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<P><B>Abstract</B></P> <P>The application of insect evidence to forensic investigations is mainly based on the estimation of postmortem interval and the identification of insect species from samples that are collected from the crime scene. Due to the limited number of expert taxonomists, species identification is one of the major barriers for crime scene investigators to utilize forensic entomology. Therefore, the molecular identification of species, using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene, has been suggested as an alternative strategy. However, in some cases, these maternally inherited markers cause confusion; hence, nuclear DNA markers such as ITS2 are also required as supporting tools. Eleven Calliphoridae and 5 Sarcophagidae fly species collected from Korea were utilized for PCR amplification and nucleotide sequencing of ITS2 locus. Species Identifier software was used for sequence analysis and comparison. The results demonstrated that 11 Korean Calliphoridae and 5 Korean Sarcophagidae fly species could be distinguished using ITS2 nucleotide sequences. In particular, the sister species, <I>Lucilia illustris</I> and <I>Lucilia caesar</I> were also distinguished, despite the very low level of interspecific diversity. However, when compared with previously reported ITS2 nucleotide sequences, several identification failures were noted. This is the first study that widely analyzed nucleotide sequences of the ITS2 locus from Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae fly species collected in Korea.</P> <P><B>Highlights</B></P> <P> <UL> <LI> 11 Calliphoridae and 5 Sarcophagidae fly species were distinguished using ITS2 locus. </LI> <LI> <I>Lucilia illustris</I> and <I>caesar</I> were distinguished, despite low interspecific diversity. </LI> <LI> It is the first study using Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae collected in Korea. </LI> </UL> </P>
Park,,Junhyeong,Ham,,Jong-Wook,Park,,Seungwoon,Kim,,Do-Hoon,Park,,Seong-Jin,Kang,,Hyunseong,Park,,Seong-Ook Professional Technical Group on Microwace Theory a 2018 IEEE transactions on microwave theory and techniqu Vol.66 No.3
<P>This paper presents a novel polyphase-basis discrete cosine transform that can be used for challenges to observe heart rate (HR) variability and sudden changes of HR in short time. To succeed in the challenges, real-time measurement which requires a short window length is needed. As the window length decreases, however, increased main-lobe width (MLW) and sidelobe width (SLW) result errors in measuring HR. Unlike commonly used discrete Fourier transform (DFT), the proposed method is based on DCT, which improves the accuracy of measured HR even though the short window length is used for the real-time measurement of HR. We demonstrate that the DCT can give 2 times shorter MLW and SLW than the DFT can. To verify the proposed method, it is compared with well-known existing methods, arctangent demodulation and complex signal demodulation, which use the DFT. We measured HR using a 10.225-GHz continuous-wave Doppler radar. In each experiment, the window lengths of 3, 2, and 1.5 s were used to measure HR in real time. Experimental results show that the proposed method has lower mean and standard deviation of errors than the existing methods have.</P>
Esophageal perforation is a rare but potentially fatal complication of robot-assisted thyroidectomy (RAT). Herein, we report the long-term outcome of an esophageal reconstruction with a jejunal free flap for esophageal rupture after RAT. A 33-year-old woman developed subcutaneous emphysema and hoarseness on postoperative day1 following RAT. Esophageal rupture was diagnosed by computed tomography and endoscopy, and immediate surgical exploration confirmed esophageal rupture, as well as recurrent laryngeal nerve injury. We performed a jejunal free flap repair of the 8-cm defect in the esophagus. End-to-side microvascular anastomoses were created between the right external carotid artery and the jejunal branches of the superior mesenteric artery, and end-to-end anastomosis was performed between the external jugular vein and the jejunal vein. The right recurrent laryngeal nerve injury was repaired with a 4-cm nerve graft from the right ansa cervicalis. Esophagography at 1 year after surgery confirmed that there were no leaks or structures, endoscopy at 1 year confirmed the resolution of vocal cord paralysis, and there were no residual problems with swallowing or speech at a 5-year follow-up examination. RAT requires experienced surgeons with a thorough knowledge of anatomy, as well as adequate resources to quickly and competently address potentially severe complications such as esophageal rupture.
<P>Endothelial dysfunction, a key process in development of cardiovascular diseases, is largely due to reduced nitric oxide (NO) derived from endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). Resveratrol has been reported to stimulate NO production via estrogen receptor α (ERα) activation in endothelial cells. Here, we investigated whether two natural methylated analogs of resveratrol, pterostilbene (Pts) and trans-3,5,4'-trimethoxystilbene (TMS), similarly to resveratrol, could influence endothelial NO release in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In HUVECs exposed to Pts or TMS, NO production and phosphorylation of eNOS, protein kinase B (Akt), and ERα were measured by using a fluorimetric NO assay kit and Western blot analysis, respectively. Dimethylated Pts, but not trimethylated TMS, stimulated dose-dependent NO production via eNOS phosphorylation. Pts also stimulated dose-dependent phosphorylation of Akt, but not of ERα. NO production and eNOS phosphorylation in response to Pts were significantly abolished by the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt inhibitor LY294002, but not by the ERα antagonist ICI182780. Our results suggest that Pts, but not TMS, is capable of inducing eNOS phosphorylation and the subsequent NO release, presumably, by activating PI3K/Akt pathway. The potential efficacy of Pts, an active constituent of blueberries, may aid in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases characterized by endothelial dysfunction.</P>
Subacute necrotizing lymphadenitis is a self-limiting lymphadenitis that could be misdiagnosed as malignant lymphoma both clinically and histologically. It was initially reported by Kikuchi in 1972, but its etiology is still unknown. It mainly affects young women and usually manifests as moderate fever and lymphadenopathy with or without local pain. The lymphadenopathy appears most commonly in the neck, and lymphadenopathy in sites other than cervical lesions or, generalized lymphadenopathy is less common. Histologcally, the involved lymph nodes are characterized by a well-circumscribed necrotic area, varying degrees of nodal architectural loss, abundant karyorrhectic nuclear debris, infiltrations of large lymphoid cells, histiocytes, and macrophages phagocytosing nuclear debris, and the absence of a significant number of plasma cells and neutrophils. Recently we experienced a rare case of subacute necrotizing lymphadenitis that showed prominent enlargement of the multiple retroperitoneal lymph nodes in a 17-years-old man.
A 30-year-old married woman showed hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, normotensive hyperreninemia, hyperaldosteronism and a high urinary sodium and chloride level. She was thought have Bartter's syndrome because she denied taking diuretics. But all the five tests of urine for furosemide by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) gave positive results. On being confronted with the results of urine analysis showing the presence of furosemide, she did admit to the taking of furosemide for 11 years. Renal radiologic studies including intravenous pyelography, ultrasonography, and computed tomography showed medullary nephrocalcinosis. This case is unique in that nephrocalcinosis have been related to long term furosemide ingestion in adults and we concluded that this apparent case of Bartter's syndrome with nephrocalcinosis was caused by long term surreptitious diuretic ingestion and suggest that this may occur more frequently than is generally appreciated.