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A numerical simulation of aerodynamic interaction was conducted on a multi-rotor aircraft. The objective was to determine the aerodynamic interaction effects with and without fuselage. For this purpose, time-accurate unsteady flow calculations were made by a three-dimensional unstructured mesh CFD flow solver. As an application of the present method, simulations were conducted for a quad-rotor UAV. Without a fuselage, the tip vortices from the upstream rotors directly affect downstream rotors, thus thrust variations of rear rotors are increased. With fuselage, as the direction and strength of vortices generated by upstream rotors are changed, the pitching and rolling moments of a vehicle are decreased. It was found that the aerodynamic interaction between not only rotors and but also rotor-fuselage should be considered seriously for determining multi-rotor flight.
A two-dimensional hybrid flaw solver has been developed for the accurate and efficient simulation of steady and unsteady flaw fields. The flaw solver was cast to accommodate two different topologies of computational meshes. Triangular meshes are adopted in the near-body region such that complex geometric configurations can be easily modeled, while adaptive Cartesian meshes are utilized in the off-body region to resolve the flow more accurately with less numerical dissipation by adopting a spatially high-order accurate scheme and solution-adaptive mesh refinement technique. A chimera mesh technique has been employed to link the two flow regimes adopting each mesh topology. Validations were made for the unsteady inviscid vortex convection and the unsteady turbulent flows over an NACA0012 airfoil, and the results were compared with experimental and other computational results.