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In a literary work may reflect the socio-enviromental situations of the time. Lee Injae wrote 『Sujingyeongheomsinbang』 in early 20<SUP>th</SUP> century, in a time when japanese colonization began and with which the influence of so called modern medicine, western medicine, were increasing. Though this trend was ever increasing the system for education and propagation was not enough and the practice of TKM was still predominant in public. This book reflect the concern of the author about this transitional time. He stating that TKM has a strong point in internal medicine while western medicine in external or surgical diseases tries to consolidate both medicines. This opinion is still valid today or at least serve as a reference as this problem still remains us to solve.
Seoul Bochun Medical Clinic Examined Patient Table' is a statistical data that Kim Young-Hoon [1882-1974] put together himself. A total of 59353 cases from 1914 to 1935 were classified according to year and month of examination, and gender. Of the cases 26497 (≒45%) were women and the remaining 32856 (≒55%) cases were men. The most frequent disease examined was cold, followed by diarrhea and stomachache. Of the 639 different kinds of diseases ever examined, 71 had occurred on more than 100 occasions. The percentage that these 71 diseases occupies is an overwhelming 88.75%.
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Queen Jangyeol was proclaimed as the second wife of King Injo at the age of 15 in 1638. This study was carried out in order to confirm if Queen Jangyeol actually came down with epilepsy or if she pretended to do. The keywords, “Jungjeon" and “Junggungjeon" were searched among the articles from Seungjeongwonilgi in the 16th reign to the 27th reign of King Injo. After that, articles only related to convulsion were selected. The symptom of convulsion and the therapy were analyzed. King Injo gave an order, and royal doctors diagnosed the queen's illness as epilepsy in August in the 23th reign. The Queen was confined in Gyeongdeok in November, and took herbal drugs for treating the epilepsy. After the death of King Injo, she stopped taking the drugs. As the Queen's epilepsy took place consistently more than 1~2 times in a month, it is the generalized tonic-clonic seizure. Also, it is the epilepsy overlapping reiteration with the brain function disorder because the convulsion lasted throughout 1 hour. However, after King Injo died, she lived for long without the brain function disorder. So it is difficult to judge she actually came down with the epilepsy.
『EuiBangShinGam』 is a classic on oriental medicines written by Han Byung Lyun with the pen name Shin Oh in 1913. It was written under the base of the writer's own experience as well as in the light of 36 other classics on oriental medicines such as 『DongEuiBoGam』, Introduction to Medicine, and Complete Works of Jingyue. In an attempt to avoid difficult theories and list only the essential informations and formulas for clinical purposes, it attained its own characteristics of not only reorganizing DongEuiBoGam in a pragmatic way but also explaining diseases classified in western medicines in oriental medicines' point of view as well as suggesting medicine formulas regarding such explanations. As a result, it is a complete and efficient medical classic through which one can gain knowledge in both classic oriental medicines and combination of western and oriental medicines. Its special features are making a separate chapter for cholera and phthisis, which is also a contagious disease, and trying in the chapter to explain the diseases in words of oriental medicines; listing details of nine major epidemic and matching them with the diseases known in oriental medicines; and recording a case of enforcing sterilization and preventive injection against contagious diseases. Han Byung Lyun, the writer of the book, was born in northern province of Ham Gyoung, Woong Bu, and the date of death is unknown. He is one of the eight members who conceived and started the idea of organizing the Organization of Practioners of Oriental Medicines, which was a nationwide organization under the motive of restoring Oriental Medicines against the policy under the colonial government of Japan. Living a era of Japanese Imperialism, he stressed the need to accept western medicines if its beneficial to oriental medicines in order to develop oriental medicines for progressive causes. This reflects that he was a person who tried in various ways to extend oriental medicines to another level by facing up to the reality and coming up with a measure to cope up with it. In fact, he was a oriental medicine doctor who tried to protect oriental medicines by founding academic organizations, publishing academic magazines, and writing himself many papers related to oriental medicines. EuiBangShinGam can be summarized as a classic on traditional korean medicine through which one can find out about realities of Japan Imperialism and the attempts of oriental medicine practitioners under the colonial policies of Japan to make oriental medicines more developed by adding one's own thoughts as well as keeping the old, and adjusting to such situations.
This study examined from 『SangHanChangHwaHunJiJip』 how medical exchange between doctors of Joseon and Japan affected medical science of Japan. 『SangHanChangHwaHunJiJip』 is a record that organized the written conversation between doctors and scholars of the Joseon and Edo period when the delegation so-called Joseon Tongsinsa visited Japan in 1719. Even though 『SangHanChangHwaHunJiJip』 was written by Japanese, but it was comprised of Joseon's advanced medical ideology, especially 『DongEuiBogam』 that has occupied an important part of the Joseon medical ideology. As a matter of fact, 『SangHanChang HwaHunJiJp』 contains general theme and medical subject. But until now, it has been hardly studied by medical historians. Many studies were generally made related to Joseon Tongsinsa, a governmental delegation, focused on literary and cultural exchange between Joseon and Japan by historians. 『SangHanChangHwaHunJiJip』 is no exception to this trend. We can find that doctors of the Joseon and Edo period entered into colloquium, a form of group discussion, about the clinical theme in 『SangHanChangHwaHunJiJip』. Concretely, the conversation between doctors of Joseon and Japan was about infant disease, infectious disease, folk remedies, medical herbs, moxa cautery, acupuncture, the study of nature, the study of medical books, etc. For example, when doctors of Japan ask a confirmed disease, doctors of Joseon explained it particularly. They had a great effect on in every cultural aspect of Japan, especially its medical field. Through this study of the medical questions and answers in 『SangHanChangHwaHunJiJip』, I came to know that the doctors of GiHae envoys gave great influence to the medical knowledge of Japan and the GiHae inherited and developed the medical tradition of SinMyo envoys. Through the examination of this study, I could deduct that 『JeongJeongDongEuiBogam』 which was published by the government of the Edo period is due to not only the contents of DongEuiBogam's advanced medical thought, but also the doctors of GiHae envoy. Also, 『SangHanChangHwaHunJiJip』 gives us an idea that doctors of GiHae envoys have medical trend of the OnBoHakFa and a group of Japanese doctors has medical trend of the study of nature. I am confident that the improvement of medical science and natural history of the Edo period is due to influence of medical exchange between Joseon and Japan. 『SangHanChangHwaHunJiJip』 confirms that medical exchange between two countries affected doctors and scholars of the Edo period.
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The narration of 『Donguibogam』 is focused on humans whilst medical books before it focused on diseases. This is shown from the first subtitle of External Body(身形門) chapter, [The Origin of Hyung-Ki(形氣之始)]. The contents of [The Origin of Hyung-Ki] explains that the human body is composed of ‘Hyung(形)’ and ‘Ki(氣)’ This perspective is shown throughout 『Donguibogam』. First, in the aspect of construction, the viewpoint is shown from the 「JipRye(集例)」. It divides the body into inside and outside, which is a result of Hyung-Ki perspective. This continues in the table of contents. Naegyeongpyeon(內景) and Oehyeongpyeon(外形) describes the inside and outside of the body, in other words ‘Hyung-Ki’. Japbyeongpyeon(雜病) describes complex illnesses with mixed insides and outsides. Tangaekpyeon(湯液) and Chimgupyeon(鍼灸) can be understood as division of treatment methods into inside and outside. When we look at the contents, the human body is created on the basis of the essence and vital energy of the world. Cheon-Ki becomes the ‘Ki’ that forms the functions of the body, while Ji-Ki becomes the ‘Hyung’ that constructs the bodily structure. It is considered that ‘Hyung’ is composed of SaDae(the body essence, vital energy, mentality and blood), and ‘Ki’ is composed of OSang(the five Jang organs and six Bu organs). ‘Hyung’ and ‘Ki’ show various appearances according to physiology and pathology. ‘Hyung’ is especially shown by obesity or thinness, ‘Ki’ by color. The obese may have Ki deficiency, coldness, dampness or phlegm. The thin could have blood deficiency, heat, fire or dryness. The color could show the pathology of the five Jang organs by the five colors, but it can simply be divided into black and white, where black means Eum deficiency, and white means Yang deficiency. It is said that the distinctive feature of traditional Korean medicine is that it is a constitutional medicine. In this perspective, further study on ‘Hyung-Ki’ is of value. If 『Donguibogam』 was the foundation of the Sasang Constitutional Medicine(四象醫學), study on ‘Hyung-Ki’ means searching for the origin of the Sasang Constitutional Medicine. Also, the study on Sasang Constitutional Medicine and Hyungsang medicine(形象醫學) will show the modern image of 『Donguibogam』. Hence, interchange study between 『Donguibogam』, Sasang Constitutional Medicine and Hyungsang medicine through the term ‘Hyung-Ki’ could hopefully lead to academic progression.
Bonchoyuham Nyoryeong(本草類函要領) shows how Donguibogam(東醫寶鑑) -Mirror of Eastern Medicine- is understood, digested into Korean medicine, and at the same time how it participated in the historical shaping of Korean medicine since the publishing in the early 17th century. The author, Hyeon Jae-deok, internalized the structure, content, and significance of Donguibogam and drew out a novel, concise, but comprehensive type of medical manual, while many other medical books since the 17century in Korea are estimated to have been an abridged edition of the Donguibogam. It may well be estimated as exemplar of the extent to which Donguibogam informed Korean medicine since the 17 century. The book shows as well how Bencao Gangmu(本草綱目) -Compendium of Materia Medica- and Donguibogam are merged and set a new medical stream in the 19th century Korea. Hyeon Jae-deok looked at the Bencao Gangmu from the lens of clinical treatment and prescription such that he focused on sections, elements, or parts of procedures, treatments, and prescriptions, not on the herbal taxonomic knowledge of the book. This perspective was embodied in Bonchoyuham(本草類函), which cited simple remedies, prescriptions, or treatments from Bencao Gangmu.
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This study elucidates the extra-medical citing relationship of DongUiBoGam (東醫寶鑑)’s Acupuncture&Moxibustion Chapter(ChimGu鍼灸 篇) and Acupuncture&Moxibustion Methods Chapter(ChimGu鍼灸法 篇), and based on this, tried to clarify the characteristics of the intra-medical DongUiBoGam(東醫寶鑑)’s Acupuncture&Moxibustion treatment methods. This paper is the second research result on this kind of study, and it historically investigated the original text related to Acupuncture&Moxibustion treatments in DongUiBoGam(東醫寶鑑)’s OeHyeong Chapter(外形篇). Through this, we can see that at the time DongUiBoGam(東醫寶鑑) was compiled, UiHakGangMok(醫學綱目)’s Acupuncture&Moxibustion treatments were considered the most complete.
Objectives : The objective of this article is to compare acupuncture treatment of stroke in the medical documents of the Chosun-Korea dynasty. Through such inquisition, the development process of acupuncture of stroke treatment could be found. Methods : We used Cross-comparison analysis of the contents of five medical books, HyangYakZipSungBang (HYZSB), UiRimChwarYo(URCY), DongEuiBoGam(DEBG), ChimGuGyungHumBang(CGGHB) and Saam-Acupuncture(SA) of the Chosun-Korea dynasty. Results & Conclusion : 1. Distinction between Stroke of Viscera and Stroke of Bowel was important. Firts two books divided stroke into three type. But last three books separated into Stroke of Viscera and Stroke of Bowel. 2. They emphasized Symptoms of Five Visceral Disease. They devised Symptoms of Five Visceral Disease for Stroke of Viscera treatment. This method appears very rarely in clinical medicine. 3. They used common important acupoint for treatment of stroke. Most of these acupoints exist at the limbs. 4. They chose acupoints on the opposite side against the symptom.
Objective : This study aims to clearly define the concept of Korean medicine terminology related with breast disease that occurs during breastfeeding. It attempts to suggest aguideline so that identical terms can be used to explain the medical conditions of breast-feeders from the perspective of oriental medicine. Method : This paper is based on what is recorded in medical books. It has organized the relations between the terms grounded on the analysis of similarities and differences in the concepts of the terms contained in them. The medical book chiefly used here was ?? Uibangyuchwi (醫方類聚)??. To organize the terms, thesaurus was utilized. Result & Conclusion : The terminology of Korean medicine related with breast disease that occurs during breastfeeding is prescribed from the aspects of the causes, affected areas, or pathological conditions. The clinically typical terms of korean medicine are ‘Tuyu(妬乳)’ and ‘Yuong(乳癰)’. The two are distinguished by whether one has systemic symptoms or not. If one has no systemic symptom, it is ‘Chwiyu(吹乳)’ or ‘Tuyu’, and these two are distinguished by whether one has ‘Chang(瘡; sores)’ or not. It is significant to organize the concepts of korean medicine terminology since they are directly related with treatments in the field.