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김대용(Dae Yong Kim),안용찬(Yong Chan Ahn),허승재(Seung Jae Huh),최동락(Dong Rak Choi),김종현(Jong Hyun Kim),이정일(Jung Il Lee),박관(Kwan Park),남도현(Do-Hyun Nam),김문경(Moon Kyung Kim) 대한방사선종양학회 1998 Radiation Oncology Journal Vol.16 No.2
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목 적 : 재현성이 높은 정위적 고정장치의 개발로 인하여 보편화되고 있는 분할정위 방사선치료는 정확히 표적부위에 방사선을 조사하면서 주위 정상조직에서의 급격한 선량감소를 보이며, 분할치료를 시행함으로서 부작용을 최소화할 수 있는 치료기법이다. 이에 저자들은 분할정위 방사선치료에 대한 초기 임상경험에 대한 예비적 결과를 보고하고자 한다. 대상 및 방법 : 1995년 8월부터 1996년 12월까지 총 15명의 양성 뇌종양 환자들을 대상으로 분할정위 방사선치료를 시행하였다. 환자의 연령분포는 6-70세(중앙값 40세)로 7명 대 8명의 남녀 비를 나타내었다. 진단명에 따라 뇌하수체 선종 10명, 두개인두종 2명, 청신경초종 1명, 뇌수막종 2명이었다. Gill-Thomas-Cosman 프레임과 3차원 다회전치료를 이용하여 일일 선량 2Gy를 90- 100%의 등선량표면 기준으로 조사하였다. 콜리메이터는 직경 26-70mm의 원형을 사용하였다. 결 과 : 6-20개월의 비교적 짧은 추적조사기간이나 방사선학적 영상촬영 검사상 1명의 추적조사실패를 제외하고 7명이 완전관해 내지 병변의 축소를 나타내었으며, 1명의 병변내 괴사, 1명의 석회화, 5명의 무변화 등 전통적인 방사선치료와 유사한 결과를 보였다. 경미한 급성반응외 뇌신경마비나 뇌조직괴사의 부작용은 관찰되지 않았다. 치료 시마다 측정하는 두피-헬멧 거리의 오차는 평균 1.1±0.6mm이었다. 결 론 : 분할정위 방사선치료의 고정장치는 비교적 재현성이 높은 치료시스템으로서 뇌종양의 치료로서 안전하며 효과적인 치료기법으로 판단된다. 향후 일회 및 총 선량 등의 치료일정은 지속적인 임상연구로 풀어나가야 할 과제이다. Purpose : With the development of stereotactic immobilization systems capable of reliable serial repositioning, fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (FSRT) offers the potential for an improved treatment outcome by excellent dose delivery, and dose distribution characteristics with the favorable radiobiological properties of fractionated irradiation. We describe our initial experience using FSRT for the treatment of intracranial benign tumor. Materials and Methods : Between August 1995 and December 1996, 15 patients(7 males and 8 females aged 6-70 years) were treated with FSRT. The patients had the following diagnosis : pituitary adenoma(10) including one patient who previously had received radiotherapy, craniopharyngioma (2), acoustic neurinoma (1), meningioma (2). Using the Gill-Thomas-Cosman relocatable head frame and multiple non-coplanar therapy, the daily dose of 2Gy was irradiated at 90% to 100% isodose surface of the isocenter. Th e collimator sizes ranged from 26mm to 70mm. Results : In all patients except one follow -up lost, disease was well- controlled. Acute complication was negligible and no patient experienced cranial nerve neuropathies and radiation necrosis. In overall patient setup with scalp measurements, reproducibility was found to have mean of 1.1±0.6mm from the baseline reading. Conclusion : Relocatable stereotactic system for FSRT is highly reproducible and comfortable. Although the follow -up period was relatively short, FSRT is considered to be a safe and effective radiation technique as the treatment of intracranial tumor. But the fractionation schedule(fraction size, overall treatment time and total dose) still remains to be solved by further clinical trials.
Most of the expansion of Christianity in Africa in the 20th century has been the result of the missionary efforts of the African independent churches(It is also called African instituted churches, or African indigenous churches). African people have a spiritual hunger which need to be assuaged, a spiritual vacuum which only a God incarnate in Africa can fill. There are spiritual reasons for the popularity of the AICs' message in Africa. AICs purports to provide for more than just the spiritual problems of life. The role of divine healing and exorcism and the receiving of the power of the Holy Spirit, seem to present a new and vigorous Christianity which offered help to all of life's problems. The spirituality of AICs is in fact a new and holistic approach to Christianity which appealed more adequately to the African world view than the old Christianity had done. And It is also more satisfying than the old traditional religion had been. Furthermore, AlCs is more meaningful precisely because it has continued some religious expressions which were also truly African.
Since the SMP(System Marginal Price) is a vital factor to the market participants who intend to maximize the their profit and to the ISO(Independent System Operator) who wish to operate the electricity market in a stable sense, the short-term marginal price forecasting should be performed correctly. In an electricity market the short-term market price affects considerably the short-term trading between the market entities. Therefore, the exact forecasting of SMP can influence on the profit of market participants. This paper presents a new methodology for a day-ahead SMP forecasting using ARIMA(Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average) model based on the time-series method. And also the correction algorithm is proposed to minimize the forecasting error in order to improve the efficiency and accuracy of the SMP forecasting. To show the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed method, the case studies are performed using historical data of SMP in 2004 published by KPX(Korea Power Exchange)
Mission churches and AICs are the two primary ecclesial contexts in which African initiative has occurred. Mission churches are those that have evolved from the outreach of Western denominations and still represent the collegial traditions concerned. African Initiated Churches are the churches begun by Africans in Africa primarily for Africans. In fact, As regards the African Initiated Churches, Missionary genius, missionary methods and missiological significance of AICs have not been studied in depth. Christian mission deals with the outreach of Christian faith and life in the extension of Christ's good news beyond the boundaries of ignorance, cultures, poverty, suffering or whatever obstacles obscure a clear Christian witness in the world. In AICs, the interpretation of a prophetic healing ministry is inevitably very wide. Illness was viewed not only as individual psychosomatic afflictions but also as socio-political conflicts and crises which had to be resolved in terms of very real perception of God's expanding kingdom. So we can say that the church liberating humankind from poverty and deprivation and the church healing an abused earth are integrally linked in the AICs. In short, the prophetic churches's ministry of healing quite naturally came to be extended to bring social and political issues in AICs' ecclesiology. Some AICs have a close identification of Christ's body with the abused and barren soil. Traditionally the ancestral guardians of the land belonged to the soil and In Africa context, Christ is both guardian and the soil itself. New conceptions of Christ's lordship and his salvation of all creation can develop from this essentially African expression of his pervading presence in the cosmos.
Hyperspectral reflectance imaging technology was used to predict internal quality of cherry tomatoes with the spectral range of 400-1000 nm. Partial least square (PLS) regression method was used to predict firmness, sugar content, and acid content. The PLS models were developed with several preprocessing methods, such as normalization, standard normal variate (SNV), multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), and derivative of Savitzky Golay. The performance of the prediction models were investigated to find the best combination of the preprocessing and PLS models. The coefficients of determination ( ) and standard errors of prediction (SEP) for the prediction of firmness, sugar content, and acid content of cherry tomatoes from green to red ripening stages were 0.876 and 1.875 kgf with mean of normalization, 0.823 and 0.388oBx with maximum of normalization, and 0.620 and 0.208% with maximum of normalization, respectively.
Surface color is the most important quality factor for the grade evaluation of cherry tomato. Color is one of the representative indicators for the maturity which is closely related to the internal quality of cherry tomato, such as firmness, sugar content, and acidity. This study was carried out to investigate the relationship between surface color and internal quality of cherry tomatoes harvested from both hydroponic and soil culture at different ripening stages . To calculate the color values of cherry tomatoes an automatic color imaging system was constructed. A specially designed image processing algorithm for the color measurement was developed. The color values of L*, a*, b* were calculated from the initial color values of RGB and then compared with the internal quality. Statistical analyses indicated that the internal quality was more highly correlated with the surface color than size of cherry tomatoes. Color image features were also investigated to detect external damage of cherry tomatoes. The value of (R value - R mean value)/R mean value was the most effective image feature for the detection of damaged areas on the surface of cherry tomatoes. The results of this study demonstrated the feasibility of color sorting process as an alternative of the conventional drum type size sorting system for cherry tomato industry.
Pathogenic fungi and bacteria such as Pectobacterium atrosepticum, Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus, Verticillium albo-atrum, and Rhizoctonia solani were the major microorganism which causes diseases in seed potato during postharvest process. Current detection method for disease-infected seed potato relies on human inspection, which is subjective, inaccurate and labor-intensive method. In this study, a reflectance spectroscopy was used to classify sound and diseaseinfected seed potatoes with the spectral range from 400 to 1100 ㎚. Partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) with various preprocessing methods was used to investigate the feasibility of classification between sound and diseaseinfected seed potatoes. The classification accuracy was above 97 % for discriminating disease seed potatoes from sound ones. The results show that Vis / NIR reflectance method has good potential for non-destructive sorting for disease- infected seed potatoes.
A great interest is emerging about green tea as a tool against human cancer proliferation or inflammation, as pointed out by recent reports describing the inhibitory action of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on angiogenesis, urokinase, metalloproteinases, and induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase. We proposed that EGCG may regulate a multi target signaling having wider spectra of action than those actions of single enzymes. CSK (c-terminal Src kinase) protein is a no -receptor tyrosine kinase involved in the cross-talk and mediation of many signaling pathways that promote cell proliferation, adhesion, invasion, migration, and tumorigenesis. Based on the knowledge that CSK activation is important for cancer proliferation we hypothesized that CSK could be a target of EGCG. Here we showed that EGCG effectively suppressed the growth of CSK MEF cell when compare with CSK knockout MEF cell growth. These results indicate that EGCG could be used as a chemoprevention to modulate CSK signal pathway in inflammatory processes and tumor formation.
고속철도 차량의 프레임은 굽힘 강성이 높고 가벼운 알루미늄 압출재를 이용하고 있으나, 그 차음성능은 동일 면밀도의 평판에 비하여 취약하다. 본 연구에서는 유한요소해석을 통하여 알루미늄 압출재의 음향투과 손실 값을 예측하는 방법을 제시하였다. 압출재를 유한요소로 모델링하고 무반사 방사조건, 시편의 경계 조건, 재질의 감쇠손실계수 등을 사용하여 투과손실을 예측하였으며, 해석결과의 신뢰도를 검증하기 위하여 압출재 시편을 대상으로 ASTM E2249-02에 근거한 투과손실을 측정하였다. 제시된 해석방법은 철도차량용 알루미늄 압출재의 차음특성을 설계단계에서 파악하고 대책을 수립하는데 유용하게 활용될 것이다. The frame elements of modern high speed trains are typically fabricated with extruded aluminum panels. However, the sound transmission loss (STL) of extruded aluminum panels is less satisfactory than flat panels with the same surface density. This study proposes a method for prediction of the sound transmission loss of extruded aluminum panels using finite element analysis. The panel is modeled by finite element analysis, and the STL is calculated using a measure of Sommerfeld radiation at the specimen surface, boundary conditions, and the internal loss factor of the material. In order to verify the validity of the predicted value, intensity transmission loss was measured on the aluminum specimen according to ASTM E2249-02. The proposed method of analysis will be utilized to predict the sound insulation performance of extruded aluminum panels for railway vehicles in the design stage, and to establish measures for their improvement.