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This study investigates the characteristics of surface wind in North Korea using mesoscale model WRF. Hourly wind fields were simulated for one year representing mean characteristics of an 11-years period from 1998 to 2008. The simulations were performed on a nested grid from 27 ㎞ to 1 ㎞ horizontal resolution. The simulated wind map at 10 m above ground level is verified with 27 surface observations. Statistical verification skill score indicates that wind speed tends to overestimate in surface layer. The average RMSE value of the simulated wind speed is around 2.8 ㎳?¹. Wind map in North Korea showed that strong wind speed is distributed in the mountainous and western coastal region. The results of this wind mapping study contribute for the founding of wind energy potential location.
Sensitivity experiments of WRF model using different planetary boundary layer (PBL) and land surface model (LSM) parameterizations are evaluated for prediction of wind fields within the surface layer. The experiments were performed with three PBL schemes (YSU, Pleim, MYJ) in combination with three land surface models (Noah, RUC, Pleim). The WRF model was conducted on a nested grid from 27-㎞ to 1-㎞ horizontal resolution. The simulations validated wind speed and direction at 10 m and 80 m above ground level at a 1-㎞ spatial resolution over the South Korea. Statistical verification results indicate that Pleim and YSU PBL schemes are in good agreement with observations at 10 m above ground level, while the MYJ scheme produced predictions similar to the observed wind speed at 80 m above ground level. LSM comparisons indicate that the RUC model performs best in predicting 10-m and 80-m wind speed. It is found that MYJ (PBL) ? RUC (LSM) simulations yielded the best results for wind field in the surface layer. The choice of PBL and LSM parameterization will contribute to more accurate wind predictions for air quality studies and wind power using WRF.
큰 에디 모의과정을 포함한 WRF 모델 (WRF-LES)을 이용하여 수치모델의 수평공간 규모에 따른 대기경계층 모수화 실험과 LES 모의 결과를 지표층 근처의 풍속 예측에 대하여 비교하였다. 수치실험은 복잡한 산악지형과 해안지역을 포함하는 강원도 지역에서 수평해상도 1 km와 333 m 실험을 수행하였다. 수평해상도 1 km 실험은 대기경계층 모수화 방안을 채택하였으며, 333 m 실험에서는 LES를 이용하였다. 복잡한 산악지역에서의 풍속 예측의 정확성은 수평해상도 1 km 실험 보다 333 m 실험에서 향상되었으며 해안지역에서는 1 km 실험에서 관측과 더 일치하였다. 지표층 근처의 큰 난류를 직접 계산하는 LES 실험은 산악지역의 풍속예측 개선에 기여하였다. This study evaluates the wind speed forecast near the surface layer using the Weather Research Forecasting with Large Eddy Simulation (WRF-LES) model in order to compare the planetary boundary layer (PBL) parameterization with the LES model in terms of different spatial resolution. A numerical simulation is conducted with 1-km and 333-m horizontal resolution over the Gangwon Province including complex mountains and coastal region. The numerical experiments with 1-km and 333-m horizontal resolution employ PBL parameterization and LES, respectively. The wind speed forecast in mountainous region shows a better forecast performance in 333-m experiment than in 1-km, while wind speed in coastal region is similar to the observation in 1-km spatial resolution experiment. Therefore, LES experiment, which directly simulates the turbulence process near the surface layer, contributes to more accurate forecast of surface wind speed in mountainous regions.
This study uses mesoscale model WRF to investigate characteristics of wind fields in South Korea, a region with a complex terrain. Hourly wind fields were simulated for one year representing mean characteristics of an 11-year period from year 1998 to year 2008. The simulations were performed on a nested grid from 27 km down to 1 ㎞ horizontal resolution. Seasonal variation of wind speed indicates that wind is strongest during the spring and winter seasons. Spatial distribution of mean wind speed shows wind energy potential at its peak in mountainous region of Gang won-do, the east coast, and Jeju Island. Wind speed peaks at night in mountainous and eastern coastal regions, and in the afternoon inland and in the southwestern coastal region. The simulated wind map was verified with four upper-air sounding observations. Wind speed was shown to have a more pronounced overestimation tendency relative to observation in the winter rather than summer. The results of this wind mapping study help identify locations with the highest wind energy potential in South Korea.
본 논문은 수치기상모형에 의해 계산된 수치기상모의풍속(1km × 1km 해상도)의 정확도를 향상시키기 위한 통계적 보정법을 제안하였다. 이를 위해 남한전역을 1km × 1km 격자로 나눈 지점(345,682지점)에 적합한 통계적 바람장 모형으로 부터 남한지역의 바람장을 추정하는 절차와 격자지점별/월별 보정인자를 계산하여 추정된 바람장과 수치기상모의풍속간의 간극을 보정하는 절차로 이루어진 보정인자법을 개발하였다. 또한 75개 기상관측소지점에서 계산된 수치기상모의풍속자료에 보정인자법을 적용시켜 본 논문에서 제안된 보정법의 유용성을 보였다 This paper suggests a method for tuning a numerically simulated wind speed data, provided by NIMR(National Institute of Meteorological Research) and generated from a numerical meteorological model to improve a wind resource map with a 1Km × 1Km resolution. To this end, tuning factor method" is developed that consists of two procedures. First, estimate monthly wind fields based on a suitably designed statistical wind field model that covers 345,682 regions obtained by 1Km × 1Km lattice sites in South Korea. The second procedure computes the tuning factor and then tunes the generated wind speeds of each month as well as each lattice site. The second procedure is based on the wind fields estimated by the first procedure. The performance of the suggested tuning method is demonstrated by using two wind data(both TMY and numerically simulated wind speed data) of 75 weather station areas.