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          가네코 미쓰하루의 『인간의 비극』론

          홍지형(洪知亨, Hong,Ji-Hyung) 일본어문학회 2009 일본어문학 Vol.47 No.-

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          本論文は、「抵抗反戦作家」として知られている金子光晴の後期作品である人間の悲劇を通して、戦後以来の作家の意識の変換を研究しようとした。鮫、落下傘などの作品で権力や戦争に抵抗してきた光晴は、戦後、反戦思想から脱し、現実に戻って生の空しさや人間存在の再考察に没頭するようになった。人間の悲劇は、反戦作家が戦争の以後に感じる現実への不適応を経験しながら自我や存在意味を追求する過程を見せる作品である。 光晴は急激に変っていく国家の情勢の流れに慣れず、大衆不信․団結憎悪を持ったまま、「個人」に強く執着するようになる。この詩集の主なテーマである「私は誰のか、私は何か」についての全面的な自己検証を試みたと言える。戦争中も、一人で強く「敵」と戦っていった彼は、戦争以後に対敵する相手を見つけられなかったまま、自分を「宇宙の中の疎外された存在」として描いていた。 この詩集で目立っているのは、彼が持っている「詩」に対する観点である。光晴は「詩とは何か」いう問いに二つの見解を見せている。一つは「詩=美」ということで、「美への憧憬」を持っていた光晴の純粋な意識が現れる。もう一つは、「美=生活」というので、以前の重い主題から脱し、日常の経験や生活を扱う平凡な詩人になっていた。挑戦者から観察者へ立場に変ったということである。今まで重圧から自分を解放させ、日常生活の中で真の自我を捜していった。 人間の悲劇は、孤独であった反戦作家が現実での不適応を乗り換える過程で、自我と存在価値がどのように変化されていくのがわかる作品で、光晴の意識の変化や後期作品の特徴をよく見せている。

        • 가축배설물 처리.이용 평가 및 효율적 활용방안

          홍지형,Hong,,Ji-Hyung 한국축산환경학회 2009 축산시설환경학회지 Vol.15 No.1

          축분 퇴비 생산은 축분 종류, 처리방법, 부자재 종류 등에 따라서 비료성분과 품질이 다양 하고 축분 퇴비 이용은 축분 퇴비 종류 및 채소, 과수, 일반밭작물, 수도작 등의 재배작물에 따라서 시비량이 차이가 있으므로, 축분 퇴비 생산과 이용은 지역 농업의 축산업 및 작물재배 특성에 부합된 축분 퇴비 생산 및 이용시스템을 확립해야 될 것으로 판단되었다. 생분 수분조절용 부자재는 77%가 톱밥을 사용하고 있었으며, 축분 공동처리는 유료가 82%로서 퇴비화 처리 비용(원/톤)은 $2{\sim}4$만원 정도였다. 퇴비화처리설비는 지붕 있는 통기 퇴적방식 및 개방형 로터리(또는 스크푸) 교반방식이 많았다. 축분 퇴비 재료의 연간처리량(톤/년)은 $0.5{\sim}1$만 톤 이하가 많았으며, 생산된 축분 퇴비의 운영관리비(원/톤)는 $5{\sim}10$ 만원 범위를 나타내 보였고, 경영수지 적자가 30%, 수지 보합이 20% 이였다. 축분 퇴비 이용은 채소와 과수 농가가 60% 이상이며, 비 포대용 퇴비판매가격은 축산농가 및 농협에서 생산된 축분 퇴비의 품질, 생산 상황, 경종농가와 관계 등에 따라서 차이가 있으나, 퇴비 판매가격이 2톤 차 1대당 8만원에서 16만원 범위로 퇴비 숙도에 따라서 다양 하였고, 포대용 축분 퇴비 1포대(원/20kg) 가격은 $2,000{\sim}4,000$원 범위가 대부분을 차지하였다. 시설오이재배 농가에서 축분 퇴비 시비량은 평균 10톤/10a이고, 화학비료 시비량은 평균 70kg/10a 이었으며 이때에 수확량은 23.5톤/10a 등으로 나타났다. 사용 퇴비 종류는 우분, 돈분 및 계분 등의 축분 퇴비가 76%를 차지하였으며, 시설재배보다 노지재배에서 80% 이상 많이 활용 되었으며, 퇴비 이용 상에 문제점은 노동력 부족으로서 포대퇴비 이용보다는, 대부분이 퇴비제조 업자를 통하여 벌크퇴비 상태로 포장에 시비하였다. A survey questionnaire that addressed the issues to manure compost producers and users was prepared. The questionnaire addressed three main topics as follows: 1) types of manure treatment and composting facilities are being operated, 2) quantity of manure compost produced and used, 3) problems experienced in producing and using manure compost. A total of 30 manure compost producers and 10 manure compost users were interviewed. Solid manure are applied to composting. Slurry and wastewater are simplified aeration method to produce liquid fertilizer. The open elongated type manure composting are generally used on manure compost centers jointly used by several farms. The amount of annually manure compost production was most common in the range of $5{\sim}10$ thousand tons per manure compost center. The manure compost utilization and cucumber yield were mostly $6{\sim}15$ tons and $20{\sim}27$ tons per 10a of cucumber farmland, respectively. Environmentally friendly use both of manure compost and chemical fertilizer are recommended for natural recycling agriculture.

        • Comparison of Anaerobic and Aerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor System for Liquid Manure Treatment

          홍지형,Hong,,Ji-Hyung The Korean Society of Animal Environmental Science 2008 축산시설환경학회지 Vol.14 No.2

          Sequencing batch operation consists of fill, react, settle and decant phases in the same reactor. Operation consists of anaerobic, anoxic and oxic (aerobic) phases when nutrient removal from the wastewater is desired. Since the same reactor is used for biological oxidation (or mixing) and sedimentation in aerobic and anaerobic SBR operations, capital and operating costs are lower than conventional activated sludge process and conventional anaerobic digestion process, respectively. Therefore, Aerobic SBR and Anaerobic SBR operations may be more advantageous far treatment of small volume animal wastewater in rural areas.

        • 시설채소(施設菜蔬) 생산(生産)시스템의 순(純) 에너지 분석(分析)

          홍지형 ( Hong Ji Hyung ) 한국농공학회 1995 韓國農工學會誌 : 전원과 자원 Vol.37 No.1

          This paper presents analytic results of energy sequestered for the forcing cultural Cu- cumber and the others production system with the input-output tables method in the suthern parts of Korea. In this study an attempt is made to evaluate input of direct and indirect energy, output of yield energy and net energy in order to achieve increased energy productivity under P E greenhouse. Cultural practices were grouped soil and soilless with perlite for vegetable production. The results from this study are summarized as follows : 1. Total energy inputs in cucumber production were calculated to be 510 GJ/10a(di-rect energy : 480 GJ/10a, indirect energy : 30 GJ/10a) from soil culture and 440 GJ/ 10a(direct energy : 420 GJ/10a, indirect energy : 20 GJ/10a) from soilless culture in perlite hydroponics. 2. Energy outputs from cucumber and biomass were 7 GJ/10a and 120 GJ/10a at a uniform rate respectively. 3. Heating fuel as diesel is a major energy inputs approaching 90% of the total energy requirements for cucumber production. 4. Net energy in cucumber production was calculated to be 503 GJ/10a from soil cul- ture and 431 GJ/10a from soilless culture. Net energy productivity was maintained costantly as 0.98. 5. Energy productivity in cucumber was calculated to be 0.029 kg/MJ from soil culture and 0.043kg/MJ from soilless culture, while energy efficiency was 0.012 and 0.015 respectively. It is expected that a soilless cultural production system seems to be reduc-tive in seguestered energy input by 13%.

        • 우리나라 농업(農業)의 대체(代替)에너지 활용(活用) 실태(實態)에 관한 연구(硏究)

          홍지형 ( Hong Ji Hyung ) 한국농공학회 1993 韓國農工學會誌 : 전원과 자원 Vol.35 No.3

          Groundwater and animal wastes are typical example which are underutilized resources than their value in agriculture. This paper was to investigate the actual patterns of utilization of water curtain for greenhouses and methane gas utilization from swine wastes in a view point of promoting more efficient use of alternative energy. The results from measurements can be summarized as follows : 1. It was estimated that the maximum heating load per 10a was around 23, 280kJ/hr and the heating load at January showed 3.93×10<sup>6</sup>kJ respectively for strawberry greenhouses with insulation by the water curtain. 2. The average heating cost of the greenhouse with water curtain system amounted to about 75.000 Won per 10a. This result suggested that the greater cultivated area provides less heating cost. 3. The operating volume was about 73 percent of the optimum size of the digester. The net available methane gas rates of the produced gas remained close to 62 percent, But the conventional and small size of the digester was maintained at a lower level of around 20 to 29 percent. 4. It appeared that major problems of biogas production system were required to maintain the temperature of the fermentation above ambient temperature and the optimum volume of digester.

        • 농업 부산물을 이용한 돼지 사체 퇴비화

          홍지형 ( Hong Ji Hyung ), 최병민 ( Choi Byoung Min ) 한국농공학회 1998 한국농공학회 학술대회초록집 Vol.1998 No.-

          Dead animals amended with agricultural rersidues are utilized ai a compost to promote soil fertility and reduce environmental pollution by traditional methods of livestock mortalities. The full-scale bin composting swine mortality in roofed system with three amendments was very successful in reaching sufficient temperature above 55℃ long enough for pathogen kill. The average temperature of tile compost material in dead swine amended with corn stover increased rapidly to 64℃ on the 2nd day after primary composting and dropped to near ambient temperature on the 140th day of composting. The composting temperature of corn stover and wheat straw is more efficient for swine carcass composting than that of sawdust.

        • Volatile Organic Compounds Production from Aerobic Biotreatment of Dairy Wastewater by a Sequencing Batch Reactor

          홍지형,Hong,,Ji-Hyung The Korean Society of Animal Environmental Science 2005 축산시설환경학회지 Vol.11 No.1

          본 연구는 호기성 연속회분식반응기(SBR)에서 낙농폐수의 생물학적처리 과정에서 발생되는 휘발성 유기물질 발생량을 분석한 것이다. 호기성처리 상태에서 악취성분인 휘발성 지방산(VFAs) 및 휘발성 유기물질(VOCs)은 원래 상태보다도 크게 감소하였다 호기성 연속회분식반응기에서 휘발성지방산은 1,450 mg/L 이하를 나타내고 있었다. 축산폐수처리과정에서 악취처리는 호기성연속회분식반응기(SBR) 처리 기술이 효과적인 방법이라고 확인되었다. 호기성 연속회분식반응기 시스템은 고액분리된 액상물의 악취물질 제거에 사용될 수 있었다. Aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was used to treat screened dairy wastewaters. The study examined the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in the aerobic SBR and raw manure effluent storage over 35 days. The reduction of total VFAs in the aerobic SBR was over $59\%$ removal than that of the raw manure. Acetic acid production in the aerobic SBR and the raw manure effluent storage were kept 138 and 286 mg/L. The propionic acid in the aerobic SBR was 1.9 mg/L, while the raw manure effluent storage was 68 mg/L, respectively. The concentrations of VOCs in the aerobic SBR reactor and effluent fill down remarkably than the raw manure storage. The results confirmed that the aerobic biological treatment is an essential requirement for minimizing odor problems.

        • 축분 퇴비화 암모니아 가스의 안정화 퇴비에 의한 생물학적 탈취처리

          홍지형 ( Hong Ji Hyung ) 한국농공학회 2001 韓國農工學會誌 : 전원과 자원 Vol.43 No.6

          Hog manure amended with sawdust (moisture 56~60% wet basis, C/N 19-21) was composted in pilot-scale vessels using continuous aeration(CA) and intermittent aeration(IA) for 3 and 4 weeks. In two subsequent runs of the same duration, composts resulting from each of the first runs were used as a biofilter on the exhaust gas from newly composting material. Conditions between each of these paired sets appeared to be similar. Ammonia was released from the biofilter material during the first week of stabilization while the compost produced ammonia after the first week of composting. In both cases substantial absorption, 61~96 %, of ammonia production from the composting raw material was achieved in the stabilizing material during the final weeks of operation and indicates the use of the stabilizing hog manure/sawdust compost as a biofilter can reduce ammonia emissions. Total NH<sub>3</sub>-N emissions during run 2 in IA was less than 2/3 of those in CA. Dry solids loss for the stabilized compost (6~8 weeks) was 19~46%

        • 부자재 비용 저감을 위한 순환 퇴비화 시스템의 예비 연구

          홍지형 ( Hong Ji Hyung ), 최명환 ( Choi Myung Hwan ), 박금주 ( Park Keum Joo ) 한국농공학회 1999 한국농공학회 학술대회초록집 Vol.1999 No.-

          This study was performed to find the recycling performance and to provide design data during recycled solid composting system to reduce bulking agent cost. Dairy manure amended with rice hulls and recycled compost was composted in a laboratory-scale vessel by continuous aeration for 10 days. The temperature and ammonia emission variations according to the r:'ltios of bulking agents during the primary aeration stage were surveyed. Also, the influence of fresh compost quality on the recycling performance were analyzed. While recycled composting system were operated, The temperature in compost was maintained in the range of 40~60℃ needed for biodegradation and death of pathogenic organisms, but the ammonia emission was different by the ratios of recycled compost. The ammonia emission increased due' to the low C/N ratio(17.6), high pH value(8.1) of the recycled compost.

        • KCI등재

          연명의료결정법과 자기결정권 강화의 실제 : 의료현장을 중심으로

          홍지형(Hong, Ji Hyung) 가톨릭생명윤리연구소 2020 인격주의 생명윤리 Vol.10 No.1

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          이 논문은 실제 의료 현장에서 생애 말기 시점에서 환자의 자기결정권 강화를 위해 제정된 연명의료결정법 제정 10개월 시점에서의 연명의료결정법의 수행에 대해 분석하였다. 연명계획서상 환자 본인의 의사반영 비율, 연명의료계획의 내용, 연명의료계획서 작성에 미치는 환자의 임상적, 사회경제적 요인을 분석하였다. 2018년 2월 4일부터 2018년 12월 31일까지 3차 대학병원에서 연명의료결정법 관련 서식을 작성한 환자는 총 669 명이었다. 이 중 35%의 환자가 연명의료계획서를 작성하였고, 환자 본인이 연명계획서를 작성하지는 않았지만, 연명의료에 관한 환자의 의사를 반영한 연명의료결정을 한 환자는 25%에 해당하여, 59%의 환자에게서 본인의 의사가 연명의료계획에 반영되었다. 연명의계획에 환자의 의사가 반영된 환자와 그렇지 않은 환자군 간 환자의 직업의 유무, 동반거주자의 유무, 고학력자, 주거형태 등에 차이가 있었다. 90% 이상의 환자들은 말기상태에서 심폐소생술, 인공호흡, 혈액투석, 항암치료 등의 적극적 치료에 동의하지 않았다. 연명의료계획서 작성에 영향을 미치는 인자로는 단변량 분석에서 직업, 동반거주자, 학력, 주거형태, 사보험 여부, 주진단, 주진료과 등이 영향을 주었으나, 다변량 분석에서 주거형태, 주진료과, 주진단만이 영향력을 유지하였다. 본 연구는 향후 연명의료결정법의 취지에 부합하는 의료현장에서의 연명의료계획의 수립과 수행에 자료제시 및 자기결정권 강화의 역할을 촉진할 수 있는 제반연구로서의 의미를 갖는다. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of the Act on Life-Sustaining Treatment Determination on the patient s self-determination and autonomy about the end-of-life treatment at the 10-month time point of enactment of the Act on Life-Sustaining Treatment Determination in Korea. The percentage of reflection of the patient's own opinion on end-of-life treatment, the contents of POLST, the clinical and socioeconomic factors affecting the completion of POLST were analyzed with retrospective manner. From February 4, 2018, to December 31, 2018, a total of 669 patients were enrolled at the tertiary university hospitals. Of these, 35% of the patients completed POLST and 25% of the patients did not write POLST, but their family members decided the end-of-life care treatment according to patients wish. Therefore, the wish of 59% of patients was reflected in the end-of-life decision. More than 90% of patients did not agree to active treatment, such as CPR, artificial respiration, hemodialysis, and chemotherapy, in the terminal period. In the univariate analysis, factors influencing the completion of POLST included employment states, educated degree, residential status, private insurance, department the patients were involved and diagnosis. However, only employment states, department the patients and patient's diagnosis remained independency of influencing the completion of POLST in the multivariate analysis. This study is meaningful as a study of how to strengthen self-determination and autonomy in end-of-life care decisions.

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