른 농후사료 및 조사료의 in vitro 건물소화율은 유의적인 차이를 나타내지 않았다. 5. 젖소의 사양시험에서 사료섭취량은 대조구와 lysine 발효부산물 3% 첨가구에서 각각 21.21, 21.93㎏/day로서 첨가구에서 다소 높았으나 통계적인 유의차는 없었다. 6. 산유량은 대조구에 비해서 lysine 발효부산물 3% 첨가구에서 높았으나 유의성은 없었다. 7. Lysine발효 부산물 첨가에 따른 젖소의 유성분 변화는 관찰되지 않았다. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the nutritive value of lysine fermentation by-product. Its effects on chemical composition, rumen fermentation, in vitro dry matter degradability, feed intake, milk production and milk composition of lactating Holstein cows were assessed in these experiments. In experiment I, lysine fermentation by-product (0, 1, 2, 4, 6%) was added to concentrate and roughage, respectively, to determine changes of characteristics in rumen fluid and in vitro dry matter degradability. Incubation times for concentrate were 12 and 24 hours, and for roughage were 24 and 48hours. Addition of lysine fermentation by-product did not affect pH and VFA concentration in the rumen, but NH₃concentration in the rumen tended to increase with the increasing level of lysine fermentation by-product. In vitro DM degradability of concentrate and roughage was not affected by the addition of lysine fermentation by-product. In experiment II, eighteen heads of lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 2 treatments (0 and 3% lysine fermentation by-product supplementation with concentrate) with 9 heads per treatment. After 2 weeks of preliminary period, milk cow were subjected to 7 weeks of collection period. Feed intake, milk production and milk composition was not affected by supplementation of 3% lysine fermentation by-product.
본 연구는 해외 부존자원의 개발을 위하여 동남아시아 5개국과 중국에서 수집한 시료의 광물질, 중금속 및 항영양 인자 수준을 분석하여 원료가치를 판단하는 기초 자료를 제공하고자 실시되었다. 성분 분석 결과를 요약하면, 1. 본 시험에 공시한 부존사료자원들의 광물질 함량은 현재 우리나라에서 사용중인 원료사료와 비교 하였을 때 그 수준이 비슷하거나 높았다. 2. Bio-v-pro (India)에서 크롬 함량이 높게 나타났고, 대두박 (China)에서 납 함량이 높게 나타난 것을 제외하고는 대부분의 부존 사료자원의 중금속 함량은 안정권내에 있었다. 3. Cassava waste (Thailand)에서 HCN의 함량이 높게 나타났고, mustard cake (India)에서 tannic aicd 함량이 비교적 높게 나타난 것을 제외하고는, 아플라톡신, gossypol, nitrate 등을 포함하는 항영양성 인자들의 함량이 대부분의 부존사료자원들에서 낮은 것으로 조사되었다. This study was conducted to evaluate nutritional value of non-conventional feeds of foreign-origin. Samples collected from South-Asian countries and China were analyzed for minerals, heavy metals and anti-nutritional factors. 1. Most non-conventional feed resources obtained from 6 countries was similar or higher mineral contents in some cases than conventional feeds which used in Korea. Particularly, calcium and phosphorus were high in bone meal and fish meal from Vietnam. 2. Heavy metal contents of most non-conventional feed resources in this study was below safety level. But exceptions were bio-v-pro (India) containing higher chrome and soybean meal (China) containing higher Pb than in conventional feeds. 3. HCN was high in cassava waste (Thailand), and tannic acid was high in mustard cake (India). But in most non-conventional feed resources, the level of anti- nutritional factors was low enough to be used as feed resources.
A new type of Si diaphragm was fabricated using Si-wafer direct bonding and two-step electrochemical etch-stopping methods. Using the new diaphragm structure in mechanical sensors, more precise control of cavity depth and diaphragm thickness was achievable. Also, the propagation of the stress, which was generated near the bonding interface, to the surface can be avoided. Finally, a piezoresistive-type Si pressure sensor was fabricated utilizing the diaphragm and a digital pressure gauge, which can display units of pressure, was realized.
The pharmacokinetics of single oral dose(lgm) of pyrazinamide was studied in 20 patients with various degrees of renal insufficiency including 6 patients on long-term hemodialysis. The average 24 hr urinary recovery of pyrazinamide in patients with creatinine clearance 10 to 30 ml/hr/kg, and patients with creatinine clearance lesser than 10 ml/hr/kg were 7.5 and 0.9% of administered dose respectively. Serum half-life of the drug was slightly, but significantly(p$lt;0.05), prolonged in patients with creatinine clearance lesser than 10 ml/hr/kg(half-life; 11.25±2.55 hr) compared with normal subjects(half-life; 8.21±1.38 hr) previously reported. The mean serm half-life of pyrazinamide in patients on longterm hemodialysis was 12.26±2.92 hr. The half-life fell to 3.52±1.17 hr during hemodialysis. It was estimated that approximately 41% of drug in the body was removed into dialysate during 4 hr dialysis.The mean dialysance of pyrazinamide was 91.40±2.83 ml/min. From the observed pharmacokinetics of pyrazinamide in patients with impaired renal function, it is suggested that adjustment of dosage regimen may not be required for patients just with impaired renal function. However, replacement of dialysed fraction of pyrazinamide would be required for the maintenance of adequate serum level.
Polycrystalline CdSe thin films were grown on ceramic substrate using a chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. They were annealed at various temperature and X-ray diffraction patterns were measured by X-ray diffractometer in order to study CdSe polycrystal structure. Using extrapolation method of X-ray diffraction patterns for the CdSe samples annealed in N₂ gas at 450℃ it was found hexagonal structure whose lattice parameters a_o and c_o were 4.302 A and 7.014 A, respectively. Its grain size was about 0.3 ㎛. Hall effect on this sample was measured by Van der Pauw method and studied on carrier density and mobility depending on temperature. From Hall data, the mobility was likely to be decreased by piezo electric scattering at temperature range of 33 K and 200 K, and by polar optical scattering at temperature range of 200 K and 293 K. We measured also spectral response, sensitivity (γ), maximum allowable power dissipation and response time on these samples.
Objective : To evaluate the effectiveness of evidence-based teratogenic risk counseling by relevant medical literature concerning pregnant women exposed to medication or diagnostic radiation during the first trimester. Methods : Between January 2001 and April 2001, 67 pregnant women exposed to medication or diagnostic radiation visited our clinic for teratogenic risk counseling. We counseld the teratogenic risk of their fetus by relevant medical literature.Also, We measured the score to terminate pregnancy and the perceptive risk on their fetus with major congenital anomaly using 10cm visual analogue scale. Results : None of them were exposed to any known teratogenic drugs or radiation in any teratogenic doses. Other physicians had already recommended, to about a third of patients, pregnancy termination. Their perceptive estimation on the risk of major congenital malformation in the general population was 4.6±1.1%. The perceptive risk on their fetus with major congenital anomaly decreased from 39.5±3.1% before consultation to 10.8±1.6% thereafter (P$lt;0.05). Also, their score on the visual analogue scale to terminate pregnancy was 6.4±2.7 before consultation and 9.1±1.6 thereafter. Their tendency to terminate pregnancy significantly decreased after consultation (P$lt;0.05). Conclusion : Evidence-based counseling for pregnant women exposed to medication or diagnostic radiation during the first trimester may prevent unnecessary pregnancy terminations as well as reduce anxiety.
It is known that the helper T-cell subset of T-lymphocyte is decreased in the peripheral blood of tuberculosis patients. To explain this phenomenon, the compartmentalization theroy, suppressor monocyte and clonal expansion theory and others were proposed. To elucidate these phenomenon, we examined the changes of lymphocyte subsets in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and peripheral blood of pulmonary tuberculosis patients by double bridge technique of alkaline phosphatase-anti-alkaline phosphatase (APAAP) using monoclonal antibodies, and obtained the following results. 1) Total cell count of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in pulmonary tuberculosis patients was 28±14.5×106 and showed significantly increased value compared with control group of 16.96±10.75×106(P$lt;0.01). The T-lymphocyte percentage ratio to total cell count was 30.11±17.21% in pulmonary tuberculosis patients and it showed significantly increased ratio compared with 6.85±2.11% of control group (p$lt;0.05). 2) Helper T-cell/suppressor T-cell ratio in the peripheral blood of pulmonary tuberculosis patients was 1.32±0.2 and showed significantly lower value compared with 1.58±0.19 of control group (p$lt;0.05). Total T-lymphocyte and helper T-cells were also decreased but not in the magnitude of statistical significance. Suppressor T-cell showed no difference between pulmonary tuberculosis patients and control group. 3) Total T-lymphocyte (mean 64.84%) and helper T-cells (mean 41.9%) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of pulmonary tuberculosis patients were significantly increased than the control group of 53.42% and 32.28%. Helper T-cell/suppressor T-cell ratio was 1.9±0.58 in pulmonary tuberculosis patients and 1.5±0.16 in control group with no significant difference (p$gt;0.05). There was no difference of suppressor T-cells of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid between the two comparing groups. 4) In pulmonary tuberculosis patients, total T- lymphocytes (mean 64.84%) and helper T-cells (mean 41.92%) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were significantly increased than in the peripheral blood (44.92% and 27.00%). And helper T-cell/suppressor T-cell ratio (mean 1.92) was also increased in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid than in the peripheral blood (mean 1.32), but suppressor T-cells showed no difference between the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and peripheral blood.
Scopolia Rhizoma is Rhizoma of Scopolia parviflora Nakai and Contains hyoscyamine, atropine (dl-hyo-scyamine), norhyoscyamine, noratropine, Scopolamine(Hyoscine), Scopolin etc. We experienced 4 patients who mistook scopolia Rhizoma as Discorea batatas Decaisne and suffered from acute poisoning after ingestion of this compound. The main clinical features were delayed appearance of the stimulative CNS signs & symptoms(restlessness, irritability, disorientation, hallucination, delirium, convulsion), followed by the appearance of the depressive CNS signs and symptoms(respiratory depression, Coma).