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This study was intended to investigate the Korean child's animism and to test Piaget's hypothesis with Huang-Lee's experimental tools. The experimental hypotheses in this study were: 1) Piagetian animism could be found in Korean children's mentality, and 2) Piaget's hypothesis could be proved not only by Russell-Dennis's tools but also by Huang Lee's. Russell and Dennis have proved Piaget's hypothesis and standardized the experimental procedures to test child's animism; however, M. Mead and Huang-Lee have denied the Piagetian animism in Manusian and Chinese children. Russel and Dennis have also suggested four developmental stages in child's animism. Twenty Korean children, aged between 4-7, were tested individually, the combined experimental procedures of Russell-Dennis and Huang-Lee being used, As a result, the first hypothesis in this study was positively confirmed only by Russell-Dennis's method. This means that the second hypothesis in this study was not confirmed. 90% of the Subjects in this study have had the concept of life or living, and did not regard inanimate objects as having characteristics of "feeling pain." It seems to us that the subjects in this study tend to make some cognitive continuity between their awareness of their living and the being of physical objects. In Piagetian terms, the subjects have not dissociated themselves from their physical and natural environment.
This is an overall assessment of young child nutrition and food ecology, which was conducted in the low income areas of Seoul and Daegu, between 1982 and 1984. Determination was made on a total of 455 urban young children, 3 to 6 years old, in Saemaul day care centers, in the areas of Sancheon dong, Bongcheon 5-dong and Hawolkog 3-dong in the city of Seoul; and Eumnae dong in the city of Daegu. The results are summarized as follows: 1) Intake of energy and nutrients except thiamin were below the RDAs; iron was the most limited nutrient. Carbohydrate provided 71.2% of total energy intake; protein accounted for 12.5%; fat provided 16.3%. Forty percent of daily protein intake was derived from animal sources. Energy intake was divided among breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snack, in a percentage ratio of 19.6 : 25.1 : 21.9 : 33.4. 2) During infancy, 65% of the children had been breast-fed; 13.4% had been bottle-fed; and 21.6% had been combination-fed before the introduction of solid supplementary foods. 3) Seventeen percent of the subjects had many dislikes in what they ate; 49% had a certain number of dislikes; and 34% had good food preference. There was a strong correlation between appetite or food preference and anthropometric measurements. The foods which children liked best were fruits, milk, seaweed and Chajang noodles. Disliked foods were rice cooked with beans, aromatic vegetables, eggplants and strongly spiced meals. The survey clarified that day care feeding amply supplemented an inadequate dietary intake at home, for these young children. 4) Mean value of height, weight, arm circumference, girth of chest, and head circumference ranged from 95.9∼100.2% of KIST mean. However, 9.3% of the subjects were assessed as undernourished in terms of 'weight for height.' 5) Mean hemoglobin value was 12.5±1.0%/dl., and mean hematocrit value was 37.5±3.1% ; 6.6% of the subjects were proven to be anemic according to the criterion of hemoglovin; and 12.6% of the subjects were proven to be anemic in terms of the standard value of hematocrit, of the WHO. Mean urinary urea nitrogen/creatinine ratio was 12.4 ; values decreased with increasing age. The results suggest a need for training of day care personnel and mothers for better nutritional care of these young children.
The purpose of this survey is to study the present condition of physical facilities, equipment and materials of kindergartens in Seoul; and to know the shortcomings and difficulties for the proper functioning, of kindergarten education. By presenting minimum requirements for the physical environment of kindergarten, helpful knowledge and materials may be provided. This survey is divided into two parts. The first part is a documentary study which discusses the general idea of physical environment of kindergartens in Seoul which were actually surveyed through questionaries, interviews and observations. The survey report is as follow: 1) The location of kindergartens is ideal, for they are generally located near schools and residential areas; however, the entrances, the height of the windows, location and the size of the toilets, and size of the rooms are not in the best condition. The play grounds are comparatively spacious but the equipment and other facilities are not adequate for kindergarten. 2) Drinking fountains and sink equipment are so poor that they are not abe to help children's activity and health. And the lockers for individual use are insufficient. Most of the kindergartens have well provided for open-shelves for toys; and chairs and tables. 3) Cleaning equipment, as a part of the health education of kindergarten curriculum, is not sufficient. There are enough large apparatus for locomotor activity but movable equipment and manipulation materials for sand and water play are much in want. More equipment could be prepared for the house coner as a part of social science, and also more dolls could be provided. Generally blocks for constructive and imaginary are sufficient but the variety of size and shape is necessary. Most of the kindergartens do not own a national flag and maps which may enhance patriotism. Gardening equipment is lacking and there are not enough science corner. Having only magnifying glass, aquariums, bird cages, the nature study equipment is much in need, more so than any others. Not enough attention is paid to this area to satisfy the curiosity for more knowledge and to help intellectual development and scientific attitudes. The books are the only materials for reading readiness but there are not enough. For A-V equipment, flannel boards, slides, slide projectors and record players a re provided for in most kindergartens. Percussion instruments for rhythmical activity are many. Crayons and paper for drawing are sufficient but easels, finger painting sets are not enough . Equipment for woodwork could scarcely be found. Apparently it is not encouraged. Clay is sufficient but accessories for clay activist are insufficient. This survey brings up the facts that the physical facilities, equipment and materials of kindergartens in Seoul are not in the best condition, and also not satisfactory. Therefore more effort for a better learning environment is expected.
The packed take-out lunch industry has been growing since the '86 Asian sports games and the '88 Olympic games were conducted in Seoul. Recently, one of the popular take-out lunch industries in Japan, "HOKKA HOKKA BENTO", has been introduced to Korea under the trade name of COOK-INN lunch. A study was undertaken, from 1988 to 1989, to determine the nutritional adequacy and sodium content of products, system of food preparation and service, and preferences and eating out behaviors of consumers, with regard to health and nutrition. A total of 12 kinds of product provided energy from 589kcal. to 915kcal. each; protein from 17g. to 51g. The salt content of each meal ranged between 5g, and 13.9g. The satisfactions expressed by customers of the COOK-INN packed packed lunch were, from highest to lowest percentage: "hygienic meal", "aesthetical packing", "courteous service", "adequate amount", "good flavor", "reasonable price" and "nutritious".
The purpose of this study was to investigate the ideal roles of parents in child-rearing practices and their attitude toward the development characteristics of young children. This research was done questioning and interviewing 177 mothers who were rearing children aged 3,4 and 6years presently. The major findings of this study were as follows; 1. The mothers emphasized, as their roles, providing nurturance (19.5%), controlling children (18.53%), and giving affection and emotional security(13.99%), etc. 2. The important roles of fathers enumerated by mothers were providing economic support, giving affection and food friendship, and controlling children. Etc. 3. Behavior characteristics of young children, which were mentioned by mothers, were seeking friends to play with, manupulating toys and things, asking for reading stories and frustrating or crying when they listen to them and strong egocentric doings, etc. All the characteristics listed above have been proved and surveyed by the foreign studies. 4. Mothers were acquainted with what the typical behaviors of young children were. They found themselves short of knowledge in child-rearing practices such as nutritioning and caring health, to introduce friends, to form a good personality to give proper instructions for its mental growth, etc,