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Hydrogen can be produced by reforming reaction of natural gas (NG) and biogas, or by water electrolysis. In this study, hydrogen production through water-electrolysis needs superheated steam above 700℃ for high efficiency. The production method of hydrogen like this was recommended for the 4-type processes for superheated steam (700℃, 3 atm) by Bio-SRF combustion furnace. The 4-type processes to produce superheated steam at 700℃ from the heat source of SRF combustion furnace was simulated using PRO II. The optimum process was selected through exergy analysis. The difference of process 1 and 2 is to the order of depressure and heating process to change 180℃ and 7 atm to 700℃ and 3 atm. Process 3 and 4 is to utilize 25% of steam to generate superheated steam and remaining to use for the power generation by steam generator.
The amount of biogas increases as the amount of organic waste increases. Recently, biogas from organic waste have been made much efforts to utilize as a energy. In particular, the concentration of CH<sub>4</sub> and CO<sub>2</sub> generated from sewage sludge and livestock manure treatment are 60-70% and 30-35%, and CH<sub>4</sub> and CO<sub>2</sub> generated from food wastes are 60-80% and 20-40%. In case of landfill gas, CH<sub>4</sub> and CO<sub>2</sub> have a concentration of 40-60% and 40-60% respectively. Therefore, in order to use the biogas more widely, it is necessary to convert the biogas to methanol, LNG or DME. In this study, experiments were conducted to produce hydrogen and carbon monoxide through various biogas reforming reactions on Ni/Ce-ZrO<sub>2</sub>/Al2O3 catalysts. The experiment of synthetic gas synthesis was carried out on a wide concentrations of methane and carbon dioxide, which were the major constituents of biogas from various organic wastes. The effect of (O<sub>2</sub>+CO<sub>2</sub>)/CH<sub>4</sub> (=R') on the yields of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, the conversion rate of methane and carbon dioxide was investigated. Also simulation for syngas synthesis on the CO<sub>2</sub> reforming of CH<sub>4</sub> was computed by employing total Gibbs free energy minimization method using PRO/II simulator, and compared with the experimental results on wet and dry reforming reaction of biogas.
Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is an effective and environment friendly technique; it possesses extensive potential towards producing high-energy density solid fuels. it is a carbonization method of thermochemical process at a relatively low temperature (180-250℃). It is reacted by water containing raw material. However, the production and quality of solid fuels from HTC depends upon several parameters; temperature, residence time, and pressure. This study investigates the influence of operating parameters on solid fuel production during HTC. Especially, when food waste was reacted for 2 hours, 4 hours, and 8 hours at 200℃ and 2.0-2.5 MPa, Data including heating value, proximate analysis and water content was consequently collected and analyzed. It was found that reaction temperature, residence time are the primary factors that influence the HTC process.
Recently, as the fine dust is increased and the emission regulations of diesel engines are strengthened, interest in diesel soot filtration devices is rapidly increased. In particular, there is a demand for technology development for higher efficiency of diesel exhaust gas after-treatment devices. As part of this, many studies conducted to increase the exhaust gas treatment efficiency by improving the flow uniformity of the exhaust gas in the DPF and reducing the pressure drop between the inlet and outlet of disel particle filter (DPF). In this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation was performed when exhaust gas flows into the canning reduction device equipped with a 13” asymmetric DPF in order to maintain the flow uniformity in the diesel exhaust system and reduce the pressure. In particular, a study was conducted to find the geometry with the smallest pressure drop and the highest flow uniformity by simulating the DPF I/O ratio, exhaust gas temperature, inlet-outlet pressure and flow uniformity according to the geometry and hole size of distributor.
When Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) is vaporized into NG for industrial and household usage, tremendous cold energy was transferred from LNG to seawater during phase-changing process. This heat exchanger loop is not only a waste of huge cold energy, but will cause thermal pollution to the coastal fishery area also when cold water was re-injected into the sea. In this study, an innovation design has been performed to reclaim the cold energy for -35 to 62℃ refrigerated warehouse. Conventionally, this was done by installing mechanical refrigeration systems, necessitating tremendous electrical power to drive temperature. A closed loop LNG heat exchangers in series was designed to replace the mechanical or vapor-compression refrigeration cycle by process simulator. The process simulation software of PRO II with provision has been used to simulate this process for various conditions, what to effect on cold energy and used energy for re-liquefaction and evaporation process. In addition, through analysis the effect of the change of LNG supply pressure on sensible and latent heat, optimum operational conditions was suggested for LNG cold energy warehouse.