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Hog manure amended with sawdust (moisture 56~60% wet basis, C/N 19-21) was composted in pilot-scale vessels using continuous aeration(CA) and intermittent aeration(IA) for 3 and 4 weeks. In two subsequent runs of the same duration, composts resulting from each of the first runs were used as a biofilter on the exhaust gas from newly composting material. Conditions between each of these paired sets appeared to be similar. Ammonia was released from the biofilter material during the first week of stabilization while the compost produced ammonia after the first week of composting. In both cases substantial absorption, 61~96 %, of ammonia production from the composting raw material was achieved in the stabilizing material during the final weeks of operation and indicates the use of the stabilizing hog manure/sawdust compost as a biofilter can reduce ammonia emissions. Total NH<sub>3</sub>-N emissions during run 2 in IA was less than 2/3 of those in CA. Dry solids loss for the stabilized compost (6~8 weeks) was 19~46%
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本論文は、｢抵抗反戦作家｣として知られている金子光晴の後期作品である人間の悲劇を通して、戦後以来の作家の意識の変換を研究しようとした。鮫、落下傘などの作品で権力や戦争に抵抗してきた光晴は、戦後、反戦思想から脱し、現実に戻って生の空しさや人間存在の再考察に没頭するようになった。人間の悲劇は、反戦作家が戦争の以後に感じる現実への不適応を経験しながら自我や存在意味を追求する過程を見せる作品である。 光晴は急激に変っていく国家の情勢の流れに慣れず、大衆不信․団結憎悪を持ったまま、｢個人｣に強く執着するようになる。この詩集の主なテーマである｢私は誰のか、私は何か｣についての全面的な自己検証を試みたと言える。戦争中も、一人で強く｢敵｣と戦っていった彼は、戦争以後に対敵する相手を見つけられなかったまま、自分を｢宇宙の中の疎外された存在｣として描いていた。 この詩集で目立っているのは、彼が持っている｢詩｣に対する観点である。光晴は｢詩とは何か｣いう問いに二つの見解を見せている。一つは｢詩=美｣ということで、｢美への憧憬｣を持っていた光晴の純粋な意識が現れる。もう一つは、｢美=生活｣というので、以前の重い主題から脱し、日常の経験や生活を扱う平凡な詩人になっていた。挑戦者から観察者へ立場に変ったということである。今まで重圧から自分を解放させ、日常生活の中で真の自我を捜していった。 人間の悲劇は、孤独であった反戦作家が現実での不適応を乗り換える過程で、自我と存在価値がどのように変化されていくのがわかる作品で、光晴の意識の変化や後期作品の特徴をよく見せている。
Compost stability represents the state of microbiological activity and measurements of respiration either through CO<sub>2</sub> evolution or O<sub>2</sub> uptake should provide the best indication of this state. Hog manure amended with sawdust was composted in a pilot-scale reactor vessels using continuous and intermittent aeration for 3 weeks. In this study we evaluated the CO<sub>2</sub> respiration rate effect of aeration method on the reduction of CO<sub>2</sub> evolution, and investigated the stability of fresh and finished compost for plant growth. The intermittently aerated composting is a practical proposition for a very stable compost making. The CO<sub>2</sub> respiration rate in the fresh and finished compost during intermittently aerated composting was maintained from 0.3 to 1.4 and was good for use in horticulture, while the continuously aerated composting was 7 to 23 and needed more time for compost curing.
This study was performed to find the recycling performance and to provide design data during recycled solid composting system to reduce bulking agent cost. Dairy manure amended with rice hulls and recycled compost was composted in a laboratory-scale vessel by continuous aeration for 10 days. The temperature and ammonia emission variations according to the r:'ltios of bulking agents during the primary aeration stage were surveyed. Also, the influence of fresh compost quality on the recycling performance were analyzed. While recycled composting system were operated, The temperature in compost was maintained in the range of 40~60℃ needed for biodegradation and death of pathogenic organisms, but the ammonia emission was different by the ratios of recycled compost. The ammonia emission increased due' to the low C/N ratio(17.6), high pH value(8.1) of the recycled compost.
폐쇄성 세기관지 기질화 폐렴은 방사선 치료 후에 드물지만 발생할 수 있는 합병증이다. 종양으로 흉부 방사선 조사의 기왕력이 있는 환자에서 다발성 경결성 폐병변이 있는 경우, 특히 방사선에 노출되지 않은 부위라 하더라도 감염성폐렴이나 방사선 폐렴, 종양의 재발 뿐만 아니라 본 증례와 같이 방사선 유도 BOOP의 가능성이 발생할 수 있음을 염두에 두고 접근하는 것이 필요하겠다. Pulmonary toxicity can develop following radiation therapy during breast cancer treatment. Of the pulmonary toxicities that can develop, radiation-induced bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) is relatively rare. A 43-year-old woman who had previously undergone radiation therapy for right breast cancer presented with fever and cough for 4 days. Chest radiology findings demonstrated consolidations in the right middle and lower lobe. Initially, we assumed that her findings were consistent with pneumonia and started empirical antibiotics. However, even after 10 days of antibiotic treatment, the fever persisted, and the consolidations showed progression. A transbronchial lung biopsy of the right middle lobe via bronchoscopy revealed organizing pneumonia. We strongly suspected radiation-induced BOOP and began steroid treatment. The symptoms and consolidations rapidly disappeared. We tapered the steroids, and no relapse has occurred since then. Considering the clinical, radiological, and pathological findings, we diagnosed the patient with radiation-induced BOOP. To our knowledge, this is the first case of radiation-induced BOOP in Korea. (Korean J Med 2011;80:458-463)
BACKGROUND: This study was performed to investigate pre-harvest residue limit (PHRL) in Chwinamul, to estimate biological half-life for residue of each pesticide. Chwinamul was sprayed with pesticides of standard and double application rate. Chlorfenapyr and fenarimol were sprayed once on Chwinamul at 10 days before harvest, and it was sampled 7 times and analysed the residual change of two pesticides. METHODS AND RESULTS: Chwinamul sample was extracted with acetonitrile and partitioned with dichloromethane, and pesticide residues were determined with GCECD. Method quantitation limit (MQL) of chlorfenapyr was 0.10mg/kg and that of fenarimol was 0.02mg/kg. Recoveries of chlorfenapyr at two fortification levels of 1.0 and 5.0mg/kg were 94.2±1.70 and 99.0±1.61%, respectively. Recoveries of fenarimol at two fortification levels of 0.2 and 1.0mg/kg were 92.1±2.14 and 83.1±1.98%, respectively. CONCLUSION(s): The biological half-lives of chlorfenapyr were about 3.5 days at standard application rate, and 3.4 days at double application rate. The biological half-lives of fenarimol were about 6.0 days at standard application rate, and 5.9 days at double application rate. The PHRLs of chlorfenapyr were recommended as 13.02 and 6.25mg/kg for 10 and 5 days before harvest, respectively. And the PHRLs of fenarimol were recommended as 2.80 and 1.67mg/kg for 10 and 5 days before harvest, respectively.
This paper presents analytic results of energy sequestered for the forcing cultural Cu- cumber and the others production system with the input-output tables method in the suthern parts of Korea. In this study an attempt is made to evaluate input of direct and indirect energy, output of yield energy and net energy in order to achieve increased energy productivity under P E greenhouse. Cultural practices were grouped soil and soilless with perlite for vegetable production. The results from this study are summarized as follows : 1. Total energy inputs in cucumber production were calculated to be 510 GJ/10a(di-rect energy : 480 GJ/10a, indirect energy : 30 GJ/10a) from soil culture and 440 GJ/ 10a(direct energy : 420 GJ/10a, indirect energy : 20 GJ/10a) from soilless culture in perlite hydroponics. 2. Energy outputs from cucumber and biomass were 7 GJ/10a and 120 GJ/10a at a uniform rate respectively. 3. Heating fuel as diesel is a major energy inputs approaching 90% of the total energy requirements for cucumber production. 4. Net energy in cucumber production was calculated to be 503 GJ/10a from soil cul- ture and 431 GJ/10a from soilless culture. Net energy productivity was maintained costantly as 0.98. 5. Energy productivity in cucumber was calculated to be 0.029 kg/MJ from soil culture and 0.043kg/MJ from soilless culture, while energy efficiency was 0.012 and 0.015 respectively. It is expected that a soilless cultural production system seems to be reduc-tive in seguestered energy input by 13%.
Groundwater and animal wastes are typical example which are underutilized resources than their value in agriculture. This paper was to investigate the actual patterns of utilization of water curtain for greenhouses and methane gas utilization from swine wastes in a view point of promoting more efficient use of alternative energy. The results from measurements can be summarized as follows : 1. It was estimated that the maximum heating load per 10a was around 23, 280kJ/hr and the heating load at January showed 3.93×10<sup>6</sup>kJ respectively for strawberry greenhouses with insulation by the water curtain. 2. The average heating cost of the greenhouse with water curtain system amounted to about 75.000 Won per 10a. This result suggested that the greater cultivated area provides less heating cost. 3. The operating volume was about 73 percent of the optimum size of the digester. The net available methane gas rates of the produced gas remained close to 62 percent, But the conventional and small size of the digester was maintained at a lower level of around 20 to 29 percent. 4. It appeared that major problems of biogas production system were required to maintain the temperature of the fermentation above ambient temperature and the optimum volume of digester.