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The purpose of this study was investigate the competitive state anxiety of elementary school handball players. For the purpose, elementary school handball players were selected. The levels of competitive state anxiety, cognitive state anxiety, physical state anxiety and self-confidence were classified by game record(mastery/defeat) and by gender(male/female) with the use of the sports competitive state anxiety investigation(CSAI-Ⅱ) questionnaire developed by martens et al.(1990). For the analysis, 2-wasy ANOVA was conducted using the SPSS 10.0 with grouping game record(mastery/defeat) and gender(male/ female) as independent variables and competitive state anxiety as dependent variables. One-way ANOVA was conducted to investigate the difference on sports competitive state anxiety according to rival cognitive levels. The level of significance was set at α= .05. As a result, the following findings were obtained: (1) As for Handball player`s level of cognitive state anxiety, male Handball players showed a not statistically significant lower level than female players. The excellent players had the lower level than ordinary players, which was statistically significant(p= .000). (2) As for Handball player`s level of physical state anxiety, male Handball players showed a not statistically significant lower level than female players. The excellent players had the lower level than ordinary players, which was statistically significant(p= .004). (3) As for Handball player`s level of self-confidence, male Handball players showed a statistically significant higher level than female players(p=.000). Also the excellent players had the higher level than ordinary players, which was statistically significant(p= .002). (4) The difference on sports competitive state anxiety according to rival cognitive levels showed a statistically significant on sports competitive state anxiety(p= .000).
'I-Ching Storytelling Web-Cartoon Game' suggested by Prof. Shim and Research Group may provide users with the opportunity of writing story based on I-Ching. I-Ching is the cosmological thoughts intrinsic to East Asian culture. In the perspective of the narratology, I-Ching can bee seen as a kind of database of narratives since it classifies all events emerging from the meet between the actor(human-人) and the background(time/space-天地) as the story material into 384 narrative elements(sequence) and 64 themes(motive), and consistently constructs their causal relationships. So while trying to articulate I-ching with the digital storytelling methodology, we developed the web-cartoon game. With this game, users can creatively make their own story as a play by freely interpreting, retrieving, and recomposing those 386 narrative elements and 64 themes with the I-ching's narrative guideline. 본 연구에서는 동양의 우주론적 철학의 집결체라 할 수 있는 주역(周易)을 서사적 관점에서 재해석하고 이를 디지털 스토리텔링의 방법론과 결합시킨다. 연구성과를 데이터베이스로 구축한 후 웹-카툰 형식으로 시각화하고 인터랙티브 요소를 가미하여 '주역 스토리텔링 웹-카툰 게임'을 개발한다. 게임의 유저는 주역 내러티브의 가이드라인을 따라가면서 이를 자유롭게 변형·해석하고 재배치하면서, 마치 놀이를 하듯이 새로운 이야기들을 창발적으로 만들 수 있다.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of chronic smoking on pulmonary and lipoprotein factors. Physical characteristics(height, weight, %fat, smoking years). lipoproteins(cholesterol, HDL, triglyceride) and cardiorespiratory factors(hemoglobin, hematocrit, FVC, FEV1.0%, V˙O_2max) were investigated in samples of 489 smokers had significantly higher at weight(74.6±6kg), cholesterol(181.5±4.1mg/dl), triglyceride(147.7±13mg/dl) for 20's and cholesterol(191.6±1.7mg/dl), triglyceride(154.3±4.2mg/dl) for 30's compared to non-smokers. However, HDL showed higher in non-smokers which was 44±1mg/dl for 20's and 42.3±.62 for 30's. Hemoglobin and Hematocrit were significantly Regardless of age, triglyceride and %body fat were main factor for increasing cholesterol, and main factors(50.5%) for 20 smokers whereas no predictor for predicting triglyceride of all groups. These results indicated that higher lipoprotein risk factors for smokers compared to non-smokers. In addition chronic smokers in younger age could had higher risk factors for coronary heart disease.