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        • KCI등재

          2002년 여름 북서태평양 표층 해수의 이산화탄소 분포 특성

          최상화(Sang-Hwa Choi),김동선(Dongseon Kim),심정희(JeongHee Shim),민홍식(Hong Sik Min) 한국해양연구원 2006 Ocean and Polar Research Vol.28 No.4

          We measured the fugacity of CO₂ ( fCO₂), temperature, salinity, nutrients and chlorophyll a in the surface water of the western North Pacific (4˚30'~33˚10'N, 144˚20'~127˚35'E) in September 2002. There were zonally several major currents which have characteristics of specific temperature and salinity (NECC, North Equatorial Counter Current; NEC, North Equatorial Current; Kuroshio etc.). Surface fCO₂ distribution was clearly distinguished into two groups, tropical and subtropical areas of which boundary was 20˚N. In the tropical area, surface fCO₂ was mainly controlled by temperature, while in the subtropical area, surface fCO₂ was dependent on total inorganic carbon contents. Air-sea CO₂ flux showed a large spatial variation, with a range of ?0.69~0.79 mmole m?² day?¹. In the area of AE (Anticyclonic Eddy), SM (Southern Mixed region) and NM (Northern Mixed region), the ocean acted as a weak source of CO₂ (0.6~0.79 mmole m?² day?¹). In NECC, NEC, Kuroshio and ECS (East China Sea), however, the fluxes were estimated to be ?0.3 mmole m?² day?¹ for the first three regions and ?1.2 mmole m?² day?¹ for ECS respectively, indicating that these areas acted as sinks of CO₂. The average air-sea flux in the entire study area was 0.15 mmole m?² day?¹, implying that the western North Pacific was a weak source of CO₂ during the study period.

        • 경기 산타령(선소리)의 장단에 관한 연구

          최상화(Choi Sang-Hwa) 한국전통음악학회 2009 한국전통음악학 Vol.- No.10

          본 논문은 경기 산타령의 4곡 즉, 놀량, 앞산타령, 뒷산타령, 자진산타령의 장단에 관한 연구이다. 연구 자료는 황용주와 방영기외에 10명이 실황으로 부른 『국악영상시리즈 전통 음악의 향연 2』에 기록된 영상물(음원)이다. 연구방법은 노래선율과 장고 그리고 소고의 리듬을 오선악보로 채보하여 장단연구의 핵심이론인 리듬을 결정하는 강세accent, 박자meter, 빠르기tempo, 패턴pattern의 4가지를 기본 틀로 삼았다. 채보에서 박자나누기(마디나누기)는 최소2박에서 최대6박까지로 한정하여 사설의 단락, 선율의 음악적 단락, 박자의 단락을 기준으로 나누었다. 그 결과 곡별 장단연구 내용은 다음과 같다. 첫째, 놀량, 앞산타령, 뒷산타령의 3곡에서 나타나는 장구와 소고의 리듬형태가 동일하다. 한 박(?)의 빠르기는 대체로 50(bpm)정도로 일반 굿거리장단 유사하다. 그리고 장고와 소고의 리듬형태는 한 박(?)단위로 나타나는데 4분 음표(2/3)와 8분 음표(1/3)의 길이인 ? ?의 리듬이 일정하게 나타난다. 이러한 ‘장단현상’은 일정한 리듬의 패턴이 있는 일반화된 ‘장단’(예:굿거리장단, 자진모리장단)으로 볼 수는 없다. 그러나 경기 선소리의 놀량에서 나오는 독특한 타악 반주형태를 하나의 특징적인 ‘장단현상’ 으로 인식할 필요가 있다. 따라서 필자는 놀량에서 나타나는 맺음이 없이 ‘풀어 논 장단’이라는 뜻에서 ‘놀량 푼장단’으로 명명하였다. 둘째, 자진산타령과 놀량의 빠른 부분에는 2마디(2장단)가 한 패턴인 리듬형태 4종류가 나타나는데 한 종류의 골격 리듬형태와 3종류의 변주형태로 판단하였다. 이미지참조 위의 골격 장단은 ‘장단’으로서 리듬구조가 충분하고, 다른 장단에는 없는 자진산타령만의 리듬형태이다. 또한 전통적인 몸동작과 잘 맞으며, 창자 자신이 노래 부르며 반주하기에 좋은 리듬형태이다. 따라서 이 자진산타령에 나오는 리듬형태는 ‘장단’으로서 크게 손색이 없다고 판단되어 하나의 독립된 ‘자진산타령장단’으로 보았다. 결국, 경기 선소리 산타령의 반주 장단에는 ‘놀량 푼장단’과 ‘자진산타령장단’의 2종이 나타난다. This is the study of Jangdan in the four songs of Gyeonggi Santaryeong which are Nolryang, Apsan-taryeong, Dwitsan-taryeong, Jajinsan-taryeong. Research materials are sound sources recorded by The Feast of Traditional Music Ⅱ, Korean Music video Series with the live recording of the Hwang Yongju, Bang Yeonggi and the others' concert. This research method is that the song's melody and rhythm of jang-gu and so-go are transcribed on manuscript paper and then accent, meter, tempo and pattern are use fur main research tools. The result of this research is as following. First the pattern of rhythm of jang-gu and so-go appeared in three songs which are Nolryang, Apsan-taryeong, Dwitsan-taryeong are identical. The tempo of one beat(?)is about 50(bpm) and similar to Gugeori-jangdan. And also the pattern of rhythm of Jang gu and so go appeared by one beat(?) and the rhythm of ? ? which is the length of a quarter note(2/3) and an eighth note(1/3) appears regularly. The following 'Jngdan phenomenon' can hardly ever be seen in normal jangdan like Gugeori-jangdan and jajinmori jangdan which have the regular pattern of rhythm. But the pattern of distinctive percussion accompaniment coming from Nolryang song of Gyeonggi Seonsori is necessary to recognize the characteristic 'Jangdan phenomenon'. Therefore I have named it "Nolryangpun jangdan" which means untied music jangdan without the end. Second four kinds of forms of rhythm which have one pattern with two measures(jangdan) in a fast tempo of Jajinsan-taryeong and Nolryang appear. This turns out one kind of form of framed rhythm and three kinds of form of variational rhythm. 이미지 참조 Because the above framed jangdan has a enough rhythmic structure, We can say that Jajinsan-taryeong has the form of special rhythm which can never be seen in other songs. This jangdan matches with traditional body movements well and also it is easy for singers themselves to accompany and sing simultaneously. So consequently the form of rhythm in the Jajinsan-taryeong is suitable for Jang dan and therefore we can see that it is an independent "Jajinsan-taryeong jangdan". In conclusion, there are two kinds of jangdan: "Nolryangpun jangdan" and "Jajinsan-taryeong jangdan" in the accompaniment jangdan of Gyeong gi Santaryeong.

        • KCI등재

          2007년 여름 북서태평양 이산화탄소 분압의 공간 변동성

          최상화(Sang-Hwa Choi),김동선(Dongseon Kim),김경희(Kyung-Hee Kim),민홍식(Hong-Sik Min) 한국해양연구원 2008 Ocean and Polar Research Vol.30 No.3

          In order to study spatial variabilities and major controlling factors, we measured fugacity of CO₂ (fCO₂), temperature, salinity and nutrients in surface waters of the North Pacific (7˚30'~33˚15'N, 123˚56'E~164˚24'W) between September~October 2007. The North Pacific and the marginal sea were distinguished by fCO₂ distribution as well as unique characteristics of temperature and salinity. There was a distinct diurnal SST variation in the tropical North Pacific area, and surface fCO₂ coincidently showed diurnal variation. In the North Pacific area, surface fCO₂ was mainly controlled by temperature, while in the marginal sea area it was primarily dependent on alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations. Air-sea CO₂ flux showed a large spatial variation, with a range of -6.10~5.06 mmol m?² day?¹. The center of subtropical gyre of North Pacific acted as a source of CO₂ (3.09±0.95 mmol m?² day?¹). Tropical western North Pacific (i.e. the 'warm pool' area and the subtropical western North Pacific) acted as weak sources of CO₂ (1.07±1.20 mmol m?² day?¹ and 0.50±0.53 mmol m?² day?¹, respectively). In the marginal sea, however, the flux was estimated to be -0.68±1.17 mmol m?² day?¹, indicating that this area acted as a sink for CO₂.

        • KCI등재

          프로젝트 공기단축을 위한 동시시공 일정시스템

          최상화(Choi Sang-Hwa),임태경(Lim Tae-Kyung),이동은(Lee Dong-Eun) 대한건축학회 2010 大韓建築學會論文集 : 構造系 Vol.26 No.3

          This paper presents a system called "Advanced Concurrent Construction Scheduling System (CS<SUP>2</SUP>)" for crashing project completion time(PCT) using concurrent engineering. CS<SUP>2</SUP> implements a strategy to overlap critical activities without additional resource input. It takes a risk against the alternative method(high speed-high cost) which requires additional resource input to shorten the PCT. The mathematical concepts relative to concurrent engineering (i.e., the probability of rework, the amount of rework, and criteria applying overlapping rate, etc.) are clearly defined. The procedures to formulate the variables are explained in detail. It provides an automated system which can effectively deal with a large network by complementing the existing researches which are limited to handing a small network having a few activities. How to apply the various concepts and constraints(e.g., merge event and large networks) relative to concurrent engineering are detailed. CS<SUP>2</SUP> integrates and automates the following procedures; (1) importing schedule data from P3, (ingcomputing the probability of rework and the amount of rework by considering activity characteristics(predecessor's evolution and successor's sensitivity) along with specific overlapping rate, and (3ngcomputing the variability of PCT and PCC when overlapping rate are changed. It improves concurrent construction based scheduling system by dealing effectively with the uncertainty of activities' duration caused by activity overlapping, maximizes the usability of schedule data obtained from commercial CPM softwares(e.g., P3, SureTrak), and treats effectively the variability of the PCT(or PCC). This system is implemented as a MATLAB software. Case studies verify the usability and the validity of the system.

        • SCOPUSKCI등재

          Investigation of Change in Air-Sea CO<sub>2</sub> Exchange over the East China Sea using Biogeochemical Ocean Modeling

          박영규,최상화,예상욱,이정석,황진환,강성길,Park, Young-Gyu,Choi, Sang-Hwa,Yeh, Sang-Wook,Lee, Jung-Suk,Hwang, Jin-Hwan,Kang, Seong-Gil Korea Institute of Ocean ScienceTechnology 2008 Ocean and Polar Research Vol.30 No.3

          A biogeochemical model was used to estimate air-sea $CO_2$ exchange over the East China Sea. Since fresh water discharge from the Changjiang River and relevant chemistry were not considered in the employed model, we were not able to produce accurate results around the Changjiang River mouth. This factor aside, the model showed that the East China Sea, away from the Changjiang River mouth, takes approximately $1.5{\sim}2\;mole\;m^{-2}yr^{-1}$ of $CO_2$ from the atmosphere. The model also showed that biological factors modify the air-sea $CO_2$ flux by only a few percent when we assumed that biological activity increased two-fold. Therefore, we can argue that the biological effect is not strong enough over this area within the framework of the current phosphate-based biological model. Compared to the preindustrial era, in 1995 the East China Sea absorbed $0.4{\sim}0.8\;mole\;m^{-2}yr^{-1}$ more $CO_2$. If warming of the sea surface is considered, in addition to the increase in atmospheric $CO_2$ concentration, by 2045 the East China Sea would absorb $0.2{\sim}0.4\;mole\;m^{-2}yr^{-1}$ less $CO_2$ compared to the non-warming case.

        • KCI등재

          연구사업 해양자료 관리를 위한 표준화와 해양물리자료 표준(안)

          김성대(Sung-Dae Kim),최상화(Sang-Hwa Choi),박준용(Jun-Yong Park),박수영(Soo-Young Park) 한국해양과학기술원 2015 Ocean and Polar Research Vol.37 No.4

          Standardization work for the ocean data produced by a variety of national oceanographic research projects was conducted in order to establish a national ocean data sharing system. For this work, we first prepared standard proposals for the national research ocean data by reviewing and analyzing of existing international and domestic ocean-data standards. The proposed standards were reviewed and revised by experts in the field of oceanography and academic societies for documentation. The 125-page technical report on the standards of 25 data items was prepared as an output of this research work, which is available free of charge for the public and interested parties. This paper explains the proposed standards of metadata and codes regarding the common properties of all the oceanographic data items. Especially, the standards for the metadata, codes and data formats of 4 physical data items were described in detail. In order to be adopted as the national standards for ocean data, however, the standards suggested here require further development and/or modification based on additional reviews of and ample feedbacks from the relevant academic and technical communities.

        • KCI등재

          한반도 해역 해양지질 및 지구물리 자료 통합 DB시스템 개발

          김성대 ( Sung Dae Kim ),백상호 ( Sang Ho Baek ),최상화 ( Sang Hwa Choi ),박혁민 ( Hyuk Min Park ) 한국지리정보학회 2016 한국지리정보학회지 Vol.19 No.2

          본 연구는 한반도 해역 해양지질 및 지구물리 자료의 통합 DB시스템을 2009년부터 2013년까지 구축하였으며, 현재까지 시스템 운영 및 정보업데이트를 수행하고 있다. 해양수산부 연구사업에서 생산한 해저퇴적물의 입도분석자료, 층별 단면도, X-ray 영상, 중금속 분석자료, 유기탄소 분석자료와 함께 지구물리탐사 결과인 천부탄성파, 심부탄성파, 자력, 중력 자료를 수집하였다. 더불어, 국내 국·공립기관이 보유하고 있는 기존 자료와 미국, 일본의 한반도 해역 자료도 추가로 수집하였다. 자료포맷은 텍스트 파일, 엑셀 파일, PDF 파일, 이미지 파일, SEG-Y 이진파일 등으로 다양하였으며, 원본자료는 Archive DB에 원형 그대로 저장하여 향후의 재가공과 재분석에 대비하였다. 또한, 수집 자료의 비교분석을 목적으로 GIS 기반 데이터베이스와 검색시스템도 개발하였다. 모든 자료를 ArcGIS 툴을 이용하여 shape 파일로 변환하였으며, 오라클과 ArcGIS를 이용하여 GIS DB를 구축하였다. 클라이언트/서버 방식의 GIS 어플리케이션 개발을 통해 자료검색과 과학자료 표출기능을 구현하였으며, 가시화를 위해 ChartFX 프로그램과 새로 개발한 전용 프로그램을 이용하였다. An integrated database(DB) system was developed to manage the marine geological data and geophysical data acquired from around the Korean peninsula from 2009 to 2013. Geological data such as size analysis data, columnar section images, X-ray images, heavy metal data, and organic carbon data of sediment samples, were collected in the form of text files, excel files, PDF files and image files. Geophysical data such as seismic data, magnetic data, and gravity data were gathered in the form of SEG-Y binary files, image files and text files. We collected scientific data from research projects funded by the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries, data produced by domestic marine organizations, and public data provided by foreign organizations. All the collected data were validated manually and stored in the archive DB according to data processing procedures. A geographic information system was developed to manage the spatial information and provide data effectively using the map interface. Geographic information system(GIS) software was used to import the position data from text files, manipulate spatial data, and produce shape files. A GIS DB was set up using the Oracle database system and ArcGIS spatial data engine. A client/server GIS application was developed to support data search, data provision, and visualization of scientific data. It provided complex search functions and on-the-fly visualization using ChartFX and specially developed programs. The system is currently being maintained and newly collected data is added to the DB system every year.

        • KCI등재

          기계학습법을 이용한 동해 남서부해역의 표층 이산화탄소분압(fCO<sub>2</sub>) 추정

          함도식,박소예나,최상화,강동진,노태근,이동섭,HAHM, DOSHIK,PARK, SOYEONA,CHOI, SANG-HWA,KANG, DONG-JIN,RHO, TAEKEUN,LEE, TONGSUP 한국해양학회 2019 바다 Vol.24 No.3

          지구의 탄소순환을 이해하고 미래 대기 $CO_2$의 농도와 기후 변화를 예측하기 위해서는 해양과 대기 사이 $CO_2$ 교환율(sea-to-air $CO_2$ flux)의 시공간 변화를 정확하게 추정하는 것이 필요하다. 연구선을 이용한 현장 관측이 갖고 있는 시공간 제약으로 인해 동해에는 매우 제한적인 표층 이산화탄소분압($fCO_2$) 자료만 존재한다. 이 연구에서는 위성 및 수치모형에서 얻은 수온, 염분, 엽록소, 혼합층 자료를 세 종류의 기계학습 모형에 입력하여 동해 남서부해역의 고해상도 표층 $fCO_2$ 시계열 자료를 산출하였다. 세 모형 중 현장 관측 자료를 가장 잘 재현하는 Random Forest (RF) 모형의 평균제곱근오차는 $7.1{\mu}atm$이었다. RF 모형을 이용한 $fCO_2$ 예측에 중요한 역할을 하는 변수는 수온, 염분과 시간 정보였으며, 엽록소와 혼합층 깊이는 $fCO_2$ 예측에 미미한 역할을 하였다. RF 모형에서 예측한 표층 $fCO_2$를 이용하여 계산한 동해 남서부해역의 $CO_2$ 교환율은 $-0.76{\pm}1.15mol\;m^{-2}yr^{-1}$로 이전 현장 관측 연구에서 제시한 교환율( $-0.66{\sim}-2.47mol\;m^{-2}yr^{-1}$) 범위 중 작은 값에 해당한다. RF 모형의 표층 $fCO_2$ 시계열 자료는 1주일 내외의 짧은 시간 사이에도 $CO_2$ 교환율이 상당히 변할 수 있음을 보여주었다. 앞으로 보다 정확한 $CO_2$ 교환율 산출을 위해서는 $fCO_2$가 급격하게 변화하는 봄철에 높은 해상도의 현장 관측을 수행할 필요가 있다. Accurate evaluation of sea-to-air $CO_2$ flux and its variability is crucial information to the understanding of global carbon cycle and the prediction of atmospheric $CO_2$ concentration. $fCO_2$ observations are sparse in space and time in the East Sea. In this study, we derived high resolution time series of surface $fCO_2$ values in the southwest East Sea, by feeding sea surface temperature (SST), salinity (SSS), chlorophyll-a (CHL), and mixed layer depth (MLD) values, from either satellite-observations or numerical model outputs, to three machine learning models. The root mean square error of the best performing model, a Random Forest (RF) model, was $7.1{\mu}atm$. Important parameters in predicting $fCO_2$ in the RF model were SST and SSS along with time information; CHL and MLD were much less important than the other parameters. The net $CO_2$ flux in the southwest East Sea, calculated from the $fCO_2$ predicted by the RF model, was $-0.76{\pm}1.15mol\;m^{-2}yr^{-1}$, close to the lower bound of the previous estimates in the range of $-0.66{\sim}-2.47mol\;m^{-2}yr^{-1}$. The time series of $fCO_2$ predicted by the RF model showed a significant variation even in a short time interval of a week. For accurate evaluation of the $CO_2$ flux in the Ulleung Basin, it is necessary to conduct high resolution in situ observations in spring when $fCO_2$ changes rapidly.

        • KCI등재

          지구시스템 모형을 이용한 21세기 동중국해와 남해의 수온과 일차생산 변화 평가

          박영규(Young-Gyu Park),최상화(Sang-Hwa Choi),김선동(Seon-Dong Kim),김철호(Cheol-Ho Kim) 한국해양연구원 2012 Ocean and Polar Research Vol.34 No.2

          Using results from an Earth System model, we investigated change in primary production in the East China Sea, under a global warming scenario. As global warming progresses, the vertical stratification of water becomes stronger, and nutrient supply from the lower part to the upper part is reduced. Consequently, so is the primary production. In addition to the warming trend, there is strong decadal to interdecadal scale variability, and it takes a few decades before the warming trend surpasses natural variability. Thus, it would be very hard to investigate the global warming trend using data of several years' length.

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