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Obesity and diabetes have been increased at an alaming rate in recent years and is now a worldwide health problem. We investigate the effects of 8wk feeding tea catechin which is natural polyphenolic compounds and 8wk treadmill exercise on the skeletal muscle GLUT-4 protein, serum glucose, insulin and lipids(TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C) in the insulin resistant obese Zucker rats(fa/fa). Male obese Zucker rats either remained sedentary(fa/fa, n=4), recieved catechins(5㎖=2.5g/250㎖(1%) day-1, fa/fa, n=4), performed treadmill exercise(fa/fa, n=4) or underwent both catechin supplementation and treadmill exercise(fa/fa, n=4) for 8wk. During oral glucose tolerance test(OGTT), treadmill exercise alone or in combination with catechins resulted in a significant lowering of the glucose, insulin and TC, TG, LDL-C responses compared with sedentary controls. Treadmill exercise or in combination with catechin group individually increased insulin-regulated glucose transporter(GLUT-4) in isolated soleus, plantaris and gastrocnemius muscle. The greatest expressions in GLUT-4 protein in these muscles were observed in the treadmill exercise group. Thus, enhancement in glucose transport in soleus, plantaris and gastrocnemius muscle due to treadmill exercise and in combination with catechin was related to enhanced GLUT-4 protein and decrease glucose, insulin and TC, TG, LDL-C. These results suggest that treadmill exercise and in combination with catechin individually may reduce the risk of associated diseases including diabetes and coronary heart disease.
S. M. HONG, Y. S. LEE, T. S. Kim. The Kinematic Analysis of the Last Stride Landing and Release Phase in the Woman Javelin. Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 51-63, 2004. The purpose of this study was to investigate a three dimensional kinematic variables about the last stride and the release phase of the throwing technique for female javelin throwers. For the motion analysis, Six female javelin throwers were used as subjects. Three-dimensional coordinates were collected using the Kwon3D Motion Analysis Package Version 2.1 Program. Two S-VHS Video Cameras were used to record the locations and orientations of control object and the performances of the subjects at a frequency of 6.0 HZ. After the kinematic variables such as the time, the distance, the velocity, and the angle were analyzed about the last stride and release phase, the followings were achieved; 1. For the effectively javelin throwing, the subjects appeared to do long the approach time in the phasel of landing phase, and short the delivery time in release phase 2. In the release event, the other subjects except for subject A appeared to throwing in the lower condition than the height of themselves. This result showed to slow the projecion velocity. 3. For increase the projection vcelocity of the upper extremity joint in the release event, it appeared to do extend rather the shoulder angle than increase the extension of elbow joint. 4. The body of COG angle showed to gradually increase nearly at the vertical axis in the release event. But the front lean angle of trunk showed a small angle compare to increase of the body of COG angle. Therefore for the effectively momentum transmission of the whole body in the javelin, the front and back lean angle of trunk appeared to do fastly transfer the angle displacement in the arch posture or the crescent condition during the deliverly motion of the release phase.
The main purpose of this study were to investigate the biomechmical factors during the main movement executed by elite javalin throwers and the correlation between those results and acquired distance. Two male and three female collegiate javelin throwers performing javelin throw were filmed using a high speed vedio camera operating at 60 fps. The ground reaction forces in the lead foot were obtained from an AMTI force platform. The conclusions were as follows: 1. Average necessary times, from lead foot contact to release moment, ranged from 0.189 to 0.199 sec. The correlation between the necessary time and acquired distance showed generally negative values. 2. Hipt joint appeared larger than shoulder joint in the linear displacement. The correlation between shoulder displacement and acquired distance was significant. 3. Distal joint had more velocity than proximal joint. The Correlation between distal joint and acquired distance, distal joint and initial velocity javelin were significant. Angular velocity of shoulder joint showed larger than that of hip joint in all subjects. The correlation between angular velocity and acquired distance showed negative value in the hip joint but positive in the showlder joint. 4. Acceleration was large in the elbow and wrist joints but, showed negative value in the shoulder joint. 5. The correlation between release angle and acquired distance showed negative value. 6. The correlation between release height and acquired distance was significant for the most part. 7. The ground reaction force of the vertical average ranged from 1.6 to 1.7 times of their weight in males and 2.0~2.6 times in females. The correlation between ground reaction force and acquired distance was not significant.