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The purpose of this study was to determine what is useful index of abdominal visceral fat area among Korean obese adolescents. Methods : 35 obese adolescents who had visited Kirin Oriental Hospital from August 2004 to May 2006 were included in the study. Weight, height, waist and hip circumferences were measured. Abdominal visceral fat areas at L4-5 level were measured by computed tomography. The subjects were divided into two groups, according to sex. In each group, we investigated the correlation among waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, waist/height ratio, obesity degree and abdominal visceral fat area and evaluated that which one of these kinds of indices is the most useful predictor for visceral fat area in Korean obese adolescents. Results : There were significant correlation between waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, waist/height ratio and obesity index in both group. In boys waist/hip ratio had correlation with abdominal visceral fat area and in girls obesity index had significant correlation with abdominal visceral fat area. Conclusions : Our study suggests that waist/hip ratio in boys, obesity degree in girls can be a relatively good parameter for predicting abdominal visceral fat area.
Highly curved steel-box bridges are usually constructed as ramp structures for the highway interchange and metropolitan elevated highway junction, but a number of these bridges are deteriorated and damaged to a significant degree due to heavy traffic. The main objective of the study is to develop a practical reliability-based assessment of safety and residual load carrying-capacity of existing curved steel-box ramp bridges. In the paper, for the realistic assessment of safety and residual load carrying-capacity of deteriorated and/or damaged curved steel-box bridges, an interactive non-linear limit state model is formulated based on the von Mises`s combined stress yield criterion. It is demonstrated that the proposed model is effective for the assessment of reliability-based safety and the evaluation of residual load carrying-capacity of curved steel-box bridges. In addition, this study comparatively shows the applicability of various reliability analysis methods, and suggests a practical and effective one to be used in practice.
This paper aims to investigate the effects of Indian consumers' food-related lifestyle(FRL) on the purchasing behavior of Korean food products, and to provide the marketing strategies for entering the Indian food market. As a result of classifying FRL types using factor and cluster analysis, it was categorized into two consumer groups : taste oriented·low involved type and nutrition·socializing seek type. In addition, cross-tabulation analysis was performed on demographic variables to understand the differences in consumer characteristics and Korean food purchase behavior by segmented group according to FRL. The significant differences between the clusters were identified and the overall of food consumption behavior of Indian consumers, such as purchase frequency, purchase places and information sources towards Korean foods relevant to the FRL, were recognized. Also, t-test analysis was conducted to analyze the difference in the repurchase intention and preference of Korean food products by FRL. As a result, ‘nutrition·socializing seek type' has much higher repurchase intention and the preference for each Korean food item compared to another group. Finally, through performing the multiple regression analysis, the ‘simple-convenience seeking factor' among the five food-related lifestyle factors was found to have the greatest influence on Indian consumers' repurchase intention towards Korean food products.
최근 논에서 밭으로 개원하는 포도농가가 증가하고있으며, 토양 배수성이 극히 불량한 이러한 토양은 여름철의 집중호우기(장마기)때 과습 또는 침수해를 받을 우려가 매우 높다. 따라서 본 연구는 배수방법(무처리, 명거배수, 암거배수)을 달리하여 토양의 수분변화를 측정하고, 이에 따른 포도 `진옥`(Vitis spp.)과 `캠벨얼리`(V.labruscana)의 생육반응을 비교하고자 수행하였다. 집중 호우 이후 토양과습에 해당하는 -15kpa 이상의 토양수분포텐셜 유지시간은 무처리, 명거배수구, 암거배수구에서 각각 352, 348, 180시간으로 조사되었으며, 상대적으로 암거배수의 점토함량은 다른 배수처리구보다 약8∼12% 낮았다. 집중 호우 이후 작물수분스트레스지수는 암거배수가 가장 낮고 무처리가 가장 높았으며, 광합성속도는 반대의 결과를 보여 처리간 차이는 유의하였으나 품종간에는 큰 차이를 보이지 않았다. 또한 엽면적과 주간부단면적의 생장량 역시 암거배수가 무처리와 명거배수보다 효과적이었다. Recently, it is increasing the grape farm which is converted from paddy field to orchard. These soil which are poor drainage extremely also can be damaged a lot by excessive water or flooding during heavy rain season on summer. Therefore the aim of this study was carried out to measure the changes of soil water potential and to compare the growth responses of `Jinok` (Vitis spp.) and `Campbell Early` (V. labruscana) grapes under three drainage systems (control, conventional drainage, and under drainage). After heavy rain, soil water potential holding times above -15 kpa applied water excessive were 352, 348 and 180 hours in control, conventional, and under drainage systems, respectively. The clay content of the under drainage system was lower than the other systems about 8-12%. The crop water stress index was lowest in the under drainage and highest in the control. Also, photosynthetic rate has showed the opposite result with crop water stress index. It was significant differences between the treatments but, the value has not shown significantly different between the varieties. In addition, leaf area and the trunk growth rate was more effective in under drainage than in the control and conventional drainage.
The front-end side members of vehicles absorb the most of the energy during the front-end collision. These side members are mostly consist of single hat shape. The side members absorb more energy under axial load if they have higher strength, and stable folding capacity (local buckling). When structural members are subjected to axial loadings, stress is concentrated on their edges. Thus, in this study, the energy absorption characteristics of the member were analyzed according to change of sectional shape for increase of strength. The side members consist of single hat, double hat, single cap and double cap section member. Based on the static test result of these side member, the impact simulation were carried out and compared with test result.
In this study I have investigated the effectiveness of ranking of the travel product for the criteria of selecting the product and have done a comparative analysis for the difference of perception around the traveling employees. The result of the proof analysis showed that the perception differences of traveling employees existed attentively for the service quality (Tangible, Reliability, Assurance, Empathy, Responsiveness) of travel business between before and after the enforcement of ranking of the travel product. The average value for response of the respondents is in higher order for service quality as follows; Assurance (the first), Reliability, Tangible, Responsiveness, Empathy (the last). The order of positive changes for the difference between before and after the enforcement is as follows; Tangible, Reliability, Empathy, Assurance, Responsiveness. In this study the opinion differences of traveling employees was verified for service quality factors in travel business before and after the enforcement of ranking of the travel product, and the strategic direction was suggested. This paper will be helpful for the travel agencies to give higher and more level-up service in quality to customer at Korea later.