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『입학도설』의 도상에 관한 연구는 대략 세 가지 방면의 연구와 관련된다. 그것은 첫째 도에 표상된 의미의 세계, 둘째 도에 관련된 영상도식적 능력의 형성과 그에 입각한 인지적 구도와 내용, 셋째 도상 자체의 도상학적 특징 등이다. 본 연구에서는 첫째 방면을 제외한 나머지 방면의 연구는 아직 시도된 바가 거의 없으므로, 도와 관련된 연구의 영역을 화장하기 위하여 기초적 고찰을 시도한 것이다. 그 기초적 내용이란 우선 도자료를 문서자료들과 구별된 영역으로 독립시킬 수 있는 가능성, 도 제작의 역사에서『입학도설』의 위상과 그 영향과 맥락을 고찰한 것이다. 이 고찰을 통해서『입학도설』의 주제와 원리의 계승, 그리고 도상 형태의 계승과 응용 내지발전의 사실을 밝히고자 했다. 『입학도설』의 주제와 원리의 계승에 관한 고찰은 『입학도설』 이후 조선 말기까지 제작된 도 자료들을 대상으로 삼아았고, 그 결과 『입학도설』의 주제 원리는 물론 도상 형태의 계승이 시대를 이어가면서 여러 학자들에 의하여 이루어졌음을 확인했다. 그 주제와 원리는 '천인합일', '경학', '체용관' 등에 관한 것이고, 도상 형태의 계승 응용발전에 관한 사항은 「천명도」의 형태에 관한 분석과 연관된 것이다. 이상에서 살핀 내용에 따라서 다음과 같은 권근의 『입학도설』의 의의를 밝힐 수 있다. 첫째, 권근의 『입학도설』은 조선 시대 유학자들의 도상 제작의 효시로서 경전의 원리와 철학적 원리들의 도상적 표현의 기초가 되는 도상 형식들을 제시하였다. 둘째, 천인합일의 이념으로 일관함으로써 천인합일적 이념의 구현을 위한 도상 내지 도설집의 제작의 효시가 되었다. 셋째, 『입학도설』의 다양한 그림들은 도상의 방법을 통해서 유교 이념 내지 경전의 이념을 표시함으로써 유교 이해를 위한 영상도식적 형태의 원형이 되었다. 넷째 그 밖에 체용론에 입각한 경전의 내용 체계화라든가, 유교 이념 실천의 원리 체계화는 이후 유학자들의 도의 구성에서 중요한 원리로 계승되었다. 다섯째 권근의 도 제작의 태도는 賓主 즉 主客의 구별을 확실하게 함으로써 관찰자와 대상의 관계를 구별하는 점이 특징이며, 후대의 도 제작자들도 계승하였다. This is a study on Confucian Diagrams and Explain for Beginner which was made by Kwon Kun in the early Chosun Dynasty and proposes way of fundamental research for three aspects of developed studies on these Confucian diagrams. The first aspect is a field of meaning depicted on the diagrams, the second related to construction of image scheme and cognition, and the third iconographic features of diagrams. Being considered that except the firstthe rest have not been studied yet, this study as a fundamental research about Confucian diagrams is started in order to activate these studies. The items of fundamental research are as follow : The first is to define a possibility to divide the study of Confucian diagrams as a new and different field from the studies of Confucianism which have been tried on the base of literal materials. The others are for redefinition of the academic phase of Kwon's Confucian Diagrams and Explain for Beginneron the historical context of Confucianism for the time of Chosun Dynasty, and about the composition of the context of making Confucian diagrams. Therefore the main ideal theme of Confucian Diagrams and Explain for Beginner and principles for making diagrams are researched and cases of their accession and application by other Confucian scholars are researched, too. The main theme of Kwon's Confucian Diagrams and Explain for Beginner is oneness of Heaven and man, and other principles are 'the theoretical viewpoint based on entity and its operation' and some ones related to the learning of Confucian classics. Many Confucian diagrams made after Confucian Diagrams and Explain for Beginner till the close of Chosun Dynasty are showing the fact that Kwon's themes and principles were accessed and applied by many other Confucian scholars. And Diagrams of Heavenly Order made by some other Confucians after Kwon, also shows that many ideas and icons of Kwon's were accepted and applied. In conclusion, Confucian Diagrams and Explain for Beginner was the beginning of making Confucian diagrams and proposed many new and different icons and ideas of Korean Confucian diagrams from Chinese ones. For the first time of East Asian Confucianism it has been made with the total theme of oneness of Heaven and man. Various icons of the diagrams had becomethe fundamentals of image schema for the cognition and understanding of Confucianism. Kwon's themes and principles have given important standards to the later Confucian scholars in the making of diagrams.
A comprehensive simulation software package was developed in C base on the work done by Yeadon et al.(1990) and Kwon (1993a) in the aim of making it easy to apply the experimental simulation technigues to the human airborne movement studies. This package consists of 3 programs: simulation variable computation program (PREP), simulation program (SIM) and the 3-dimensional graphic program (3DMAN). All programs are driven by an easy-to-use menu system and written compatible to KWON3D Motion Analysis Package Version 2.1 (Kwon, 1993b). Program PREP consists of 4 menus: `Edit Data´, `Prepare´ `Angular Momentum´ and `Optimization´. The `Edit Data´ environment is an editor for the lengths of the segments and body lines. The `Prepare´ menu computes the internal orientation angles of the segments while the `Angular Momentum´ menu computes the mean airborne angular momentum of the body and other initial conditions such as the initial position and velocity of the body CM and the initial external orientation of the body. The `Optimization´ menu performs angular momentum optimization proposed by Kwon (1993a). A geometric 15-segment body model - Yeadon-Kwon model (Kwon, 1993b) - with at most 38 degrees of freedom including 3 external orientation angles (somersault, inclination and twist angles) was employed to compute the simulation variables. SIM consists of 2 menus: `Edit Angles´ and `Simulate´. The `Edit Angles´ environment is an editor for the internal orientation angles of the segments. Users can intentionally manipulate the internal orientation angles for the simulation of modified trials. The program displays time-angle curves segment by segment. The `Simulate´ menu actually performs simulation. The initial conditions can be directly manipulated in the program menu environment. The simulation program was tested by several theoretical configurations to screen out the flaws in the theory and to isolate coding mistakes. The simulated results were compared with the predicted results and the program showed good agreements between the simulated results and the theoretical predictions. The simulation program was then applied to several gymnastic maneuvers and springboard dives for testing. 3DMAN was developed in the extension of the traditional `Stick Figure´ graphics. The program is segment-oriented and the 3-D shape of each segment is defined defined independently in a graphic model file to allow the users to use different body models with different, combinations of segments. The model file was designed easy to edit so as to allow the users to change the graphic model easily to meet their specific needs. The graphic model file can be edited using any text editor such as `EDIT´ of DOS. Once the `3-D Graphics´ option is activated followed by the registration of the graphic model files, the program draws the 3-D shapes of the segments whose model files are registered. All the graphics-related menus including registration of the segment graphic model files are accessible within the graphic environment.
영상의 질을 평가하는 대표적인 측도로 엔트로피와 평균밝기오차 절대값 등이 있다. 일반적으로 엔트로피는 영상의 세세한 부분에 대한 표현 정확도를 나타내는 곳에 사용되고, 평균밝기오차 절대값은 전체 영상에 있어서 밝기 변화를 나타내는 데 주로 사용되고 있다. 이 이외에도 최근 Kwon은 엔트로피나 평균밝기오차 절대값이 임계화를 위한 측도로서는 의미가 있으나 절대적 기준이라는 보장은 없다고 지적하고 새로운 영상 질 측도를 제안하였다. 본 논문에서는 Kwon이 제안한 영상 질 측도가 갖는 문제점을 검토하고 이를 바탕으로 개선된 영상 질 지표를 제안하고 이를 그레이 영상의 이진화 과정에 적용한다. 끝으로, 9개의 시험 영상에 대하여 컴퓨터 모의실험을 수행하여 기존 기법, 즉 오츠 기법 및 Kwon의 영상 질 평가 측도와의 정량적 그리고 정성적 성능 비교 및 검토를 통하여 제안된 지표의 효용성을 보인다. As the most representative measures evaluating for the quality of images, there are entropy and absolute mean brightness error(AMBE), and etc. In general, entropy is used to measure the richness in details of the image and the AMBE mainly used for providing a change in the image global appearance. In addition to these, Kwon recently proposed a new image quality measure(IQM) on the basis of assumption that even though the entropy and AMBE are good indexes for thresholding of images but not absolute ones. In this paper, we propose an advanced image quality index(AIQI) based on Kwon’s IQM and apply it to binalization of gray images. Finally, the effectiveness of AIQI is demonstrated by quantitative and qualitative performance comparison with results obtained by the computer simulation on well-known nine test images with those of Otsu’s method and IQM-based method.
필리핀의 루손섬 북부의 산악지대인 바나우에와 인근에서 채집된 Burmoniscus Collinge, 1914 속의 2신종을 B. ifugaoensis와 B. taitii로 명명하고 기재하였다. B. ifugaoensis는 B. novabritannicus(Vandel, 1973)나 B. yunnanensis Kwon and Taiti, 1993과 형태가 유사하나, 수컷의 제1복지 외지의 말단부가 훨씬 더 신장되었고, 내지의 말단부에 독특한 강모열을 갖는 점에서 구분된다. B. taitii는 B. punctatus Taiti, Ferrara and Kwon, 1992과 수컷의 제1복지 내지의 형태가 유사하지만 수컷의 독특한 반문 머리의 형태, 수컷의 제1복지 외지의 짧은 말단부로 쉽게 식별된다. Two new species of the genus Burmoniscus collinge, 1914, B. ifugaoensis and B. taitii are described from Banaue and adjacent area, mountainous district in the northern Luzon, the Philippines. B. ifugaoensis is morphologically similar to B. novabritannicus(Vandel, 1973) and B. yunnanensis Kwon and Taiti, 1993, but is distinguished by the much elongated distal part of male pleopod 1 exopod and the peculiar setation on the distal part of male pleopod 1 endopod. B. taitii is similar to B. punctatus Taiti, Ferrara and Kwon. 1992 in the shape of male pleopod 1 endopod, but is easily distinguished by the peculiar coloration of male, the morphology of cephalon, and the shorter distal part of male pleopod 1 exopod.
The nobility of Joseon period intended to maintain their social position through marriage with people whose surname were prominent. They also concentrated on establishing marriage relations with specified surnames in accord with their own families through accumulated experiences between generations. Concentrated on 16 surnames were more than half the 117 surnames of Andong Kwons' female spouses, the subjects of analysis. This phenomenon became generalized only after the 17th century when the base for the single-lineage village was beginning to be established. Because a circle to offer marriage could not be concentrated unless a surname group who asserts a certain figure to be its famous ancestor in a specified area resided and the trend that other family prefers such member as a spouse extended. Though there was a time gap, close corelation existed between the development of the single-lineage village and concentration of a circle to offer marriage. Seeing from the standpoint of a marriage area, the nobility wanted to obtain their spouses as from far as possible. But, due to the influence of famous the single-lineage village formed in their neighborhood, they obtained most of their spouses from nearby area(Gun, Hyeon) or, even at the farthest, within province(Do). In case of the Andong Kw?n families, marriage within Myeon was 7.4%, marriage within Gun was 26.7% and the remains were expected to be marriage within Do including nearby Gun and Hyeon. The ratio similar to such ratio showed in the late Joseon period as well as in a recent famous the single-lineage village. This is another case where the tradition of the late Joseon period was handed down to today. In the meantime, it was revealed that the ratio of remarried couples who came from the same Gun and Hyeon was very high compared with that of remarried couples whose spouses came from other area. In case of remarriage, a circle to offer marriage was more limited to the inside of an area, which was related to the discrepancy in age between husbands and wives and the social standing of their families. That is, the average gap in age of husbands and wives who got married for the first time was 3.4 years old, but in case of most of remarried couples, the husbands were older than wives and the gap in age was 12.3 years old. Also, from the viewpoint of economical power based on the scope of retaining servants or social standing judged through production of central government officials, in most cases, the families of the subjects of remarriage were inferior in strength to those of the subjects of first marriage. Unlike remarriage, a concubine was not acknowledged as a formal wife and thus her descendant was treated discriminatively. Illegitimate lines of the Andong Kwon lineage in this area accounted for 28% of the total members, showing high ratio. The illegitimate lines whose social standing were lower than legitimate lines were restricted in marriage and even the ratio of remarriage were only half of that of legitimate lines. But, illegitimate lines formed the single-lineage village on the basis of the same identity, kinship relation, and certain economical power, maintaining their own circle to offer marriage. Instead a village whose solidarity based on kinship relation and economical power is weak and where legitimate and illegitimate lines were mixed, the scope of selecting a spouse were more restricted.
“The Feather Series” is a series of large-scale 3D lenticular works of Jong Soo Kwon. In Kwon’s work, he aimed for virtuality of Korean traditional spaces by expressing them using a 3D lenticular technology. One of the main goals of the 3D lenticular technology is to emphasize reality and the presence of objects, but Kwon applied this with a reverse twist. Moreover, when viewers see the lenticular image in a limited space, e.g., a white cube of galleries, the viewers can feel as if the painting follows their eyes, which creates a sense of interaction. Using a series of artworks using current technology, Kwon paradoxically argued that artists should pay closer attention to their own culture and tradition rather than focusing on the latest trends.
광역 교통망 및 통신기술의 발전에 따라 광역경제권의 활성화를 위한 협력체계의 중요성이 날로 증대되고 있다. 이에 본 연구는 동남권 광역경제권을 대상으로 GIS 기반의 산업체 정보 공유를 목적으로 동남권 산업체 정보시스템을 구축하였다. 동남권의 경우 제조업 중심의 산업 집적지로서 행정경계를 넘어 산업체간의 근접성과 연결성을 고려한 효율적인 산업 클러스터 및 협력체계 운영이 요구된다. 정보시스템의 DB 구축을 위해 부산, 울산, 경남에서 구축되어진 산업체 DB를 활용하여 정보시스템을 구축한 바, 각 지자체간 데이터의 불일치와 GIS기반의 위치정보 미흡으로 인한 여러 가지 문제점을 발견하였다. 이의 해결을 위해서는 수집 및 배포, 활용과정을 고려한 표준화가 시급한 것으로 분석되었다. 본 연구는 산업체 정보의 공간정보화를 위해 지적도와 수치지도를 활용하여 웹상에서 관리자-사용자 쌍방향간의 정보생성 및 단계별 접근이 가능한 2-way 방식의 산업체 정보시스템을 구축하였다. 본 연구의 결과는 동남권 산업육성을 위한 협력체계 및 공동대응을 위한 산업체 정보 공유체계의 기초적 틀을 제공하였다는 데 그 의의가 있다고 하겠다. Following the technology developments of traffic network and communication for the wide area, the importance of the cooperation system to vitalize the wide area economy is increasing. Therefore, in this study, DongNam Kwon industry information system is established for the industrial information sharing based on GIS in the DongNam Kwon wide area economy. The DongNam Kwon is an industrial integration area centered with the manufacturing so that the operation of effective industrial cluster and cooperation systems are required across the administrational boundaries. To establish the database of the information, the information system was established utilizing already established industrial databases in Busan, Ulsan and Gyeongnam. But, various issues caused by the discordances among the data of each local government and the insufficiency of GIS based location information have been found. According to the analysis, the standardization considering the courses of collection, distributions and utilization are required immediately to solve the issues. This study establishes an 2-way industrial information system enabling the information creation and the phased approach between the administrator and the user in the bi-directions on the web by utilizing cadastral and numerical maps. The result of this study would have a meaning in providing a fundamental frame for cooperative responses and cooperation system for DongNam Kwon``s industrial promotion using industrial information sharing.
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It is possible not only to treat high concentration organic matter such as food wastes but also to utilize food wastes as resources according to the bio-energy generation such as methane. The method of co-digestion of mixed wastewater mixed with organic wastes such as sewage sludge concentrated waters together with drinking wastewater is the most ideal method. Radiation not only has germicidal power in water treatment, but also is effective in decomposing degradable organic matter. Second chemical contamination problem is also solved because it does not use chemicals. Introduction of radiation pretreatment system to solve problems caused by mixing of waste water and organic waste resources. Biological electrochemical fusion system is used to remove the nutrients contained in the organic matter-removed mixture. Through the development of a system for treatment of high concentration wastewater, the processing efficiency is verified through the universal water treatment system for wastewater containing high concentration organic matter in addition to treatment of wastewater.
This paper reexamines a sequence of sound changes, i.e. Old English Breaking and Anglian Smoothing, based on the representational account in Kwon (2004). With a battery of markedness and well-formedness constraints along with faithfulness constraints, and with the constraint-reranking mechanism, this paper shows that an Optimality-theoretic approach can successfully account for these two seemingly paradoxical sound changes in OE. The results of this paper will also show that sound changes like Old English Breaking and Anglian Smoothing, both occurring largely in the same phonological environment, have to be understood as non-directional fluctuation between two opposite tendencies and thus make a strong case for non-teleological sound changes.
In this study, five learning models were compared and discussed in terms of their learning procedures and learning strateies. After a brief introduction of each model, the author discussed the differences and similarities among the five learning models. As a result, Kwon's procedual learning (Kwon, 1989) seemed to encompass almost all the learning models proposed by the other four author. All the models emphasized the importance of cognitive conflict. However, I.K.Kim(1991), Park(1992) and Y.M.Kim(1991) seemed to be concentrated their attention on the cognitive conflict between concepts; while Hashweh and Kwon emphasized cognitive conflict between cognitive structure and environment. The study also suggested more study on the empirical evidence of the three kinds of the cognitive conflicts proposed by Kwon(1989) and on the development of learning strategies to induce and overcome the cognitive conflicts.