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Effective material properties of active fiber composites with interdigitated electrodes are derived as a function of the fiber volume fraction. For the purpose of applying the rule of mixture, three unit cell models are introduced; each for the deformation and stress continuities in the out of plane and in-plane directions, and the continuity of the electrical displacement in the longitudinal direction. Derived effective material properties are compared with the results by the finite element method; good agreements are observed between them. As an application, the electromechanical behavior of the angle ply laminates with the active fiber layers bonded on the top and bottom surfaces are investigated; the angle of piezoelectric fiber to maximize the twisting curvature is obtained using the present model.
지금까지 인류가 창안해 낸 가장 훌륭한 대안적 개발 패러다임은 '지속가능한 개발'이라 할 수 있다. 어젠다21(Agenda 21) 등 국제기구에서 논의되는 지속가능한 개발의 개념은 '미래 세대의 욕구를 충족시킬 수 있는 환경과 여건을 저해하지 않으면서 현 세대의 욕구를 충족시키는 개발'이다. 그리고 이 지속가능한 개발은 세 가지 핵심적 요소를 포함하고 있는바 이는 환경적 가치, 미래 지향성, 그리고 형평성이다. 이와 관련한 지속가능한 도시개발에 대해 알아보자.
A method is proposed to predict the deformed shape of the structure subjected to the unknown external loads using the signal from the piezoceramic sensors. Such a shape estimation is based on the linear relationship between the deformation of structure and the signal from sensor, which is calculated using finite element method. The deformed shape is, then calculated using the linear matrix and the signals from the piezoceramic sensors attached to the structures. For the purpose, a structural analysis program is developed using a multi-layerd finite element of 8 nodes with 3 displacement and one voltage degrees of freedom at each node. The multiple layers with the different material properties can be layered within the element. The incompatible mode with the element is found to be crucial to catch the bending behavior accurately. The accuracy of the program is, then, verified by being compared with the experimental results performed by Crawley. The proposed shape estimation method is also verified for the different loads and sensor size. It is shown that the results of shape estimation method using the linear matrix well predicts the deflections compared with those of finite element method.
A multi-layered brick element fur the finite element method is developed for analyzing the three-dim-ensionally layered composite structures subjected to both thermal and mechanical boundary conditions. The element has eight nodes with one degree of freedom for the temperature and three for the display-ements at each node, and can contain arbitrary number of layers with different material properties with-in the element; the conventional element should contain one material within an element. Thus the total number of nodes and elements, which are needed to analyze the multi-layered composite structures, can be tremendously reduced. In solving the global equation, a partitioning technique is used to obtain the temperature and the displacements which are caused by both the mechanical boundary conditions and temperature distributions. The results by using the developed element are compared wish the commercial package, ANSYS and the conventional finite element methods, and they are in good agreement. It is also shown that the Number of nodes and elements can be tremendously reduced using the element without losing the numerical accuracies.
The layered composites have a character to change of structure stiffness with respect to the layup angles. The deformations in the fan-blades to be initially designed by considering efficiency and noise, etc., which arise due to the pressure during the fan operation, can make the fan inefficient. Thus, so as to minimize the deformations of the blades, it is needed to increase the stiffness of the blades. An investigation has been performed to develop the three dimensional layered composite shell element with the drilling degree of freedom and the optimization module for finding optimal layup angles with sensitivity analysis. And then they have been verified. In this study, the analysis model is engine cooling fan of automobile. In order to analyzes the stiffness of the composite fan blades, finite element analysis is performed. In addition, it is linked with optimal design process, and then the optimal angles that can maximize the stiffness of the blades are found. In the optimal design process, the deformations of the blades are considered as multiobjective functions, and this results minimum bending and twisting simultaneously.