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        조선시대 전쟁소설에 나타난 여성에 대한 기억과 침묵

        김영미 ( Kim Young-mi ) 조선대학교 인문학연구원 2021 인문학연구 Vol.0 No.61

        재난 서사를 대표하는 조선시대 전쟁소설 「강도몽유록」, 「최척전」, 「김영철전」, 「박씨전」을 ‘여성’과 ‘기억’의 관점에서 읽어보았다. 전쟁은 남녀 모두에게 참혹한 상처를 남기는 사회재난이지만 그 영향력은 여성에게 더 폭력적으로 다가온다. 본고는 이러한 문제의식을 가지고 조선시대 전쟁소설 속에 형상화된 여성의 목소리를 탐색해 보았다. 공식기억에서 배제된 여성들이 17세기 전쟁소설 속에서는 어떻게 형상화되고 있는지, 어떤 여성을 기억하고 있는지, 그 기억의 작동 원리는 무엇인지 살펴보았다. 결론적으로 17세기 조선시대 전쟁소설 속에서 여성들의 고통은 전장(戰場)의 주체가 아니라는 이유로 주변적인 것으로 처리되든지 아니면 ‘열(烈)’이라는 프리즘을 투과시켜 논의되는 것을 확인할 수 있었다. 꿈이라는 틀을 통해 죽어서야 말할 수 있었던, 그것도 자살로 정절을 지킨 여성들만이 말할 수 있었던 「강도몽유록」의 귀녀(鬼女)들이나 살아서 정절을 잘 지켜내고 말할 수 있는 자격을 획득한 「최척전」의 옥영 같은 여성이 있었다. 이 여성들은 살아서나 죽어서나 자신의 정절을 증명해야 했다. 정절이 증명된 여성들만 기억하고 기려서 15명의 귀녀들처럼 본인들의 슬픔을 맘껏 통곡할 수 있었고, 옥영처럼 온 가족이 행복해질 수 있는 자격을 가지게 된다. 또한 남성 중심의 서사 이면에서 전쟁의 폭력성을 소리죽인 울음으로 견뎌야 했던 「김영철전」의 아내들이 있었다. 이들의 고통은 문면(文面)에 드러나지 않고 김영철 뒤에서 침묵해야 했다. 후대 「김영철전」 한글 이본들에서 ‘여성 인물에 대한 서술 확장’이 이루어지는데, 이는 숨어서 고통당하는 아내들의 존재를 찾아내고 그녀들의 아픔에 공감하면서 새롭게 그녀들을 기억하고자 한 결과이다. 한편 「박씨전」은 실제적인 여성의 목소리를 대변한다기보다 ‘피화당(避禍堂)’이라는 환상적 공간을 통해 전쟁으로 인한 여성들의 통곡과 울음을 우회적으로 위무하고 있다. 이는 역설적으로 병자호란 당시 여성을 보호할 ‘피화당’ 같은 유토피아적 공간은 절대 존재하지 않았으며 포로로 잡혀간 수많은 부인네들의 통곡을 상기시킨다. 울음과 통곡만으로 전란의 참혹함 속에서 죽어간 원한은 사라지지 않는다. 하지만 이런 원한을 조금이나마 삭일 수 있는 것이 자유로운 감정 표출이다. 이런 측면에서 전쟁소설 속에 나타난 여성들의 숨죽인 울음과 대성통곡은 기억해야 할 중요한 한 부분이다. I’ve read Gangdomongyurok, Choicheokjeon, Kimyoungcheuljeon, Parkssijeon, the war novels of the Joseon period, which are representing disaster narrative, from the perspective of women and memories. War is a social disaster leaving horrible scar on both men and women, but its influence is much more violent toward women. Having a critical mind on this, it searched the women's voice embodied in the war novels of the Joseon Dynasty in this study. It examined how women excluded from official memory are embodied in 17th-century war novels, what kind of women they remember, and how the memories work. In conclusion, it was verified that the women's pain in the war novels in the 17th century Joseon was treated as peripheral because it was not the subject of the battlefield, or it was discussed by passing through a prism called ‘virtue(烈)’. There were women who could say only after death through the framework of dreams, at that, the women who kept their chastity by suicide could say, like the ghosts in Gangdomongyurok or Ok-young in Choicheokjeon, who obtained the right to speak as she kept her chastity during her life. These women had to prove their chastity on whether alive or dead. Since only women with proven chastity can be remembered and cherished, they could wail their sorrows as much as they could like the 15 ghosts, and they could be qualified to be happy for the whole family like Ok-young. Also, there were wives in Kimyoungcheuljeon, who had to endure the violence of war with muted tears behind the male-dominated narrative. Their pain shouldn't be revealed and be kept silent behind Kim Young-chul. It made the 'extension of narrative on woman character' in the later different editions of Kimyoungcheuljeon, and it is the result of finding the existence of wives who are suffering behind, and trying to remember them newly by sympathizing with their pain. Meanwhile, in Parkssijeon, it indirectly pacifies the wailing and crying of women caused by war through a fantastic space called ‘Pihwadang(避禍堂)’, rather than representing the actual voice of women. This, paradoxically, reminds that there was never a utopian space such as the "Pihwadang" where women could be protected during the Second Manchu Invasion but the wailing of many wives who were taken a prisoner. Only with crying and wailing, it can't erase the resentment that died in the horrors of war. However, the free emotion expression could repress the resentment even a little bit. In this respect, the women's soundless cries and loud wailing in the war novels are the significant part to remember.

      • 건측억제유도운동이 뇌졸중 환자의 손 기능과 일상생활능력에 미치는 영향

        김영미,황윤태,박래준,Kim, Young-Mi,Hwang, Yoon-Tae,Park, Rae-Joon 대한물리치료학회 2005 대한물리치료학회지 Vol.17 No.4

        The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of constraint-induced movement therapy on the involved hand function and ADL in stroke patients. Five subjects with fixing unaffected arms by CIMT were assigned to the experimental patient group and the other five patients to control group without fixing unaffected arms. The function of hand for both groups were evaluated by using Jebsen-Taylor hand function test and ADL for both groups were evaluated by FIM(Functional Independence Measure) before and after task practice. In conclusion, results of this study showed that improved hand function and ADL by CIMT in stroke patients. We concluded that CIMT can improved the involved hand function and ADL in stroke patients.

      • Induction of Cytotoxicity by HexamethyleneBisacetamide is Associated with the Activity of Telomerase in RBL-2H3 Cells

        김영미,Kim Young Mi The Korean Society of Environmental Toxicology 2004 환경독성보건학회지 Vol.19 No.3

        본 연구는 비만세포의 일종인 RBL-2H3 세포주에 대한 hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA)의 세포독성 유도 기전이 telomerase의 활성과 관계가 있다는 것에 대한 보고이다. RBL-2H3 세포주에 5mM HMBA를 처리시 그 세포주의 세포성장이 억제 되었다. 기전연구로서 HMBA는 telomerase활성을 억제 하였으며 RT-PCR에 의한 결과 telomerase mRNA발현의 억제에 의한 것이었다. Madl은 telomerase의 발현을 억제하는 억제인자로 잘 알려져 왔으며 이를 확인해본 결과 Madl은 발현은 유의성있게 증가 되었다. 이를 종합해보면, HMBA에 의한 RBL-2H3 세포주에 대한 세포독성은 Madl 발현의 증가에 따른 telomerase발현의 억제에 기인하는 것으로 밝혀졌다.

      • KCI등재

        도파민 발현 세포주 CV(bDAT) 세포에서 항정신병 약물이 도파민 수송체 활성에 미치는 영향

        김영미,이용성,이상훈,오동렬,양병환,조석신,남정현,Kim, Young-Mi,Lee, Yong-Sung,Lee, Sang-Hun,Oh, Dong-Yul,Yang, Byung-Hwan,Cho, Suck-Shin,Nam, Jung-Hyun 대한생물정신의학회 1997 생물정신의학 Vol.4 No.1

        CV(bDAT) cell line, expressing dopamine transporter stably, has been established by transfection of CV-1 cells with bovine dopamine transporter cDNA. Using CV(bDAT) cells, the effects of various antipsychotic drugs on dopamine uptake activity were investigated. All of antipsychotic drugs tested, inhibited the [$^3H$]dopamine uptake into CV(bDAT) cells with $IC_{50}s$ in the low to mid micromolar range, implying that antipsychotic drugs may produce overflow of dopamine in the synaptic cleft of dopaminergic neuron.

      • KCI등재

        Activation of Phospholipase D2 through Phosphorylation of Tyrosine-470 in Antigen-stimulated Mast Cells

        김영미,Kim Young Mi Korean Society of Life Science 2005 생명과학회지 Vol.15 No.3

        The mechanism of activation of phospholipase D2 (PLD2) remains undefined although mechanisms have been described for the activation of PLDI. By expression of mutated forms of haemaglutinnin-tagged PLD2 in a mast cell (RBL-2H3) line, we show that PLD2 is phosphorylated at tyrosines -11, -14, and -470 and that tyrosine-470 is critical for activation of PLD2 by antigen. Studies were performed with mutated-DNA constructs for haemaglutinnin-tagged PLD2 in which codons for tyrosine -11, -14, -165, and -470 were mutated to phenylalanine either individually or collectively. Transient expression of these constructs showed that mutation of tyrosine -11, -14, -470, or all tyrosines (all-mutated PLD2) suppressed antigen-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of PLD2 but only the tyrosine-470 mutant failed to be activated by antigen as assessed by in vitro assay of immunoprepitated PLD2 or by assay of PLD in intact cells. The critical role of tyrosine-470 was confirmed in studies with add-back mutants (phenylalanine back to tyrosine) of the all-mutated PLD. The findings provide the first description of a mechanism of activation of PLD2 in a physiological setting. PLDI 활성화 기전은 여러 보고가 있으나 PLD2 활성화에 대한 기전은 아직 연구의 대상이다. RBL-2H3 비만세포에서 HA-PLD2의 인산화 가능한 타이로신 잔기를 점돌연변이 시킨 DNA플라즈미드를 이용하여 11번, 14번, 470번의 타이로신이 항원자극에 의해 인산화 됨을 알아냈고 특히 470번 타이로신의 인산화가 PLD2 활성화에 중요하다는 결과를 얻었다.

      • KCI등재

        L2 Reader's Critical Reading Interpretation

        김영미,Kim, Young-Mi The English Teachers Association in Korea 2006 영어어문교육 Vol.12 No.1

        This study investigated how EFL readers critically read texts which are written in English. Although critical reading has been discussed in advanced EFL and ESL contexts there has not been much research on the critical reading of beginning EFL learners. Many educators are recommending that a critical perspective be adopted so that L2 learners can become empowered rather than indoctrinated. In this study, the researcher has examined the critical reading practices of five beginning level EFL readers in Korea and five first language readers of English in the United States as they read a news editorial article. The significant findings were discussed related to critical reading practice of L2 readers. The findings of the study can help the educators in English education in improving the curriculum, the teaching methodology and the learning theory for EFL reading for critical reading.

      • KCI등재

        창의융합인재양성을 위한 역량중심 비교과과정 개발 및 운영체계에 관한 연구

        김영미,Kim, Young-mi 한국정보통신학회 2016 한국정보통신학회논문지 Vol.20 No.10

        창의융합교육의 핵심은 학습자들로 하여금 실제로 '할 수 있는' 능력을 갖추도록 하는 것이다. 이를 위해 대학 의교육과정에 사회와 기업이 원하는 인재가 갖추어야 할 역량을 선정하고, 선정된 역량에 기반 하여 역량중심 비교과과정 체계 및 운영체계를 개발 하였다. 창의 융합 형 인재를 '협업 형 창의융합인재, 브리꼴레르'로 정의하고, 이러한 인재가 갖추어야 할 핵심역량을 TX역량으로 규정하였다. T역량은 인문소양, 분야별 전문성으로 구성하였고, X역량은 창의적 문제해결력, 융합적 사고력, 자기주도 학습역량, 협력적 리더십으로 구성하였다. 비교과영역의 과정 개발을 통하여 학습자 역량 개발을 위한 과정을 적극 제공하고 관리를 체계화하여 학생들의 교내외 활동의 참여정도 및 성과에 대하여 마일리지점수를 부여하는 운영시스템을 체계화 하였다. 본 연구는 교과영역의 제한된 틀을 넘어 학습자의 다원적 역량을 개발할 수 있는 역량기반 비교과과정 및 그 운영체계의 시한적 모델이 될 수 있으리라 본다. The core value of the college of Interdisciplinary & Creative Studies is rely on the supporting system which can develop the learners' practical 'performing' competency. For aiming this, educational process of university constitutes the competencies which can be expected at the local field and develop the competency-oriented extracurricular & its operating system. Defining the creative convergent talent, as 'collaborative creative convergent one, bricoleur' and categorizes core competency named as TX competency. T competency contains humanities and the professionals of each major field needed. X competency consists of creative problem solving, convergent thinking ability, self-oriented learning ability and cooperative leadership. Developing extracurriculum & its operating system learners can be exposured the systemic learning and managing process. They can develop their potential abilities and can accumulate a proper mileage at their learning achievement. This research can be expected as a model of competency-based extracurriculum and its operating system which can develop learners' multiple competency overcoming the limit scope of curriculum.

      • KCI등재

        단삼추출물의 Src-family Kinase 억제에 의한 항앨러지 효과

        김영미,Kim, Young-Mi 대한약학회 2008 약학회지 Vol.52 No.5

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        In this study, the anti-allergic activity and mechanim of Salviae radix (SR) were investigated. The ethanol extract of SR showed significant inhibitory effect on degranulation from antigen-stimulated mast cells and it also inhibited the expression and secretion of TNF-${\alpha}$ and IL-4 in antigen-stimulated RBL-2H3 cells. In the mast cell-mediated local animal allergy model, it suppressed the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in a dose-dependent manner. As its mechanism of action, SR inhibited the activating phosphorylation of Syk, a downstream signaling molecule of Src-family kinase, for the activation of mast cells. The results of the study indicate that the anti-allergic activity of SR is mediated by the inhibition of Src-family kinase in mast cells.

      • KCI등재후보

        아유르베다의 바타(Vata), 피타(Pitta), 카파(Kapha) 체질에 따른 피부 유형 조사 분석

        김영미,최은영,장병수,Kim, Young-Mi,Choi, Eun-Young,Chang, Byung-Soo 대한예방한의학회 2009 대한예방한의학회지 Vol.13 No.2

        Objectives : This study was investigated to the relationship ayurvedic constitution and each skin hydration and pH. Methods : The questionaire survey and skin analysis of female students attending university located in Chugnam was carried out in order to assess skin types according to ayurvedic constituion such as vata, pitta and kapha. Data analysis were used describe statistics, ANOVA in Duncan's multiple comparative test and Pearson's correlation by SPSS. Skin hydration and pH was measured by Corneometer and skin-pH meter. Results : The results of this study are as follows. First, in terms of knowledge of ayurvedic constitutional types most students are not aware of that. Second, the most common constitution in the ayurveda medical system was pitta. Third, in the analysis of skin type by constitution of ayurveda, vata had dry skin while pitta and kapha tended to have more combination skin. However, this result didn't show any statistically significant difference either. Forth, the analysis of skin tone by constitution of ayurveda showed that vata was white, and pitta and kapha were just average. Discussion and Conclusion : The results of this study was shown that the difference between Korean and Indian, so we should develop effective diagnosis tool for Korean people. In the future, we expect that ayurvedic skin and body program developed by this study spread and practical use at esthetic industry and domain of esthetics in Korea.

      • KCI등재

        산업장 여성근로자의 월경전증후군에 관한 연구

        김영미,정문희,Kim Young-Mi,Jung Moon-Hee 한국보건간호학회 1994 韓國保健看護學會誌 Vol.8 No.1

        The purpose of this study is to review in light at women's subjective. Perceptions of manifestations Premenstrual Syndrome which are known to affect their labor productivity. To this end, 364 women workers were sampled from an industrial factory located in Chonan, Chungchongnam-do and supervised by health manager, through questionnaires, and collected data were processed using SPSS package program. The result of survey can be summarized as follows: The fact that some academic circles are recently raising the issue of premenstrual syndrome. Suggests that the syndrome is being accepted in academic terms, which is contary to the position that the syndrome is just the result of women's mental imagination. However, some factors which are concived to affect woman worker' productivity and efficiency seem to be related to their subjective psychological variables involving their working environment rather than their physiological variabls. Therefore, if a health-promotion program handling their subjective psychological variables be introduced, some factors caused by the pre-menstrual syndroml may be reduced thus increasing their working productivity and. efficiency around their menstrual days.

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