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The main purpose of this research is to formulate best policy measure to minimize the expected problems when adopting and implementing GHS system in Korea and to draft the revision proposal for Industrial Safety and Health Act taking into account of unique domestic situation. The research method is to conduct a survey for 2 month period from early April to late May in 2006 to 830 randomly selected chemical manufacturing, importing and exporting, and consumption companies out of all the companies surveyed by the Ministry of Labor under 2004 Work Environment Status National Survey. A total of 610 survey was collected and analyzed. The results of this thesis is summarized as follows ; First, based on the survey analysis it is vital to conduct a national PR using pamphlet, internet, and daily newspaper and to provide technical assistance such as training expert and publishing GHS manual by expert organization such as Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency (KOSHA) for early settlement of GHS in Korea. Second, it is also needed to give a grace period of 1 to 2 years to minimize the dramatic impact for industry, to encourage the establishment of the GHS team utilizing safety managers within companies, and to develop and distribute the standard GHS software by government. Third, taking into account of difficult situation of small companies, KOSHA needs to provide a full technical and financial support for companies with less than 100 employees and especially for chemical manufacturing companies. Fourth, it is also needed to operate an Interministrial GHS Committee (IGC) involving 7 related ministries for smooth GHS implementation and to develop an infra by sharing responsibilities among related ministries and establishing internationally recognized organization for hazard classification, labelling, and MSDS.
This is study was carried out from June to December, 2002 to improve industrial hygiene service one step further by analyzing current industrial hygiene manpower in Korea. Questionnaires were collected from Ministry of Labor (headquarter, 36 regional & area offices), Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency(head office, 24 branch offices & affiliated organizations), designated working environment monitoring institutions(111), health management specializing agencies(82), special health diagnosis institutions(105), private enterprises` health managers(355), and civic organizations(1). The questionnaire was composed of six main parts including duty & assignment, license hold, service area, age, and educational background including major and years at current work. The results of this study were as follows: 1. A total of 1,607 persons work in the industrial hygiene area in Korea. 40.1 %(643 persons) of them carried out working environment monitoring, followed by 35.7 %(574) serving in health management area and 8.0 %(128) working in technical support area. 2. The license hold by persons serving in industrial hygiene area can be classified into third different categories. 49.4 %(793 persons) had engineer followed by the industrial engineer with 17.7 %(285), and professional engineer with 6.0 %(97). 3. Regarding the location of service area, Gyonggi province was at the top with 25.0 %(410) of manpower due to many manufacturing industries within its province. It was followed by Gyongnam province(17.7 %, 285), and Seoul(10.5 %, 168). 4. The mean age for people serving in industrial hygiene area was 34.5±6.2 years, and the number of years at current work was 7.4±4.7 years. The distribution of industrial hygiene manpower by sex were 81.7 %(1,023 persons) in male, and 18.3 %(229) in female. 5. Industrial hygienists with 4-year bachelor`s degree had the highest percentage with 53.6 %(671) followed by master`s degree holding industrial hygienists with 26.0 %(326). Industrial hygienists with Ph.D is 2.8 %(35). 6. Regarding educational background of people serving in industrial hygiene area, industrial health & hygiene was at the top with 40.1 %(502) followed by the environmental science with 23.9 %(298).
Lead acid battery is one of the most commonly used batteries at present, which is also used for electric vehicles called HEV. Electrode is 40%~50% of Lead acid battery"s weight. In this study, the optimization of the electrode geometry was investigated computationally by using the statistical method design of experiment to decrease the temperature rise, voltage drop as well as the non-uniformly in electric current density distribution to reduce the material waste in manufacturing batteries.
이권섭 ( Kwon Seob Lee ), 한인수 ( In Soo Han ), 한정희 ( Jeong Hee Han ), 박동욱 ( Dong Uk Park ), 이대원 ( Dae Won Lee ), 황호순 ( Ho Soon Hwang ), 유일재 ( Il Je Yu ), 이용묵 ( Yong Mook Lee ), 김광종 ( Kwang Jong Kim ) 한국산업위생학회 2004 한국산업보건학회지 Vol.14 No.3
As a result of having examined reliability of MSDS record contents about powder coatings, MSDS and warning labels reliability of were very low levels. The composition chemical substance used for production of powder coatings to synthetic resin, hardening agent, pigment, an additive. The Lead chromate was contained in 0.1-25% by suspected human carcinogen substance by 9 powder coatings, and silica was contained in 5-20% by cause substance of silicosis by 3 powder coatings. The inhalable particulate mass(0-10㎛) was approximately 2.75% in particle size of powder coatings, and the thoracic particulate mass(0-25㎛) was approximately 22.3%. If chemical substance composition component was omission of record and only a part list was 34.1% in MSDS, and it was a state to be low with 59% if a harmfulness classification was omission of record and a part list for it. A composition component and a content did not become a record in warning labels of all powder coatings, and a hazard pictographs of warning labels was approximately 56.8% if not adhesion. If toxicity information about powder coatings was omission of record, it was 97.7%, and the case that omission of record an TLV-TWA about component chemical substance was 75% level. There are an increasing number of problems associated with the regular monitoring of workplace environment, based on MSDS; more and more health-related problems are related to the management of harmful chemical substances. Under these circumstances, regarding these harmful substances, there is a compelling need for systematically examining the accuracy of MSDSs, and deeply investigating and evaluating toxic chemicals.
돼지 위축성 비염과 개의 kennel cough의 원인균인 B. bronchiseptica는 각 숙주의 상부 호흡기관의 점막에 집락을 형성하는 병원균으로서 철이 부족한 환경에서 hydroxamate type의 alcaligin이 라는 siderophore를 생산한다. Alcaligin의 생합성에 관련하는 구조유전자 중 alcA 유전자의 기능을 밝히고자 alcA 결손돌연변이주 구축을 통하여 확인하였다. alcA 유전자 결손 돌연변이를 위해 0.6 kb alcA 5' flanking DNA와 0.7 kb alcA 3' flanking DNA fragment들을 pCP1.11을 주형으로 하여 PCR법으로 증폭한 후, 5' flanking과 3' flanking DNA가 연결된 재조합 suicide vector pDMl을 구축하여 세포 접합을 통해 B. bronchiseptica로 도입시켰다. 도입된 pDM1으로부터 allelic exchange법에 의해 alcA 유전자가 결손된 돌연변이주 B. bronchiseptica H1을 얻을 수 있었다. B. bronchiseptica H1은 야생형인 B. bronchiseptica에 비하여 alcaligin siderophore를 거의 생성하지 못하였다. alc 오페론 중 promoter와 alcA 유전자만을 가지는 재조합 플라스미드를 B. bronchiseptica Hl에 도입하였을 때 alcaligin siderophore의 생산이 회복됨을 확인할 수 있었다. 이상의 결과로부터 alcA 유전자가 alcaligin 생합성에서 매우 중요한 역할을 수행하는 것을 알 수 있었다. Bordetella bronchiseptica, the agent of swine atrophic rhinitis and kennel cough in dogs, is a mucosal pathogen and produces the hydroxamate type alcaligin siderophore under iron-limited conditions. Genes involved in alcaligin siderophore biosynthesis are contained in an alcABCDE operon. In order to provide direct evidence for the role of AlcA in alcaligin biosynthesis, we needed a B. bronchiseptica mutant carrying alcA gene deletion. A 0.6 kb alcA 5'-flanking and 0.7kb 3'-flanking DNA fragments were PCR amplified with the use of pCP1.11 as a template DNA. The 5'-and 3'-flanking DNA fragments were joined in a suicide plasmid, resulting in a recombinant suicide plasmid pDM1. After introduction of pDM1 into B. bronchiseptica by conjugation, the allelic exchange technique was performed and a B. bronchiseptica alcA deletion mutant, named B. bronchiseptica H1, was obtained. The mutant strain produced reduced amount of siderophore as expected. When a plasmid containing complete alcA gene was transformed back into the mutant, the complemented mutant recovered ability of siderophore production. These results indicated that AlcA is one of essential components for the alcaligin siderophore biosynthesis. The mutant strains obtained in this study will be used in the further studies for the biochemical function of AlcA.
Milton's Eve has too great significance to be looked upon just as one of the two characters in Paradise Lost because Eve, (as she has the same name in the Bible) has been considered by many to be the origin of all the human miseries. Therefore studies of Eve's character and works have attracted critics' studies. In this thesis Eve was investigated in some aspects : the differences between Milton's Eve and his literary predecessors' eves, Eve's role in the Fall, and her valid rationalism which seems to be quite similar to the modern idea of freedom not only for woman but man, and her excuses for her separation from Adam. These studies led the writer of this thesis to conclude as following ; Milton's Eve is quite modern and Milton's idea of freedom is expressed through Eve's talks and Milton's Eve provided with "unconscious laws of vertuous education, religious and civill nurture" through the "ceaseless communion with the scripture and with God"(4:318) can and must act rightly without husband's help, and Milton's words for Christian feedom were put into Eve's mouth before her fall. So it follows that the Fall must have something to de with regeneration. Besides, this thesis made it clear that Milton's theological perception toward Christian freedom and woman and marriage has some signs of insight transcending has age.
치환되지 않은 LaFeO_3와 각 금속자리가 부분 치환된 산화물은 citrate 방법을 이용하여 공기중 850℃에서 24시간 소성하여 합성하였다. 분말 X-선 회절(XRD) 결과에 의하면 합성된 산화물은 모두 orthorhombic의 perovskite 구조를 나타내었으며, 수소반응 분위기하에서의 TPR 결과에 의하면 이들 산화물의 산소 화학양론은 다음과 같다. LaFeO_3.17(a=5.54, b=5.57, c=784Å), La_0.9Sr_0.1FeO_3.05(a=5.55, b=5.58, c=7.86), LaFe_0.9Cu_0.1O_3.08(a=5.55, b=5.60, c=7.80), La_0.9Sr_0.1Fe_0.9Cu_0.1O_2.85(a=5.55, b=5.58, c=5.85). 이들 산화물의 수소분위기에서 환원방응은 치환되지 않은 LaFeO_3.17가 2단계 환원반응인 반면 각 site가 치환된 산화물은 3단계 환원반응으로 치환체(Sr, Cu)에 의한 새로운 환원반응 단계가 있음을 알 수 있다. 마지막 환원단계에 대한 반응 속도론적 결과에 의하면 모두가 같은 반응모델로 각 site 치환에 의한 반응메카니즘의 영향은 없으나, B site 치환된 LaFe_0.9Cu_0.1O-3.08가 가장 낮은 활성화에너지 값을 나타내었다. LaFeO_3 and partially substituted oxides were prepared by citrate method in air 850℃/24h. The XRD analysis showed orthorhombic structures of single phase perovskite. LaFeO_3.17(a=5.54, b=5.57, c=7.84), la_0.9Sr_0.1FeO_3.05(a=5.55, b=5.58, c=7.86), LaFe_0.9Cu_0.1O-3.08(a=5.55, b=5.60, c=7.80), La_0.9, Sr_0.1Fe_0.9Cu_0.1O-2.85(a=5.55, b=5.58, c=7.85). The reduction reactions of unsubstituted LaFeO_3.17 were two stages but each site substituted oxides showed three stage reactions. This means that the second reduction stages of partially substituted oxides were induced by substituents(Sr, Cu). According to the kinetic analysis for the last reduction stages, reduction mechanisms were not affected by sustituents, b-site substituted LaFe_0.9Cu_1.0O_3 showed the lowest activation energy.
페로브스카이트형 복합산화물 La_(1-x)Sr_xMn_(1-y)Cu_yO_3를 합성하여 TPR 방법을 이용하여 이들 산화물의 환원반응에 대하여 조사하였다. 치환된 시료의 환원반응은 3단계 반응인 반면 치환되지 않은 LaMnO_3는 2단계반응이다. 마지막 환원단계에 대한 반응속도론적 결과에 의하면 반응메타니즘은 A-site 치환에 의해 영향을 받으나, 활성화 에너지는 B-site 치환에 영향을 받는다. Samples of La_(1-x)Sr_xMn_(1-x)Cu_yO_(3+a)(x=0, y=0; x=0, y=0.1; and x=0.1, y=0.1) of the perovskite (ABO_3) type were synthesized and studied for their reduction reactions with TPR(temperature programmed reduction) method. The reduction reactions of the substituted samples proceeded in three stages while that of the unsubstituted LaMnO_3 did in two. The substitutions induced the second reaction stages. Kinetic studies for that last reductions suggest that the reaction mechanisms were affected by the A-site substitutions but the activation energies were most affected by the B-site substitutions.
B site substituted mixed oxides LaCo_(1-x)Cu_xO_3(X=0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5) were prepared by citrate sol-gel method in air, 850℃. By the thermal gravimetric analysis(TGA) and XRD analysis all of these oxides were single phase perovskite of rhombohedral structures. A as the amount of substituent increases, the amount of oxygen decreases and the lattice volume increases. Oxygen stoichiometry and lattice parameters of these oxides are as follows. LoCoO_3.0(a=5.44, c=13.10 Å), LaCo_0.9Cu_0.1O_3.0(a=5.44, c=13.2 Å), LaCo_0.7Cu_0.3O_2.92(a=5.46, c=13.14 Å), LaCo_0.5Cu_0.5O-2.84(a=5.45, c=13.27Å) According to the TPR results, LaCoO_3 and LaCo_0.5Cu_0.5O_2.84 undergo two-stage reduction stages, but LaCo_0.9Cu_0.1O_3.0 and LcCo_0.7Cu_0.3O_2.92 undergo three stages. The first reduction reaction of these oxides is one electron reduction reaction(oxygen 0.5mole). Reoxidated oxide in air at 1000℃, LaCoO_2.94 shows oxygen defect but the TPR result is similar to that of as-prepared oxide. By the reaction kinetics, the activation energy of LaCo_09.Cu_0.1O_3 is found to be the lowest value among those of the substituted oxides LaCo_(1-x)Cu_xO_(3-y).